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State-of-the-Art Materials Science in China

A topical collection in International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This collection belongs to the section "Materials Science".

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Editors


E-Mail Website
Collection Editor
National Engineering Research Center for Biomaterials, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, China
Interests: 3D printing; biomaterials; tissue engineering; bone regeneration; polymers for medical application
School of Pharmacy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China
Interests: peptide & peptide-drug conjugates; gasotransmitters delivery and therapy; supramolecular self-assembly; biomaterials; reactive oxygen species
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Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Topical Collection of the International Journal of Molecular Sciences (IJMS) aims to rapidly publish contributions on the synthesis, properties’ characterization and application of all aspects of materials with a focus on biological or molecular research. Topics include, without being limited to:

  • Biomaterials
  • Nanomaterials
  • Structural Materials
  • Functional/Sensor Materials
  • Advanced/Nuclear Materials
  • Polymers/Composites
  • Self-Assembly/Macromolecular Materials
  • Optoelectronic/Magnetic Materials
  • Soft Materials
  • Biological Materials
  • Non-covalent Interactions

Prof. Dr. Yujiang Fan
Dr. Yin Wang
Collection Editors

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Keywords

  • biomaterials
  • nanomaterials
  • structural materials
  • functional/sensor materials
  • advanced/nuclear materials
  • polymers/composites
  • self-assembly/macromolecular materials
  • optoelectronic/magnetic materials
  • soft materials
  • biological materials
  • non-covalent interactions

Published Papers (29 papers)

2023

Jump to: 2022

14 pages, 4328 KiB  
Article
Enhanced Photovoltaic Properties of Y6 Derivatives with Asymmetric Terminal Groups: A Theoretical Insight
by Yunjie Xiang, Zhijun Cao, Xiaolu Zhang, Zhuo Zou and Shaohui Zheng
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(19), 14753; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms241914753 - 29 Sep 2023
Viewed by 967
Abstract
Y6 derivatives with asymmetric terminal groups have attracted considerable attention in recent years. However, the effects of the asymmetric modification of terminal groups on the photovoltaic performance of Y6 derivatives are not well understood yet. Therefore, we designed a series of Y6-based acceptors [...] Read more.
Y6 derivatives with asymmetric terminal groups have attracted considerable attention in recent years. However, the effects of the asymmetric modification of terminal groups on the photovoltaic performance of Y6 derivatives are not well understood yet. Therefore, we designed a series of Y6-based acceptors with asymmetric terminal groups by endowing them with various electron-withdrawing abilities and different conjugated rings to conduct systematic research. The electron-withdrawing ability of the Y6-D1 terminal group (substituted by IC-2F and IC-2NO2 terminals) is strongest, followed by Y6 (substituted by two same IC-2F terminals), Y6-D2 (substituted by IC-2F and 2-(4-oxo-4,5-dihydro-6H-cyclopenta[b]thiophen-6-ylidene)malononitrile terminals), Y6-D4 (substituted by IC-2F and indene ring), and Y6-D3 (substituted by IC-2F and thiazole ring). Computed results show that A–A stacking is the main molecular packing mode of Y6 and four other asymmetric Y6 derivatives. The ratios of A–A stacking face-on configuration of Y6-D1, Y6-D2, Y6-D3, Y6-D4, and Y6 are 51.6%, 55.0%, 43.5%, 59.3%, and 62.4%, respectively. Except for Y6-D1 substituted by the IC-2F and IC-2NO2 (the strongest electron-withdrawing capacity) terminal groups, the other three asymmetric molecules are mainly electron-transporting and can therefore act as acceptors. The open-circuit voltages of organic solar cells (OSCs) based on Y6-D2, Y6-D3, and Y6-D4, except for Y6-D1, may be higher than those of OSCs based on the Y6 acceptor because of their higher energy levels of lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO). PM6/Y6-D3 and PM6/Y6-D4 have better light absorption properties than PM6/Y6 due to their higher total oscillator strength. These results indicate that Y6-D3 and Y6-D4 can be employed as good acceptors. Full article
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11 pages, 2458 KiB  
Article
Thermally Reduced Graphene Oxide Membranes Revealed Selective Adsorption of Gold Ions from Mixed Ionic Solutions
by Yu Qiang, Siyan Gao, Yueyu Zhang, Shuai Wang, Liang Chen, Liuhua Mu, Haiping Fang, Jie Jiang and Xiaoling Lei
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(15), 12239; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms241512239 - 31 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1209
Abstract
The recovery of gold from water is an important research area. Recent reports have highlighted the ultrahigh capacity and selective extraction of gold from electronic waste using reduced graphene oxide (rGO). Here, we made a further attempt with the thermal rGO membranes and [...] Read more.
The recovery of gold from water is an important research area. Recent reports have highlighted the ultrahigh capacity and selective extraction of gold from electronic waste using reduced graphene oxide (rGO). Here, we made a further attempt with the thermal rGO membranes and found that the thermal rGO membranes also had a similarly high adsorption efficiency (1.79 g gold per gram of rGO membranes at 1000 ppm). Furthermore, we paid special attention to the detailed selectivity between Au3+ and other ions by rGO membranes. The maximum adsorption capacity for Au3+ ions was about 16 times that of Cu2+ ions and 10 times that of Fe3+ ions in a mixture solution with equal proportions of Au3+/Cu2+ and Au3+/Fe3+. In a mixed-ion solution containing Au3+:Cu2+:Na+:Fe3+:Mg2+ of printed circuit board (PCB), the mass of Au3+:Cu2+:Na+:Fe3+:Mg2+ in rGO membranes is four orders of magnitude higher than the initial mass ratio. A theoretical analysis indicates that this selectivity may be attributed to the difference in the adsorption energy between the metal ions and the rGO membrane. The results are conducive to the usage of rGO membranes as adsorbents for Au capture from secondary metal resources in the industrial sector. Full article
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16 pages, 6080 KiB  
Article
Increasing Charge Carrier Mobility through Modifications of Terminal Groups of Y6: A Theoretical Study
by Yunjie Xiang, Chunlin Xu and Shaohui Zheng
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(10), 8610; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24108610 - 11 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1559
Abstract
The applications of non-fullerene acceptor Y6 with a new type of A1-DA2D-A1 framework and its derivatives have increased the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of organic solar cells (OSCs) up to 19%. Researchers have made various modifications of the [...] Read more.
