Novel and Green Processing Technology Applied in Dairy Products

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Dairy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2022) | Viewed by 32110

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Food Science and Technology, Agriculture School, Polytechnic Institute of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal
Interests: natural products; bioactive ingredients; recovery and extraction processes; antioxidants; antimicrobials
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Food Science and Technology, School of Agriculture, Polytechnic University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal
Interests: dairy and meat science; membrane technologies; valorization of food processing byproducts and food security
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue aims to highlight the current advances in the application of green processing technologies to the dairy industry. The growing concern for the environment, the increasingly stringent standards regarding environment protection, and economic competitiveness have led to more environmentally friendly approaches that have resulted in pollution prevention and efficiency maximization. The development of new technologies in the food industry envisaging the reduction of environmental impacts and energy consumption is of particular interest to academics and to food industry professionals. The new technologies must also maintain or improve food quality attributes such as nutrient content and sensory quality. In the Special Issue, particular attention will be given to new and more sustainable technologies, to the development of new products or to the valorization of dairy byproducts. Life cycle analysis, circular economy strategies, and best available technologies for cleaning and disinfection will also be considered. Investigations on how new technologies and new ingredients affect food quality in all its dimensions are also welcome.

Dr. Marta Helena Fernandes Henriques
Prof. Dr. Carlos José Dias Pereira
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • Membrane technologies
  • Byproduct valorization
  • Whey
  • Probiotics
  • Active packaging
  • Cleaning
  • Disinfection
  • Life cycle analysis
  • New product development
  • Circular economy

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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19 pages, 1020 KiB  
Article
Sheep’s Butter and Correspondent Buttermilk Produced with Sweet Cream and Cream Fermented by Aromatic Starter, Kefir and Probiotic Culture
by Tânia Silva, Arona Pires, David Gomes, Jorge Viegas, Susana Pereira-Dias, Manuela E. Pintado, Marta Henriques and Carlos Dias Pereira
Foods 2023, 12(2), 331; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12020331 - 10 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2150
Abstract
Small ruminant dairy products are common in some Mediterranean countries, in the Middle East and Africa, and can play a particular role in the development of rural areas. Butter has been the object of few research studies aimed at evaluating its potential as [...] Read more.
Small ruminant dairy products are common in some Mediterranean countries, in the Middle East and Africa, and can play a particular role in the development of rural areas. Butter has been the object of few research studies aimed at evaluating its potential as a vehicle for probiotic microorganisms. Moreover, the recovery of fermented buttermilk with functional properties can be considered an excellent opportunity to value this dairy byproduct. Therefore, the purpose of the present work was to develop different sheep butters and respective buttermilks after cream fermentation by: (1) a mesophilic aromatic starter (A); (2) a kefir culture (K); and (3) a mixture of probiotic bacteria (P). The butters and buttermilk produced with fermented cream were compared with non-fermented sweet cream (S) butter or buttermilk, respectively, regarding their physicochemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics. The adjusted production (%, w/v) obtained for butter were: S (44.48%), A (36.82%), K (41.23%) and P (43.36%). S, A and K butters had higher solids, fat and ashes contents than P butter. The probiotic butter had a total fat of ca. 75% (w/w), below the legal limits, while all others had fat levels above 81.5%. In all samples, the pH decreased and the acidity increased over 90 days of refrigerated storage. These variations were more evident in the P butter, which agrees with the highest lactic acid bacteria counts found in this sample. Differences in color between samples and due to storage time were also observed. In general, the butter samples tended to become darker and yellower after the 60th day of storage. Texture analysis showed comparable results between samples and greater hardness was observed for the P butter, most probably due to its higher relative saturated fatty acids content (66.46% compared to 62–64% in S, A and K butters). Regarding rheological properties, all butters showed pseudoplastic behavior, but butter P had the lowest consistency index (249 kPa.sn−1). The probiotic butter and the corresponding buttermilk had viable cell counts greater than 7 Log CFU/g, indicating their suitability as probiotic carriers. All products were well accepted by consumers and small, but non-significant, differences (p > 0.05) were observed in relation to the sensory parameters evaluated. In general, it can be concluded that the use of adequate starter cultures can allow the production of innovative and potentially healthier products, alongside the valorization of dairy byproducts, improving the income of small-scale producers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel and Green Processing Technology Applied in Dairy Products)
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15 pages, 3434 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Characteristics of Sheep’s and Goat’s Ice Cream, Produced with UF Concentrated Second Cheese Whey and Different Starter Cultures
by Arona Pires, David Gomes, João Noronha, Olga Díaz, Angel Cobos and Carlos Dias Pereira
Foods 2022, 11(24), 4091; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11244091 - 17 Dec 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1574
Abstract
Second cheese whey (SCW) is the by-product resulting from the manufacture of whey cheeses. In the present work, sheep (S) and goat (G) SCW concentrated by ultrafiltration (UF) were used in the production of ice creams. Concentrated liquid SCW samples with inulin added [...] Read more.
