Determination and Assessment of Macro, Trace Elements and Toxic Heavy Metal Content in Foods: 2nd Volume

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Toxicology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2022) | Viewed by 10478

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Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Pediatrics, Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Toxicology, Forensic and Legal Medicine and Parasitology, Toxicology Area, University of La Laguna, 38200 Canary Islands, Spain
Interests: toxicology; risk evaluation; metals; contaminants; food safety; enviromental toxicology; food protection; healthy
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Currently, the relationship between exposure to contaminants in humans and food is unquestionable. Therefore, monitoring the presence of these pollutants throughout the food chain is, today, of great importance for the health of the population. Heavy metals, macroelements, microelements and trace elements continue to be among the most important pollutants for human health. Being able to determine and quantify both the presence of this type of inorganic contaminants in food, as well as the evaluation of the risk of the presence of these contaminants in food for the consumer, should be a priority line of research for governments. We are what we eat and therefore, continuous monitoring of compliance with the laws in force in each country, it must be one of the primary objectives of the authorities and scientists in our area of ​​work. However, we cannot forget that due to the behavior as hormetins of many of the macroelements and trace elements that we study, it is also important to determine the contribution to the recommended daily doses of these elements to verify that there is no possibility of imbalance. in the concentrations of these elements in humans could affect our health. Our goal is to help improve the knowledge that these pollutants in our trophic chain.

Prof. Dr. Ángel José Gutiérrez Fernández
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • heavy metals
  • macroelements
  • microelements
  • risk evaluation
  • contaminants in foods
  • human health