The applications of non-fullerene acceptor Y6 with a new type of A1-DA2D-A1 framework and its derivatives have increased the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of organic solar cells (OSCs) up to 19%. Researchers have made various modifications of the donor unit, central/terminal acceptor unit, and side alkyl chains of Y6 to study the influences on the photovoltaic properties of OSCs based on them. However, up to now, the effect of changes of terminal acceptor parts of Y6 on the photovoltaic properties is not very clear. In the present work, we have designed four new acceptors—Y6-NO2, Y6-IN, Y6-ERHD, and Y6-CAO—with different terminal groups, which possess diverse electron-withdrawing ability. Computed results show that with the enhanced electron-withdrawing ability of the terminal group, the fundamental gaps become lower; thus, the wavelengths of the main absorption peaks of UV-Vis spectra red-shifts and total oscillator strength increase. Simultaneously, the electron mobility of Y6-NO2, Y6-IN, and Y6-CAO is about six, four, and four times faster than that of Y6, respectively. Overall, Y6-NO2 could be a potential NFA because of its longer intramolecular charge-transfer distance, stronger dipole moment, higher averaged ESP, enhanced spectrum, and faster electron mobility. This work provides a guideline for the future research on modification of Y6. Full article
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25 pages, 9023 KiB  
Review
Application of Biomedical Microspheres in Wound Healing
by Caihong Yang, Zhikun Zhang, Lu Gan, Lexiang Zhang, Lei Yang and Pan Wu
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(8), 7319; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24087319 - 15 Apr 2023
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2737
Abstract
Tissue injury, one of the most common traumatic injuries in daily life, easily leads to secondary wound infections. To promote wound healing and reduce scarring, various kinds of wound dressings, such as gauze, bandages, sponges, patches, and microspheres, have been developed for wound [...] Read more.
Tissue injury, one of the most common traumatic injuries in daily life, easily leads to secondary wound infections. To promote wound healing and reduce scarring, various kinds of wound dressings, such as gauze, bandages, sponges, patches, and microspheres, have been developed for wound healing. Among them, microsphere-based tissue dressings have attracted increasing attention due to the advantage of easy to fabricate, excellent physicochemical performance and superior drug release ability. In this review, we first introduced the common methods for microspheres preparation, such as emulsification-solvent method, electrospray method, microfluidic technology as well as phase separation methods. Next, we summarized the common biomaterials for the fabrication of the microspheres including natural polymers and synthetic polymers. Then, we presented the application of the various microspheres from different processing methods in wound healing and other applications. Finally, we analyzed the limitations and discussed the future development direction of microspheres in the future. Full article
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15 pages, 3490 KiB  
Article
Preparation of High-Toughness Lignin Phenolic Resin Biomaterials Based via Polybutylene Succinate Molecular Intercalation
by Jin Xie, Hao Sun, Yuchun Yang, Junxiong Liang, Yun Li, Defa Hou, Xu Lin, Jun Zhang, Zhengjun Shi and Can Liu
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(7), 6418; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24076418 - 29 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1614
Abstract
Lignin has many potential applications and is a biopolymer with a three-dimensional network structure. It is composed of three phenylpropane units, p-hydroxyphenyl, guaiacyl, and syringyl, connected by ether bonds and carbon–carbon bonds, and it contains a large number of phenol or aldehyde structural [...] Read more.
Lignin has many potential applications and is a biopolymer with a three-dimensional network structure. It is composed of three phenylpropane units, p-hydroxyphenyl, guaiacyl, and syringyl, connected by ether bonds and carbon–carbon bonds, and it contains a large number of phenol or aldehyde structural units, resulting in complex lignin structures. This limits the application of lignin. To expand the application range of lignin, we prepared lignin thermoplastic phenolic resins (LPRs) by using lignin instead of phenol; these LPRs had molecular weights of up to 1917 g/mol, a molecular weight distribution of 1.451, and an O/P value of up to 2.73. Due to the complex structure of the lignin, the synthetic lignin thermoplastic phenolic resins were not very tough, which greatly affected the performance of the material. If the lignin phenolic resins were toughened, their application range would be substantially expanded. Polybutylene succinate (PBS) has excellent processability and excellent mechanical properties. The toughening effects of different PBS contents in the LPRs were investigated. PBS was found to be compatible with the LPRs, and the flexible chain segments of the small PBS molecules were embedded in the molecular chain segments of the LPRs, thus reducing the crystallinities of the LPRs. The good compatibility between the two materials promoted hydrogen bond formation between the PBS and LPRs. Rheological data showed good interfacial bonding between the materials, and the modulus of the high-melting PBS made the LPRs more damage resistant. When PBS was added at 30%, the tensile strength of the LPRs was increased by 2.8 times to 1.65 MPa, and the elongation at break increased by 31 times to 93%. This work demonstrates the potential of lignin thermoplastic phenolic resins for industrial applications and provides novel concepts for toughening biobased aromatic resins with PBS. Full article
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11 pages, 2204 KiB  
Article
Polypyrrole-Stabilized Polypeptide for Eco-Friendly Supercapacitors
by Zhe Li, Kuan Hu, Zhou Li, Cong Li and Yulin Deng
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(3), 2497; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24032497 - 27 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1710
Abstract
As an energy storage technology, supercapacitors (SCs) have become an important part of many electronic systems because of their high-power density, long cycle life, and maintenance-free characteristics. However, the widespread development and use of electronics, including SCs, have led to the generation of [...] Read more.
As an energy storage technology, supercapacitors (SCs) have become an important part of many electronic systems because of their high-power density, long cycle life, and maintenance-free characteristics. However, the widespread development and use of electronics, including SCs, have led to the generation of a large amount of e-waste. In addition, achieving compatibility between stability and biodegradability has been a prominent challenge for implantable electronics. Therefore, environmentally friendly SCs based on polypyrrole (PPy)-stabilized polypeptide (FF) are demonstrated in this study. The fully degradable SC has a layer-by-layer structure, including polylactic acid/chitosan (PLA–C) support layers, current collectors (Mg), FF/PPy composite layers, and a polyvinyl alcohol/phosphate buffer solution (PVA/PBS) hydrogel. It has the advantages of being light, thin, flexible, and biocompatible. After 5000 cycles in air, the capacitance retention remains at up to 94.7%. The device could stably operate for 7 days in a liquid environment and completely degrade in vitro within 90 days without any adverse effect on the environment. This work has important implications for eco-friendly electronics and will have a significant impact on the implantable biomedical electronics. Full article
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10 pages, 1939 KiB  
Article
Tailored Supramolecular Cage for Efficient Bio-Labeling
by Dongdong An, Linlin Shi, Tianyu Li, Hong-Yu Zhang, Yahong Chen, Xin-Qi Hao and Mao-Ping Song
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(3), 2147; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24032147 - 21 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1499
Abstract
Fluorescent chemosensors are powerful imaging tools used in a broad range of biomedical fields. However, the application of fluorescent dyes in bioimaging still remains challenging, with small Stokes shifts, interfering signals, background noise, and self-quenching on current microscope configurations. In this work, we [...] Read more.