Second cheese whey (SCW) is the by-product resulting from the manufacture of whey cheeses. In the present work, sheep (S) and goat (G) SCW concentrated by ultrafiltration (UF) were used in the production of ice creams. Concentrated liquid SCW samples with inulin added as a prebiotic were fermented with yoghurt, kefir and probiotic commercial cultures before being frozen in a horizontal frozen yoghurt freezer. The physicochemical, microbiological and sensory properties of the products were evaluated over 120 days of frozen storage. The products presented significant differences regarding these properties, specifically the higher total solids and protein contents of sheep’s ice creams, which were higher compared to their goat ice cream counterparts. Sheep’s ice creams also presented higher hardness and complex viscosity, which increased with storage. These ice creams also presented higher overrun and lower meltdown rates. The color parameters of the ice creams showed significant differences between formulations resulting from storage time. In all cases, Lactobacilli sp. cell counts were higher than log 6 CFU/g at the first week of storage. In the case of sheep’s ice creams these values were maintained or increased until the 30th day, but decreased until the 60th day. Lactococci sp. counts surpassed log 7 CFU/g in all products, and these values were maintained until the end of storage, except in the case of G-Yoghurt and G-Kefir. Concerning the products containing probiotics, the sum of Lactococci sp. and Lactobacilli sp. counts was of the order log 8–9 CFU/g until the 60th day of storage, indicating that the probiotic characteristics of ice creams were maintained for at least 2 months. All products were well accepted by the consumer panel. Sheep’s SCW ice creams were better rated regarding aroma, taste and texture. However, only the ranking test was able to differentiate preferences among formulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel and Green Processing Technology Applied in Dairy Products)
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14 pages, 1271 KiB  
Article
Development and Characterization of a Novel Sustainable Probiotic Goat Whey Cheese Containing Second Cheese Whey Powder and Stabilized with Thyme Essential Oil and Sodium Citrate
by Manuel Mântua Esteves Garcia, Carlos José Dias Pereira, Ana Cristina Freitas, Ana Maria Pereira Gomes and Maria Manuela Estevez Pintado
Foods 2022, 11(17), 2698; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11172698 - 04 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1706
Abstract
Probiotic goat whey cheeses with added second cheese whey powder (SCWP) were developed, resulting in creamy and spreadable products. The products contained Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Bifidobacterium animalis, as well as thyme essential oil and sodium citrate. Matrices of probiotic whey cheeses, with [...] Read more.