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

19 pages, 10251 KiB  
Article
Pollution Characteristics, Spatial Distribution, and Evaluation of Heavy Metal(loid)s in Farmland Soils in a Typical Mountainous Hilly Area in China
by Guohui Shen, Xin Ru, Yanting Gu, Wei Liu, Kunzhen Wang, Baiyi Li, Yanzhi Guo and Juan Han
Foods 2023, 12(3), 681; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12030681 - 3 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2048
Abstract
Heavy metal(loid)s pollution in farmland soil is not only a serious environmental but also a human health-related issue. Accurate understanding and evaluation of heavy metal pollution levels in the soil are very important for sustainable agricultural development and food safety. Mountainous and hilly [...] Read more.
Heavy metal(loid)s pollution in farmland soil is not only a serious environmental but also a human health-related issue. Accurate understanding and evaluation of heavy metal pollution levels in the soil are very important for sustainable agricultural development and food safety. Mountainous and hilly areas have the dual functions of industrial development and agricultural production, and the farmland soil in these areas is more susceptible to heavy metal pollution. In this study, the single factor index, Nemerow index, geo-accumulation index, enrichment factor index, and potential ecological risk indices, which are mainly used to assess the contamination and risk of heavy metals in farmland soils. The sources of heavy metals in agricultural soils of the study area were analyzed using correlation analysis and principal component analysis. Finally, geostatistical methods were used to map the heavy metal contamination of farmland soils. An average concentration of all heavy metals (except As) in farmland soils of the study area exceeded the corresponding background values, as indicated by the obtained results. The results of the principal component analysis showed that the heavy metal sources in the soils of the study area can be classified into two groups. The five pollutant index methods all showed the most serious Hg pollution in the study area. The integrated pollutant mapping results showed that the risk of heavy metal pollution in the study area was mostly moderate, except for the western and central parts of the region. This study enhances understanding of the pollution levers of heavy metals in Yiyuan farmland soils, and also can facilitate the monitoring of heavy metal contaminants at the primary stage of the food chain and assess the risk of the presence of heavy metal contaminants in food, thus improving the health of the residents. Full article
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23 pages, 1520 KiB  
Article
Reduction of Cd Uptake in Rice (Oryza sativa) Grain Using Different Field Management Practices in Alkaline Soils
by Obey Kudakwashe Zveushe, Qin Ling, Xing Li, Sumbal Sajid, Víctor Resco de Dios, Farhan Nabi, Ying Han, Faqin Dong, Fang Zeng, Lei Zhou, Songrong Shen, Wei Zhang and Zhi Li
Foods 2023, 12(2), 314; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12020314 - 9 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2321
Abstract
Cadmium contamination and toxicity on plants and human health is a major problem in China. Safe rice production in Cd-contaminated alkaline soils, with acceptably low Cd levels and high yields, remains an important research challenge. To achieve this, a small-scale field experiment with [...] Read more.
Cadmium contamination and toxicity on plants and human health is a major problem in China. Safe rice production in Cd-contaminated alkaline soils, with acceptably low Cd levels and high yields, remains an important research challenge. To achieve this, a small-scale field experiment with seven different soil amendment materials was conducted to test their effects performance. Two best-performing materials were selected for the large-scale field experiment. Combinations of humic acid, foliar, and/or soil silicon fertilization and deep or shallow plowing were designed. It was found that the combination, including humic acid, soil and foliar silicate fertilization, and shallow plowing (5–10 cm), produced the most desirable results (the lowest soil bioavailable Cd, the lowest grain Cd concentrations, and the highest grain yield). Rice farmers are therefore recommended to implement this combination to attain high grain yield with low Cd concentrations in alkaline soils. Full article
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11 pages, 533 KiB  
Article
Toxic Metals (Al, Cd, and Pb) in Instant Soups: An Assessment of Dietary Intake
by Daniel Niebla-Canelo, Ángel J. Gutiérrez-Fernández, Carmen Rubio-Armendáriz, Arturo Hardisson, Dailos González-Weller and Soraya Paz-Montelongo
Foods 2022, 11(23), 3810; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11233810 - 26 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1833
Abstract
Instant soups and noodles are one of the most widely consumed commercial food products. These products are made from ingredients of animal (chicken, meat) and/or vegetable origin, in addition to various food additives that prolong the shelf life of the product. It should [...] Read more.
Instant soups and noodles are one of the most widely consumed commercial food products. These products are made from ingredients of animal (chicken, meat) and/or vegetable origin, in addition to various food additives that prolong the shelf life of the product. It should be noted that instant soups are a dehydrated product, whose water-removal process can increase the accumulation of contaminants, such as toxic metals (Al, Cd, or Pb), that are harmful to the health of consumers. The content of toxic metals (Al, Cd, and Pb) in a total of 130 samples of instant soups of different types (poultry, meat, and vegetables) was determined by ICP-OES (inductively coupled plasma–optical emission spectrometry). The Al content (32.28 ± 19.26), the Cd content (0.027 ± 0.016), and the Pb content (0.12 ± 0.13) in the vegetable soups were worth mentioning. Considering an intake of twenty grams (recommended by the manufacturer), the dietary intake of Al (19.56% of the TWI set at 1 mg/kg bw/week), the intake of Cd (6.59% of the TWI set at 2.5 µg/kg bw/week), and the Pb intake (16.18% of the BMDL set for nephrotoxic effects at 0.63 µg/kg bw/week and 6.84% of the BMDL set for cardiovascular effects at 1.50 µg/kg bw/week) in the population aged 3–10 years, instant soups are not recommended for the population aged 3–10 years, while their consumption does not pose a health risk for adults. However, it is necessary to consider the cooking water used in the preparation of these products, as it may increase exposure to these toxic metals, in addition to the rest of the diet. Full article
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15 pages, 1365 KiB  
Article
Characteristics, Health Risk Assessment, and Transfer Model of Heavy Metals in the Soil—Food Chain in Cultivated Land in Karst
by Liyu Yang, Pan Wu and Wentao Yang
Foods 2022, 11(18), 2802; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11182802 - 11 Sep 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 1855
Abstract
Heavy metal(loid) contamination of farmland is a crucial agri−environmental problem that threatens food safety and human health. In this study, we examined the contamination levels of heavy metals (As, Pb, Cd, Hg, Cr) in farmland and foods (rice, maize, and cabbage) in the [...] Read more.
Heavy metal(loid) contamination of farmland is a crucial agri−environmental problem that threatens food safety and human health. In this study, we examined the contamination levels of heavy metals (As, Pb, Cd, Hg, Cr) in farmland and foods (rice, maize, and cabbage) in the core of Asia’s largest karst region and assessed the potential health risks of consumption of these three foods. In addition, we developed a predictive transfer model of heavy metals in the soil−food chain through multiple regression equations. The results reveal that the soil heavy metals in the study area showed high accumulation characteristics, and the average concentration exceeded the national background value by 1.6−130 times, among which Cd pollution was the most serious. The order of contamination of the three soils in the study area was cabbage land > maize land > rice land. The order of potential risk of toxic elements in all three soils was Cd > Hg > As > Pb > Cr. The results of the risk assessment of agricultural consumption indicated a high carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic risk for the local population. The top contributor to carcinogenic risk was Cr, followed by As. Cd is the major noncarcinogenic contributor in maize and cabbage, and the noncarcinogenic contribution in rice is mainly caused by As. The risk was higher in children than in adults and was the highest for rice consumption. In addition, the predictive transfer model showed that the Cd levels in the three foods showed sufficient predictability and reasonable simulations of Cd concentrations in rice, maize, and cabbage throughout the study area. It could allow decision-making on the need for remediation strategies to reduce the risk of metal contamination of agricultural land in potentially high−risk areas of karst. Full article
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11 pages, 283 KiB  
Article
Pediatric Health Risk Assessment for Exposure to Aluminum from Infant Formulas and Children under the Age of Five’s Food Products among Arab Infants: Experience from Lebanon
by Carla Ibrahim, Zeinab Kammouni, Maryam Barake, Mounir Kassir, Ayoub Al-Jawaldeh, Joseph Matta, Yonna Sacre, Lara Hanna-Wakim, Joyce Haddad and Maha Hoteit
Foods 2022, 11(16), 2503; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11162503 - 19 Aug 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1784
Abstract
Chronic dietary aluminum (Al) exposure can have various negative effects on health. The aim of our study is to (1) assess the contamination level of Al in infant formulas (n = 41) and baby food products (n = 76) available in [...] Read more.
Chronic dietary aluminum (Al) exposure can have various negative effects on health. The aim of our study is to (1) assess the contamination level of Al in infant formulas (n = 41) and baby food products (n = 76) available in the Lebanese market, and to (2) evaluate the margin of exposure of Al through the consumption of these foods among children under the age of five in Lebanon. Flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) was used to evaluate all of the samples. Al levels in all tested children’s food items were below the limit of detection. The highest Al level was detected in cornflakes (0.361 ± 0.049 mg/kg) and pureed foods (0.362 ± 0.079 mg/kg). Among infants aged 0–23 months, the average Al exposure due to the daily intake of infant formulas and baby foods was 0.01 and 0.0104 mg/kg BW/day for males and females, respectively. Babies aged 8–10 and 3–5 months had the highest and lowest levels of Al exposure, respectively. Additionally, the toxicological contribution of Al exposure determined for several age groups to a provisional tolerated weekly intake (PTWI) set by JECFA was  <6% and  <7% for males and females, respectively. The total Al exposure through the consumption of infant formulas and complementary foods among all ages in both males and females was below the values of weekly tolerable intakes (2 mg/kg/BW/W) set by JECFA. However, the values of hazard quotient (HQ) exceeded 1 in both male and female Lebanese infants. As a result, the risk of infants being exposed to Al in baby foods needs to be continuously considered. Full article
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