Fluorescent chemosensors are powerful imaging tools used in a broad range of biomedical fields. However, the application of fluorescent dyes in bioimaging still remains challenging, with small Stokes shifts, interfering signals, background noise, and self-quenching on current microscope configurations. In this work, we reported a supramolecular cage (CA) by coordination-driven self-assembly of benzothiadiazole derivatives and Eu(OTf)3. The CA exhibited high fluorescence with a quantum yield (QY) of 38.57%, good photoluminescence (PL) stability, and a large Stokes shift (153 nm). Furthermore, the CCK-8 assay against U87 glioblastoma cells verified the low cytotoxicity of CA. We revealed that the designed probes could be used as U87 cells targeting bioimaging. Full article
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12 pages, 3073 KiB  
Article
Shape-Memory-Reduced Graphene/Chitosan Cryogels for Non-Compressible Wounds
by Hongyun Xuan, Qian Du, Ruimeng Li, Xiaoni Shen, Jiao Zhou, Biyun Li, Yan Jin and Huihua Yuan
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(2), 1389; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24021389 - 10 Jan 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1883
Abstract
In this study, an antibacterial and shape-memory chitosan cryogel with high blood absorption and fast recovery from non-compressible wounds was prepared using a one-step method. Herein, we prepared a shape-memory-reduced graphene/chitosan (rGO-CTS) cryogel using a one-step method with a frozen mixing solution of [...] Read more.
In this study, an antibacterial and shape-memory chitosan cryogel with high blood absorption and fast recovery from non-compressible wounds was prepared using a one-step method. Herein, we prepared a shape-memory-reduced graphene/chitosan (rGO-CTS) cryogel using a one-step method with a frozen mixing solution of chitosan, citric acid, dopamine, and graphene oxide, before treating it with alkaline solutions. The alkaline solution not only promoted the double cross-linking of chitosan but also induced dopamine to form polydopamine-reducing graphene oxide. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images showed that the rGO-CTS cryogel possessed a uniform porous network structure, attributing excellent water-induced shape-memory properties. Moreover, the rGO-CTS cryogel exhibited good mechanical properties, antibacterial activity, and biocompatibility. In mouse liver trauma models, the rGO-CTS cryogel showed good blood clotting and hemostatic capabilities. Therefore, this composite cryogel has great potential as a new hemostatic material for application to non-compressible wounds. Full article
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18 pages, 5415 KiB  
Article
A Multifunctional Dental Resin Composite with Sr-N-Doped TiO2 and n-HA Fillers for Antibacterial and Mineralization Effects
by Yuanhang Zhao, Hong Zhang, Lihua Hong, Xinying Zou, Jiazhuo Song, Rong Han, Jiawen Chen, Yiyan Yu, Xin Liu, Hong Zhao and Zhimin Zhang
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(2), 1274; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24021274 - 9 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1795
Abstract
Dental caries, particularly secondary caries, which is the main contributor to dental repair failure, has been the subject of extensive research due to its biofilm-mediated, sugar-driven, multifactorial, and dynamic characteristics. The clinical utility of restorations is improved by cleaning bacteria nearby and remineralizing [...] Read more.
Dental caries, particularly secondary caries, which is the main contributor to dental repair failure, has been the subject of extensive research due to its biofilm-mediated, sugar-driven, multifactorial, and dynamic characteristics. The clinical utility of restorations is improved by cleaning bacteria nearby and remineralizing marginal crevices. In this study, a novel multifunctional dental resin composite (DRC) composed of Sr-N-co-doped titanium dioxide (Sr-N-TiO2) nanoparticles and nano-hydroxyapatite (n-HA) reinforcing fillers with improved antibacterial and mineralization properties is proposed. The experimental results showed that the anatase-phase Sr-N-TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized successfully. After this, the curing depth (CD) of the DRC was measured from 4.36 ± 0.18 mm to 5.10 ± 0.19 mm, which met the clinical treatment needs. The maximum antibacterial rate against Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) was 98.96%, showing significant inhibition effects (p < 0.0001), which was experimentally verified to be derived from reactive oxygen species (ROS). Meanwhile, the resin exhibited excellent self-remineralization behavior in an SBF solution, and the molar ratio of Ca/P was close to that of HA. Moreover, the relative growth rate (RGR) of mouse fibroblast L929 indicated a high biocompatibility, with the cytotoxicity level being 0 or I. Therefore, our research provides a suitable approach for improving the antibacterial and mineralization properties of DRCs. Full article
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2022

Jump to: 2023

12 pages, 2010 KiB  
Article
Three Different Interaction Patterns between MCM-41 and Proteins
by Yuke Xie, Ziqiao Zhong, Wenhao Wang, Ying Huang, Chuanbin Wu, Xin Pan and Zhengwei Huang
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(24), 15850; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232415850 - 13 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1164
Abstract
As one of the most studied mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) in drug delivery systems, Mobil Composition of Matter No. 41 (MCM-41) possesses unique properties including perfect channel architecture, excellent load capacity, and good biocompatibility. However, the applications of MCM-41 nanoparticles in drug delivery [...] Read more.
As one of the most studied mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) in drug delivery systems, Mobil Composition of Matter No. 41 (MCM-41) possesses unique properties including perfect channel architecture, excellent load capacity, and good biocompatibility. However, the applications of MCM-41 nanoparticles in drug delivery have not yet been industrialized, due to the interaction between MCM-41 and biomolecules (especially proteins) that affect their in vivo behaviors after dosing. To investigate the interactions between MCM-41 and proteins, this study selected bovine serum albumin (BSA), lysozyme (Lyso), and bovine hemoglobin (BHb) as model proteins and characterized the ultraviolet-visible, fluorescence, circular dichroism spectra and the protein adsorption of MCM-41-protein complex. The UV-Vis spectra exhibited the different absorption increment degrees of three proteins. The fluorescence spectra showed that the fluorescence intensity of proteins changed by different trends. The CD spectra indicated that the secondary structure changes were ranked as BSA > Lyso > BHb, which is consistent with the protein’s adsorption capability on MCM-41. It was shown that there were three different patterns of MCM-41-proteins interactions. The hydrophilic and low-charged BSA followed the strong interaction pattern, the hydrophilic but heavily charged Lyso followed the moderate interaction pattern, and the hydrophobic BHb followed the weak interaction pattern. Different interaction patterns would lead to different effects on the structural properties of proteins, the surface chemistry of MCM-41, and the absorption capability of proteins on MCM-41. We believe our study will provide a better insight into the application of MCM-41 nanoparticles in drug delivery systems. Full article
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14 pages, 3483 KiB  
Article
Synthesis of a Tetrahedral Metal–Organic Supramolecular Cage with Dendritic Carbazole Arms
by Juanzi Lianglu, Weinan Hu, Xinju Zhu, Hong-Yu Zhang, Linlin Shi, Xin-Qi Hao and Mao-Ping Song
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(24), 15580; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232415580 - 8 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1601
Abstract
In recent years, incredible endeavors have been devoted to the design and self-assembly of discrete metal–organic cages (MOCs) with expanding intricacy and functionality. The controlled synthesis of metal–organic supramolecular cages with large branched chains remains an interesting and challenging work in supramolecular chemistry. [...] Read more.