Probiotic goat whey cheeses with added second cheese whey powder (SCWP) were developed, resulting in creamy and spreadable products. The products contained Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Bifidobacterium animalis, as well as thyme essential oil and sodium citrate. Matrices of probiotic whey cheeses, with and without additives, were produced and stored at 5 °C for 21 days. Microbial and chemical profiles were evaluated weekly. The composition of the optimum matrix, formulated with whey cheese, probiotic culture, SCWP, thyme essential oil and sodium citrate (WCPSTC) was, expressed in % (w/w): protein (10.78 ± 0.08), fat (7.59 ± 0.03), dry matter (25.64 ± 0.13), ash (2.81 ± 0.02) and lactose (3.16 ± 0.04). Viable cell numbers of both probiotic cultures in matrix WCPSTC remained above 107 CFU g−1. This finding is of the utmost importance since it proves that both probiotic bacteria, citrate and thyme essential oil can be combined in order to increase the shelf-life and functional value of dairy products. All matrices’ pH values decreased during storage, yet only matrix WCPSTC remained above 5.0 pH units. The results indicated that the development of a probiotic whey cheese incorporating a dairy by-product, SCWP, is possible without compromising its chemical, microbiological or sensorial stability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel and Green Processing Technology Applied in Dairy Products)
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10 pages, 2180 KiB  
Article
Bioconversion of Lactose into Glucose–Galactose Syrup by Two-Stage Enzymatic Hydrolysis
by Kristine Majore and Inga Ciprovica
Foods 2022, 11(3), 400; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11030400 - 30 Jan 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3362
Abstract
Fermentation technology enables the better use of resources and the conversion of dairy waste into valuable food products. The aim of this study is to evaluate the conversion rate of glucose into fructose by immobilised glucose isomerase (GI) in sweet and acid whey [...] Read more.
Fermentation technology enables the better use of resources and the conversion of dairy waste into valuable food products. The aim of this study is to evaluate the conversion rate of glucose into fructose by immobilised glucose isomerase (GI) in sweet and acid whey permeates for glucose–galactose syrup production. The experiments demonstrated that the highest concentration of glucose and galacto-oligosaccharides (GOSs) in sweet and acid whey permeates was reached by GODO-YNL2 β-galactosidase, 32 ± 2% and 28 ± 1%, respectively. After glucose isomerisation, the highest fructose yield was 23 ± 0.3% and 13 ± 0.4% in sweet and acid whey permeates, where Ha-Lactase 5200 β-galactosidase was used for lactose hydrolysis in sweet and acid whey permeates. Finally, the results of this study highlight the potential for two-stage enzymatic hydrolysis to increase the sweetness of glucose–galactose syrup made from sweet and acid whey permeates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel and Green Processing Technology Applied in Dairy Products)
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13 pages, 1085 KiB  
Article
Compositional and Functional Characteristics of Feta-Type Cheese Made from Micellar Casein Concentrate
by Ahmed R. A. Hammam, Rohit Kapoor, Prafulla Salunke and Lloyd E. Metzger
Foods 2022, 11(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11010024 - 23 Dec 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3859
Abstract
Micellar casein concentrate (MCC) is a high protein ingredient (obtained by microfiltration of skim milk) with an elevated level of casein as a percentage of total protein (TP) compared to skim milk. It can be used as an ingredient in cheese making. Feta-type [...] Read more.