In recent years, incredible endeavors have been devoted to the design and self-assembly of discrete metal–organic cages (MOCs) with expanding intricacy and functionality. The controlled synthesis of metal–organic supramolecular cages with large branched chains remains an interesting and challenging work in supramolecular chemistry. Herein, a tetrahedral metal–organic supramolecular cage (ZnII4L4) containing 12 dendritic carbazole arms is unprecedentedly constructed through coordination-driven subcomponent self-assembly and characterized in different ways. Interestingly, tetrahedral supramolecular Cage-1 exhibited the potential for aggregation-induced emission (AIE) performance and stimulus-responsive luminescence features, and it achieved color-tunable photoluminescence due to the introduction of dendritic carbazole arms. Crucially, owing to the great photophysical properties of Cage-1 in solution, Cage-1 was enabled to act as a fluorescent ink for the vapor-responsive recording and wiping of information. Full article
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15 pages, 3205 KiB  
Article
One-Step Pyrolysis of Nitrogen-Containing Chemicals and Biochar Derived from Walnut Shells to Absorb Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)
by Wendong Wang, Donghua Li, Ping Xiang, Yunwu Zheng, Zhifeng Zheng, Xu Lin, Xiahong He and Can Liu
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(23), 15193; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232315193 - 2 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1413
Abstract
The pyrolysis of biomass is an efficient means of utilizing biomass resources. Biomass can be converted into various high-performance chemicals and functional materials through pyrolysis. However, current pyrolysis technologies suffer from low conversion rates and single products, so the preparation of nitrogen compounds [...] Read more.
The pyrolysis of biomass is an efficient means of utilizing biomass resources. Biomass can be converted into various high-performance chemicals and functional materials through pyrolysis. However, current pyrolysis technologies suffer from low conversion rates and single products, so the preparation of nitrogen compounds with high economic value remains a challenge. The walnut shell was soaked in three nitrogen-containing compound solutions before carbonization to produce high-value-added nitrogen-containing chemicals (with a nitrogen content of 59.09%) and biochar for the adsorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). According to biochar analysis, biochar has a porous structure with a specific surface area of 1161.30 m2/g and a high level of rocky desertification. The surface forms a dense pyrrole structure, and the structure produces π–π interactions with naphthalene molecules, exhibiting excellent naphthalene adsorption with a maximum capacity of 214.98 mg/g. This study provides an efficient, rapid, and environmentally friendly method for producing nitrogen-containing chemicals with high-added value and biochar. Full article
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13 pages, 6389 KiB  
Article
Dynamic Double Cross-Linked Self-Healing Polysaccharide Hydrogel Wound Dressing Based on Schiff Base and Thiol-Alkynone Reactions
by Zhuojun Zhang, Jiasen Bu, Biyun Li, Hongyun Xuan, Yan Jin and Huihua Yuan
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(22), 13817; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232213817 - 10 Nov 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2001
Abstract
In this study, a hydrogel composite wound dressing with antibacterial and self-healing ability was prepared using cysteine-modified carboxymethyl chitosan, sodium oxidized alginate, and but-3-yn-2-one base on Schiff base and thiol-alkynone double cross-links. The structure and properties of the hydrogel were characterized by scanning [...] Read more.
In this study, a hydrogel composite wound dressing with antibacterial and self-healing ability was prepared using cysteine-modified carboxymethyl chitosan, sodium oxidized alginate, and but-3-yn-2-one base on Schiff base and thiol-alkynone double cross-links. The structure and properties of the hydrogel were characterized by scanning electron microscope, Fourier-transform infrared, and rheological test, followed by antibacterial and in vivo biocompatibility tests. The results showed that the hydrogel exhibited good self-healing, mechanical properties, good antibacterial effect, and in vivo biocompatibility, and can inhibit inflammation and promote skin tissue regeneration in mice. This novel self-healing hydrogel dressing has a broad application prospect in skin tissue engineering. Full article
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16 pages, 9708 KiB  
Article
Quantitative Analysis of Acetone in Transformer Oil Based on ZnO NPs@Ag NWs SERS Substrates Combined with a Stoichiometric Model
by Xinyuan Zhang, Yu Lei, Ruimin Song, Weigen Chen, Changding Wang, Ziyi Wang, Zhixian Yin and Fu Wan
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(21), 13633; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232113633 - 7 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1799
Abstract
Acetone is an essential indicator for determining the aging of transformer insulation. Rapid, sensitive, and accurate quantification of acetone in transformer oil is highly significant in assessing the aging of oil-paper insulation systems. In this study, silver nanowires modified with small zinc oxide [...] Read more.
Acetone is an essential indicator for determining the aging of transformer insulation. Rapid, sensitive, and accurate quantification of acetone in transformer oil is highly significant in assessing the aging of oil-paper insulation systems. In this study, silver nanowires modified with small zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs@Ag NWs) were excellent surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates and efficiently and sensitively detected acetone in transformer oil. Stoichiometric models such as multiple linear regression (MLR) models and partial least square regressions (PLS) were investigated to quantify acetone in transformer oil and compared with commonly used univariate linear regressions (ULR). PLS combined with a preprocessing algorithm provided the best prediction model, with a correlation coefficient of 0.998251 for the calibration set, 0.997678 for the predictive set, a root mean square error in the calibration set (RMSECV = 0.12596 mg/g), and a prediction set (RMSEP = 0.11408 mg/g). For an acetone solution of 0.003 mg/g, the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) was the lowest among the three quantitative models. For a concentration of 7.29 mg/g, the MAPE was 1.60%. This method achieved limits of quantification and detections of 0.003 mg/g and 1 μg/g, respectively. In general, these results suggested that ZnO NPs@Ag NWs as SERS substrates coupled with PLS simply and accurately quantified trace acetone concentrations in transformer oil. Full article
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15 pages, 3477 KiB  
Article
Sensitive Determination of Trace 4-Nitrophenol in Ambient Environment Using a Glassy Carbon Electrode Modified with Formamide-Converted Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Materials
by Bing Wang, Quanguo He, Guangli Li, Yaohang Long, Gongyou Zhang, Hongmei Liu and Jun Liu
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(20), 12182; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232012182 - 12 Oct 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1617
Abstract
Sensing trace amounts of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) as a harmful substance to organisms even in small quantities is of great importance. The present study includes a sensitive and selective electrochemical sensor for detecting 4-NP in natural water samples using formamide-converted nitrogen-carbon materials (shortened to [...] Read more.
Sensing trace amounts of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) as a harmful substance to organisms even in small quantities is of great importance. The present study includes a sensitive and selective electrochemical sensor for detecting 4-NP in natural water samples using formamide-converted nitrogen-carbon materials (shortened to f-NC) as a new material for electrode modification. The structure and morphology of the f-NC were set apart by SEM, TEM, XRD, XPS, FTIR, Raman, and the electrochemical performance of the f-NC were set apart by CV, EIS and CC. We studied the electrochemical behaviour of 4-NP on the glassy carbon electrode modified with f-NC before and after pyrolysis treatment (denoted as f-NC1/GCE and f-NC2/GCE). In 0.2 M of H2SO4 solution, the f-NC2/GCE has an apparent electrocatalytic activity to reduce 4-NP. Under the optimal conditions, the reduction peak current of 4-NP varies linearly, with its concentration in the range of 0.2 to 100 mM, and the detection limit obtained as 0.02 mM (S/N = 3). In addition, the electrochemical sensor has high selectivity, and the stability is quite good. The preparation and application of the sensor to detect 4-NP in water samples produced satisfactory results, which provides a new method for the simple, sensitive and quantitative detection of 4-NP. Full article
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12 pages, 5962 KiB  
Article
Preparation of Multicolour Solid Fluorescent Carbon Dots for Light-Emitting Diodes Using Phenylethylamine as a Co-Carbonization Agent
by Yulong An, Can Liu, Yan Li, Menglin Chen, Yunwu Zheng, Hao Tian, Rui Shi, Xiahong He and Xu Lin
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(19), 11071; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms231911071 - 21 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1729
Abstract
Carbon dots (CDs), as a new type of photoluminescent nanomaterial, have attracted extensive attention in various fields because of their unique luminescence properties. However, CDs will exhibit fluorescence quenching in the solid state or aggregate state, which limits their application. In this paper, [...] Read more.
Carbon dots (CDs), as a new type of photoluminescent nanomaterial, have attracted extensive attention in various fields because of their unique luminescence properties. However, CDs will exhibit fluorescence quenching in the solid state or aggregate state, which limits their application. In this paper, a unique strategy is proposed to regulate solutions to achieve multicolour fluorescence of CDs in the solid state. We report the successful preparation of orange, green and blue solid fluorescent CDs using citric acid, urea and phenylethylamine as precursors and methanol, ethanol and water as solvents, respectively. The solid-state fluorescence of CDs may be caused by the linkage of the phenylethyl structure to the surface of CDs during formation, which effectively disperses the CDs and prevents π–π interactions between graphitized nuclei. Meanwhile, multicolour solid fluorescent CDs are realized by adjusting the solvent in the preparation process. Based on the excellent fluorescence properties of CDs, orange, green and blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are prepared. A white LED (WLED) can be obtained by mixing the three colours of solid fluorescent CDs, which shows the application potential of CDs in display lighting equipment. Full article
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16 pages, 3699 KiB  
Article
β-Cyclodextrin-Based Supramolecular Imprinted Fiber Array for Highly Selective Detection of Parabens
by Zhimin Liu, Qingqing Zhou, Dan Wang, Yunli Duan, Xuehua Zhang, Yi Yang and Zhigang Xu
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(18), 10753; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms231810753 - 15 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1393
Abstract
A novel high-throughput array analytical platform based on derived β-cyclodextrin supramolecular imprinted polymer (SMIP) fibers was constructed to achieve selective enrichment and removal of parabens. SMIP fiber arrays have abundant imprinting sites and introduce the host–guest inclusion effect of the derived β-cyclodextrin, which [...] Read more.
A novel high-throughput array analytical platform based on derived β-cyclodextrin supramolecular imprinted polymer (SMIP) fibers was constructed to achieve selective enrichment and removal of parabens. SMIP fiber arrays have abundant imprinting sites and introduce the host–guest inclusion effect of the derived β-cyclodextrin, which is beneficial to significantly improve the adsorption ability of fiber for parabens. Upon combination with HPLC, a specific and sensitive recognition method was developed with a low limit of detection (0.003–0.02 µg/L, S/N = 3) for parabens analysis in environmental water. This method has a good linearity (R > 0.9994) in the linear range of 0.01–200 µg/L. The proposed SMIP fiber array with high-throughput adsorption capacity has great potential in monitoring water pollution, which also provides a reliable reference for the analysis of more categories of pharmaceutical and personal care product pollutants. Full article
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16 pages, 2910 KiB  
Article
Water-Recyclable Chitosan-Based Ion-Imprinted Thermoresponsive Hydrogel for Rare Earth Metal Ions Accumulation
by Yuheng Qiu, Kaiqi Ding, Liwen Tang, Ziyu Qin, Mengting Li and Xueqiong Yin
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(18), 10542; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms231810542 - 11 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1929
Abstract
The demand for rare earth metal increases rapidly in the modern high-tech industry and therefore the accumulation of rare earth metal ions from an aqueous environment becomes a significant concern worldwide. In this paper, a water-recyclable chitosan-based La3+-imprinted thermoresponsive hydrogel (CLIT) [...] Read more.