Micellar casein concentrate (MCC) is a high protein ingredient (obtained by microfiltration of skim milk) with an elevated level of casein as a percentage of total protein (TP) compared to skim milk. It can be used as an ingredient in cheese making. Feta-type cheese is a brined soft cheese with a salty taste and acid flavor. We theorize that Feta-type cheese can be produced from MCC instead of milk, which can improve the efficiency of manufacture and allow for the removal of whey proteins before manufacturing Feta-type cheese. The objectives of this study were to develop a process of producing Feta-type cheese from MCC and to determine the optimum protein content in MCC to make Feta-type cheese. MCC solutions with 3% (MCC-3), 6% (MCC-6), and 9% (MCC-9) protein were prepared and standardized by mixing water, MCC powder, milk permeate, and cream to produce a solution with 14.7% total solids (TS) and 3.3% fat. Thermophilic cultures were added at a rate of 0.4% to MCC solutions and incubated at 35 °C for 3 h to get a pH of 6.1. Subsequently, calcium chloride and rennet were added to set the curd in 20 min at 35 °C. The curd was then cut into cubes, drained for 20 h followed by brining in 23% sodium chloride solutions for 24 h. Compositional analysis of MCC solutions and cheese was carried out. The yield, color, textural, and rheological measurements of Feta-type cheese were evaluated. Feta-type cheese was also made from whole milk as a control. This experiment was repeated three times. The yield and adjusted yield of Feta-type cheese increased from 19.0 to 54.8 and 21.4 to 56.5, respectively, with increasing the protein content in MCC from 3% to 9%. However, increasing the protein content in MCC did not show significant differences in the hardness (9.2–9.7 kg) of Feta-type cheese. The color of Feta-type cheese was less white with increasing the protein content in MCC. While the yellowish and greenish colors were high in Feta-type cheese made from MCC with 3% and 6% protein, no visible differences were found in the overall cheese color. The rheological characteristics were improved in Feta-type cheese made from MCC with 6% protein. We conclude that MCC with different levels of protein can be utilized in the manufacture of Feta-type cheese. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel and Green Processing Technology Applied in Dairy Products)
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16 pages, 1342 KiB  
Article
Integration of Membrane Processes for By-Product Valorization to Improve the Eco-Efficiency of Small/Medium Size Cheese Dairy Plants
by Antónia Macedo, José Bilau, Eunice Cambóias and Elizabeth Duarte
Foods 2021, 10(8), 1740; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10081740 - 28 Jul 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1809
Abstract
Goat and second cheese whey from sheep’s milk are by-products of the manufacture of goat cheeses and whey cheeses from sheep. Due to their composition which, apart from water—about 92%—includes lactose, proteins, fat, and minerals, and the elevated volumes generated, these by-products constitute [...] Read more.
Goat and second cheese whey from sheep’s milk are by-products of the manufacture of goat cheeses and whey cheeses from sheep. Due to their composition which, apart from water—about 92%—includes lactose, proteins, fat, and minerals, and the elevated volumes generated, these by-products constitute one of the main problems facing to cheese producers. Aiming to add value to those by-products, this study evaluates the efficiency of ultrafiltration/diafiltration (UF/DF) for the recovery of protein fraction, the most valuable component. For a daily production of 3500 and using the experimental results obtained in the UF/DF tests, a membrane installation was designed for valorization of protein fraction, which currently have no commercial value. A Cost–Benefit Analysis (CBA) and Sensitivity Analysis (SA) were performed to evaluate the profitability of installing that membrane unit to produce three new innovative products from the liquid whey protein concentrates (LWPC), namely food gels, protein concentrates in powder and whey cheeses with probiotics. It was possible to obtain LWPC of around 80% and 64% of crude protein, from second sheep cheese whey and goat cheese whey, respectively. From a survey of commercial values for the intended applications, the results of CBA and SA show that this system is economically viable in small/medium sized cheese dairies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel and Green Processing Technology Applied in Dairy Products)
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14 pages, 2847 KiB  
Article
Applying Computational Fluid Dynamics in the Development of Smart Ripening Rooms for Traditional Cheeses
by Nuno Alvarenga, João Martins, José Caeiro, João Garcia, João Pássaro, Luis Coelho, Maria Teresa Santos, Célia Lampreia, António Martins and João Dias
Foods 2021, 10(8), 1716; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10081716 - 23 Jul 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2268
Abstract
Traditional ewe’s cheese producers face certain challenges caused by fluctuating environmental parameters inside the ripening room, which lead to lack of homogeneity in the final product. The present research discusses the application of computer fluid dynamics for simulating the distribution of environmental parameters, [...] Read more.