The demand for rare earth metal increases rapidly in the modern high-tech industry and therefore the accumulation of rare earth metal ions from an aqueous environment becomes a significant concern worldwide. In this paper, a water-recyclable chitosan-based La3+-imprinted thermoresponsive hydrogel (CLIT) was prepared to accumulate La3+ from solution. The CLIT was characterized by DSC, FITR, Raman spectroscopy, XPS, and SEM, which revealed obvious reversible thermosensitivity and imprinted sites of La3+ ions. An adsorption capacity of 112.21 mg/g to La3+ ions was achieved on CLIT under its optimum adsorption conditions (pH 5, 50 °C, 60 min). The adsorption could be well illustrated by second-order kinetics and Freundlich isotherm models. The La3+-adsorbed CLIT could be recycled only by rinsing with 10 °C cold water, with a desorption rate of 96.72%. After ten cycles of adsorption-desorption, CLIT retained good adsorption capability. In the solution containing six ions, the adsorption coefficients kLa3+/Mn+ of CLIT were 2.04–3.51 times that of non-imprinted hydrogel, with kLa3+/Y3+, kLa3+/Gd3+, kLa3+/Al3+, kLa3+/Fe3+ and kLa3+/Cu2+ being 1.67, 2.04, 3.15, 2.72 and 4.84, respectively. Full article
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9 pages, 2874 KiB  
Article
Interdomain Linker Effect on the Mechanical Stability of Ig Domains in Titin
by Bei Tong, Fang Tian and Peng Zheng
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(17), 9836; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23179836 - 30 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1934
Abstract
Titin is the largest protein in humans, composed of more than one hundred immunoglobulin (Ig) domains, and plays a critical role in muscle’s passive elasticity. Thus, the molecular design of this giant polyprotein is responsible for its mechanical function. Interestingly, most of these [...] Read more.
Titin is the largest protein in humans, composed of more than one hundred immunoglobulin (Ig) domains, and plays a critical role in muscle’s passive elasticity. Thus, the molecular design of this giant polyprotein is responsible for its mechanical function. Interestingly, most of these Ig domains are connected directly with very few interdomain residues/linker, which suggests such a design is necessary for its mechanical stability. To understand this design, we chose six representative Ig domains in titin and added nine glycine residues (9G) as an artificial interdomain linker between these Ig domains. We measured their mechanical stabilities using atomic force microscopy-based single-molecule force spectroscopy (AFM-SMFS) and compared them to the natural sequence. The AFM results showed that the linker affected the mechanical stability of Ig domains. The linker mostly reduces its mechanical stability to a moderate extent, but the opposite situation can happen. Thus, this effect is very complex and may depend on each particular domain’s property. Full article
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16 pages, 3309 KiB  
Article
Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Coiled Carbon Nanotube Pull-Out from Matrix
by Feng Huang and Shuai Zhou
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(16), 9254; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23169254 - 17 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1528
Abstract
The interaction between coiled carbon nanotubes (CCNT) and the polymer matrix is important in the mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties of the CCNT reinforced nanocomposite. In this study, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed to study the interfacial characteristics of polymer nanocomposites (PNCs). [...] Read more.
The interaction between coiled carbon nanotubes (CCNT) and the polymer matrix is important in the mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties of the CCNT reinforced nanocomposite. In this study, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed to study the interfacial characteristics of polymer nanocomposites (PNCs). Furthermore, the influence of the geometries of the CCNTs on the load transfer mechanism is evaluated. Pullout simulations considering different geometries of CCNTs are carried out to examine the tensile force and the interfacial shear stress (ISS). The results reveal that the maximal tensile force is reduced by increasing CCNT inner diameters, increasing the helix angles, and decreasing nanotube diameters. The distance between CCNTs and the polymer matrix is varied, and the interfacial distance favors greater ISS. Decreasing the inner diameter of the CCNT, the helix angle, and the tube diameter increases the ISS. The enhancement mechanism of CCNT/polymer composites has also been illustrated. Due to a lack of experimental results, only numerical results are given. The present study helps to understand the interfacial adhesion behavior between the polymer matrix and CCNTs and is expected to contribute to the development of CCNT reinforced polymer composites. Full article
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17 pages, 4625 KiB  
Article
An FGFR1-Binding Peptide Modified Liposome for siRNA Delivery in Lung Cancer
by Zhipeng Dong, Yunxue Yin, Jun Luo, Bingxia Li, Fangning Lou, Qiyan Wang, Qingfa Zhou, Baofen Ye and Yue Wang
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(15), 8380; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23158380 - 29 Jul 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2151
Abstract
Liposome modification by targeting ligands has been used to mediate specific interactions and drug delivery to target cells. In this study, a new peptide ligand, CP7, was found to be able to effectively bind to FGFR1 through reverse molecular docking and could cooperate [...] Read more.
Liposome modification by targeting ligands has been used to mediate specific interactions and drug delivery to target cells. In this study, a new peptide ligand, CP7, was found to be able to effectively bind to FGFR1 through reverse molecular docking and could cooperate with VEGFR3 to achieve targeting of A549 cells. CP7 was modified on the surface of the liposome to construct a targeted and safe nanovehicle for the delivery of a therapeutic gene, Mcl-1 siRNA. Due to the specific binding between CP7 and A549 cells, siRNA-loaded liposome-PEG-CP7 showed increased cellular uptake in vitro, resulting in significant apoptosis of tumor cells through silencing of the Mcl-1 gene, which is associated with apoptosis and angiogenesis. This gene delivery system also showed significantly better antitumor activity in tumor-bearing mice in vivo. All of these suggested that siRNA-loaded liposome-PEG-CP7 could be a promising gene drug delivery system with good bioavailability and minimal side effects for treatment. Full article
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16 pages, 2914 KiB  
Review
Antitumor Applications of Photothermal Agents and Photothermal Synergistic Therapies
by Chaowei Li, Yue Cheng, Dawei Li, Qi An, Wei Zhang, Yu Zhang and Yijun Fu
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(14), 7909; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23147909 - 18 Jul 2022
Cited by 33 | Viewed by 4901
Abstract
As a new tumor treatment strategy, photothermal therapy (PTT) has the advantages of accuracy, ease of administration, a high efficiency and low side effects. Photothermal transduction agents (PTAs) are the key factor which play an important role in PTT. The mechanism of PTT [...] Read more.
As a new tumor treatment strategy, photothermal therapy (PTT) has the advantages of accuracy, ease of administration, a high efficiency and low side effects. Photothermal transduction agents (PTAs) are the key factor which play an important role in PTT. The mechanism of PTT is discussed in detail. The photothermal conversion efficiency (PCE) can be improved by increasing the light absorption and reducing the light scattering of photothermal conversion agents. Additionally, non-radiative relaxation path attenuation can also promote energy conversion to obtain a higher value in terms of PCE. The structure and photothermal characteristics of various kinds of PTAs (metal materials, carbon-based nanomaterials, two-dimensional nanomaterials, and organic materials) were compared and analyzed. This paper reviews the antitumor applications of photothermal synergistic therapies, including PTT combined with immunotherapy, chemotherapy, and photodynamic therapy. This review proposes that these PTAs promote the development of photothermal synergistic therapies and have a great potential in the application of tumor treatment. Full article
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13 pages, 2795 KiB  
Article
Superhydrophobic Paper-Based Microfluidic Field-Effect Transistor Biosensor Functionalized with Semiconducting Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube and DNAzyme for Hypocalcemia Diagnosis
by Hui Wang, Ruipeng Chen, Fan Zhang, Zhixue Yu, Yue Wang, Zhonglin Tang, Liang Yang, Xiangfang Tang and Benhai Xiong
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(14), 7799; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23147799 - 15 Jul 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2080
Abstract
Hypocalcemia is caused by a sharp decline in blood calcium concentration after dairy cow calving, which can lead to various diseases or even death. It is necessary to develop an inexpensive, easy-to-operate, reliable sensor to diagnose hypocalcemia. The cellulose-paper-based microfluidic field-effect biosensor is [...] Read more.
Hypocalcemia is caused by a sharp decline in blood calcium concentration after dairy cow calving, which can lead to various diseases or even death. It is necessary to develop an inexpensive, easy-to-operate, reliable sensor to diagnose hypocalcemia. The cellulose-paper-based microfluidic field-effect biosensor is promising for point-of-care, but it has poor mechanical strength and a short service life after exposure to an aqueous solution. Octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS), as a popular organosilane derivative, can improve the hydrophobicity of cellulose paper to overcome the shortage of cellulose paper. In this work, OTS was used to produce the superhydrophobic cellulose paper that enhances the mechanical strength and short service life of MFB, and a microfluidic field-effect biosensor (MFB) with semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and DNAzyme was then developed for the Ca2+ determination. Pyrene carboxylic acid (PCA) attached to SWNTs through a non-covalent π-π stacking interaction provided a carboxyl group that can bond with an amino group of DNAzyme. Two DNAzymes with different sensitivities were designed by changing the sequence length and cleavage site, which were functionalized with SPFET/SWNTs-PCA to form Dual-MFB, decreasing the interference of impurities in cow blood. After optimizing the detecting parameters, Dual-MFB could determine the Ca2+ concentration in the range of 25 μM to 5 mM, with a detection limit of 10.7 μM. The proposed Dual-MFB was applied to measure Ca2+ concentration in cow blood, which provided a new method to diagnose hypocalcemia after dairy cow calving. Full article
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13 pages, 6767 KiB  
Article
Solvent-Free Preparation of Tannic Acid Carbon Dots for Selective Detection of Ni2+ in the Environment
by Yan Li, Can Liu, Menglin Chen, Yulong An, Yunwu Zheng, Hao Tian, Rui Shi, Xiahong He and Xu Lin
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(12), 6681; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23126681 - 15 Jun 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2694
Abstract
Carbon dots (CDs) are widely used nanomaterials that not only exhibit good biocompatibility and photostability, but also benefit from a simple preparation process and easy functionalization, making them promising for broad applications in the fields of heavy metal ion detection and optoelectronic devices. [...] Read more.
Carbon dots (CDs) are widely used nanomaterials that not only exhibit good biocompatibility and photostability, but also benefit from a simple preparation process and easy functionalization, making them promising for broad applications in the fields of heavy metal ion detection and optoelectronic devices. Based on the excellent optical properties of CDs and the current situation of increasing energy shortages, this paper selects the natural polyphenolic compound tannic acid (TA) found in biomass materials as the carbon source and innovatively adopts a simple and convenient solvent-free pyrolysis method without auxiliary reagents or solvents. The CDs with good water solubility and certain fluorescence properties were directly prepared under the condition of high temperature, and the obtained CDs exhibited blue fluorescence, and a high QY of 35.4% was obtained at 300 °C. The analysis and results demonstrate the selectivity of these CDs for the detection of various metal ion solutions. In particular, these CDs are sensitive to Ni2+ and can be used as fluorescent sensors for the efficient and sustainable detection of Ni2+, whereas previous sensors were often specific to Fe3+ and Hg2+. Thus, a new sensing technique has been developed for the detection of Ni2+ to achieve more sensitive and rapid detection. Full article
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13 pages, 8378 KiB  
Article
Antibacterial Vancomycin@ZIF-8 Loaded PVA Nanofiber Membrane for Infected Bone Repair
by Yunbo Zhao, Hongshui Wang, Xianrui Zou, Donghui Wang, Ying Fan, Xiaoyan Zhao, Mingjun Li, Lei Yang and Chunyong Liang
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(10), 5629; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23105629 - 18 May 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3521
Abstract
Bone substitutes with strong antibacterial properties and bone regeneration effects have an inherent potential in the treatment of severe bone tissue infections, such as osteomyelitis. In this study, vancomycin (Van) was loaded into zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) to prepare composite particles, which is [...] Read more.
Bone substitutes with strong antibacterial properties and bone regeneration effects have an inherent potential in the treatment of severe bone tissue infections, such as osteomyelitis. In this study, vancomycin (Van) was loaded into zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) to prepare composite particles, which is abbreviated as V@Z. As a pH-responsive particle, ZIF-8 can be cleaved in the weak acid environment caused by bacterial infection to realize the effective release of drugs. Then, V@Z was loaded into polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) fiber by electrospinning to prepare PVA/V@Z composite bone filler. The drug-loading rate of V@Z was about 6.735%. The membranes exhibited super hydrophilicity, water absorption and pH-controlled Van release behavior. The properties of anti E. coli and S. aureus were studied under the pH conditions of normal physiological tissues and infected tissues (pH 7.4 and pH 6.5, respectively). It was found that the material had good surface antibacterial adhesion and antibacterial property. The PVA/V@Z membrane had the more prominent bacteria-killing effect compared with the same amount of single antibacterial agent containing membrane such as ZIF-8 or Van loaded PVA, and the antibacterial rate was up to 99%. The electrospun membrane had good biocompatibility and can promote MC3T3-E1 cell spreading on it. Full article
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15 pages, 3462 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Effects of the Interaction of Carbon and MoS2 Catalyst on CO2 Hydrogenation to Methanol
by Pingping Cui, Ruyu Sun, Linfei Xiao and Wei Wu
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(9), 5220; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23095220 - 7 May 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2222
Abstract
Hydrogenation of CO2 to form methanol utilizing green hydrogen is a promising route to realizing carbon neutrality. However, the development of catalyst with high activity and selectivity to methanol from the CO2 hydrogenation is still a challenge due to the chemical [...] Read more.