Traditional ewe’s cheese producers face certain challenges caused by fluctuating environmental parameters inside the ripening room, which lead to lack of homogeneity in the final product. The present research discusses the application of computer fluid dynamics for simulating the distribution of environmental parameters, predicting the airflow pattern, and identifying critical areas where such parameters could cause reduced cheese quality. A new monitoring system was developed including presence sensors, temperature and humidity dataloggers, pneumatic actuators, microcontrollers, and microcomputers connected remotely for control, data visualization, and processing. The validation of the computer simulation and monitoring system was made with a batch of 40 ewe’s cheeses distributed in three different zones inside a prototype ripening room and ripened for 35 days. At 35 days, a physical, chemical, and microbiological characterization of cheeses was made for evaluation of the influence of environmental conditions on cheese quality. The comparison between simulated and local measurements showed close agreement, especially concerning air velocity inside the stacks of cheese. The results of Pearson’s correlation analysis and PCA concluded that temperature affected the appearance of the rind, hardness, number and area occupied by holes. Humidity affected aw and mFeret. Air velocity affected pH and the circularity of gas holes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel and Green Processing Technology Applied in Dairy Products)
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Review

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24 pages, 1283 KiB  
Review
Dairy By-Products: A Review on the Valorization of Whey and Second Cheese Whey
by Arona Figueroa Pires, Natalí Garcia Marnotes, Olga Díaz Rubio, Angel Cobos Garcia and Carlos Dias Pereira
Foods 2021, 10(5), 1067; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10051067 - 12 May 2021
Cited by 131 | Viewed by 10688
Abstract
The search for new food products that promote consumers health has always been of great interest. The dairy industry is perhaps the best example regarding the emergence of new products with claimed health benefits. Cheese whey (CW), the by-product resulting from cheese production, [...] Read more.
The search for new food products that promote consumers health has always been of great interest. The dairy industry is perhaps the best example regarding the emergence of new products with claimed health benefits. Cheese whey (CW), the by-product resulting from cheese production, and second cheese whey (SCW), which is the by-product of whey cheese manufacture, have proven to contain potential ingredients for the development of food products with improved nutritional characteristics and other functionalities. Nowadays, due to their nutritional quality, whey products have gained a prominent position among healthy food products. However, for a long time, CW and SCW were usually treated as waste or as animal feed. Due to their high organic content, these by-products can cause serious environmental problems if discarded without appropriate treatment. Small and medium size dairy companies do not have the equipment and structure to process whey and second cheese whey. In these cases, generally, they are used for animal feed or discarded without an appropriate treatment, being the cause of several constraints. There are several studies regarding CW valorization and there is a wide range of whey products in the market. However, in the case of SCW, there remains a lack of studies regarding its nutritional and functional properties, as well as ways to reuse this by-product in order to create economic value and reduce environmental impacts associated to its disposal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel and Green Processing Technology Applied in Dairy Products)
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11 pages, 280 KiB  
Review
Proteins Derived from the Dairy Losses and By-Products as Raw Materials for Non-Food Applications
by Catarina Costa, Nuno G. Azoia, Lorena Coelho, Ricardo Freixo, Patrícia Batista and Manuela Pintado
Foods 2021, 10(1), 135; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10010135 - 10 Jan 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3292
Abstract
The disposal of a high volume of waste-containing proteins is becoming increasingly challenging in a society that is aware of what is happening in the environment. The dairy industry generates several by-products that contain vast amounts of compounds, including proteins that are of [...] Read more.
The disposal of a high volume of waste-containing proteins is becoming increasingly challenging in a society that is aware of what is happening in the environment. The dairy industry generates several by-products that contain vast amounts of compounds, including proteins that are of industrial importance and for which new uses are being sought. This article provides a comprehensive review of the potential of the valorisation of proteins that can be recovered by chemical and/or physical processes from protein-containing milk by-products or milk surplus, particularly whey proteins or caseins. Whey proteins and casein characteristics, and applications in non-food industries, with special emphasis on the textile industry, packaging and biomedical, are reported in this review, in order to provide knowledge and raise awareness of the sustainability of these proteins to potentiate new opportunities in a circular economy context. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel and Green Processing Technology Applied in Dairy Products)
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