Hydrogenation of CO2 to form methanol utilizing green hydrogen is a promising route to realizing carbon neutrality. However, the development of catalyst with high activity and selectivity to methanol from the CO2 hydrogenation is still a challenge due to the chemical inertness of CO2 and its characteristics of multi-path conversion. Herein, a series of highly active carbon-confining molybdenum sulfide (MoS2@C) catalysts were prepared by the in-situ pyrolysis method. In comparison with the bulk MoS2 and MoS2/C, the stronger interaction between MoS2 and the carbon layer was clearly generated. Under the optimized reaction conditions, MoS2@C showed better catalytic performance and long-term stability. The MoS2@C catalyst could sustain around 32.4% conversion of CO2 with 94.8% selectivity of MeOH for at least 150 h. Full article
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12 pages, 2783 KiB  
Article
Reducing Endogenous Labile Zn May Help to Reduce Smooth Muscle Cell Injury around Vascular Stents
by Zheng Zeng, Yinhong Xie, Li Li, Huanran Wang, Jianying Tan, Xia Li, Qihao Bian, Yu Zhang, Tao Liu, Yajun Weng and Junying Chen
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(9), 5139; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23095139 - 5 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1913
Abstract
Vascular stent service involves complex service environments and performance requirements, among which the histocompatibility of the stent could seriously affect the therapeutic effect. In the pathology of vascular disease, the thin fiber cap is easily ruptured, exposing the necrotic core below, and triggering [...] Read more.
Vascular stent service involves complex service environments and performance requirements, among which the histocompatibility of the stent could seriously affect the therapeutic effect. In the pathology of vascular disease, the thin fiber cap is easily ruptured, exposing the necrotic core below, and triggering a series of dangerous biochemical reactions. In contrast, the thin neointima, considered an essential structure growing on the stent, may evolve into vulnerable plaque structures due to lesions induced by the stent. Therefore, the reduction of necrosis around the stent below the thin neointima is indispensable. In this work, different cell model experiments suggested that the content of endogenous labile Zn positively correlated with cell injury. Zinquin-Zn fluorescence experiments and zinc ion channels research suggested that the change in the content of endogenous labile Zn in smooth muscle cells is affected by different stent coatings. The content of endogenous labile Zn in cells negatively correlated with cell viability. Animal experiments indirectly verified the increase in endogenous labile Zn by detecting the expression of Zn regulatory protein (metallothionein) in the necrotic tissues. Reducing the content of endogenous labile Zn may favor a reduction in smooth muscle cell injury and necrosis. This biochemical mechanism is effective in improving the therapeutic effect of vascular stents. Full article
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11 pages, 2327 KiB  
Article
Photodynamic Therapy of Up-Conversion Nanomaterial Doped with Gold Nanoparticles
by Wei Zhang, Yang Zang, Yanli Lu, Jinghui Han, Qingyun Xiong and Jinping Xiong
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(8), 4279; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23084279 - 13 Apr 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1719
Abstract
Two key concerns exist in contemporary cancer chemotherapy: limited therapeutic efficiency and substantial side effects in patients. In recent years, researchers have been investigating the revolutionary cancer treatment techniques of photodynamic therapy (PDT) and photothermal therapy (PTT) proposed by many scholars. A photothermal [...] Read more.
Two key concerns exist in contemporary cancer chemotherapy: limited therapeutic efficiency and substantial side effects in patients. In recent years, researchers have been investigating the revolutionary cancer treatment techniques of photodynamic therapy (PDT) and photothermal therapy (PTT) proposed by many scholars. A photothermal treatment of cancer was synthesized using the hydrothermal method which has high photothermal conversion efficiency and can generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells. Photothermal treatment of tumors has a good short-term effect and photodynamic therapy lasts longer. However, both PTT and PDT have their inevitable shortcomings and it is difficult to completely eradicate a tumor using a single mode of treatment. PTT and PDT synergistic treatment not only inherits the advantages of low toxicity and side effects of phototherapy but also enables the two treatment methods to complement each other. It is an effective strategy to improve curative effects and reduce toxic and side effects. Furthermore, gold doped UCNPs have an exceptionally high target recognition for tumor cells. The gold doped UCNPs, in particular, are non-toxic to normal tissues, endowing the as-prepared medications with outstanding therapeutic efficacy and exceptionally low side effects. These findings may encourage the creation of fresh, effective imaging-guided approaches to meet the goal of photothermal cancer therapy. Full article
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19 pages, 5701 KiB  
Article
Microfluidic-Based Cationic Cholesterol Lipid siRNA Delivery Nanosystem: Highly Efficient In Vitro Gene Silencing and the Intracellular Behavior
by Zhaoyuan Zhu, Li Zhang, Ruilong Sheng and Jian Chen
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(7), 3999; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23073999 - 3 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2860
Abstract
Safe and efficient delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) is essential to gene therapy towards intervention of genetic diseases. Herein, we developed a novel cationic cholesterol lipid derivative (CEL) in which cholesterol hydrophobic skeleton was connected to L-lysine cationic headgroup via a hexanediol [...] Read more.
Safe and efficient delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) is essential to gene therapy towards intervention of genetic diseases. Herein, we developed a novel cationic cholesterol lipid derivative (CEL) in which cholesterol hydrophobic skeleton was connected to L-lysine cationic headgroup via a hexanediol linker as the non-viral siRNA delivery carrier. Well-organized CEL/siRNA nanocomplexes (100–200 nm) were prepared by microfluidic-assisted assembly of CEL and siRNA at various N/P ratios. The CEL and CEL/siRNA nanocomplexes have lower cytotoxicity compared with bPEI25k. Delightfully, we disclosed that, in Hela–Luc and H1299–Luc cell lines, the micro-fluidic-based CEL/siRNA nanocomplexes exhibited high siRNA transfection efficiency under both serum-free condition (74–98%) and low-serum circumstances (80–87%), higher than that of lipofectamine 2000. These nanocomplexes also showed high cellular uptake through the caveolae/lipid-raft mediated endocytosis pathway, which may greatly contribute to transfection efficiency. Moreover, the time-dependent (0–12 h) dynamic intracellular imaging demonstrated the efficient delivery to cytoplasm after lysosomal co-localization. The results indicated that the microfluidic-based CEL/siRNA nanosystems possessed good stability, low cytotoxicity, high siRNA delivery efficiency, rapid cellular uptake and caveolae/lipid raft-dependent internalization. Additionally, this study provides a simple approach for preparing and applying a “helper lipid-free” cationic lipid siRNA delivery system as potential nanotherapeutics towards gene silencing treatment of (tumor) diseases. Full article
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