Chemical and Technological Characterization of Dairy Products

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Dairy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2020) | Viewed by 54334

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Special Issue Editor

Department of Soil, Plant and Food Sciences, University of Bari, Via Amendola 165/A, 70126 Bari, Italy
Interests: food biotechnology; dairy science; milk; milk quality; dairy management; dairy technology; milk proteins
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Milk processing is one of the most ancient food technologies, dating back to around 6000 B.C. A huge number of milk products have been developed worldwide, representing a spectacular example of biodiversity and a priceless cultural heritage. Commonly, they are divided into two main categories, with their own problems and objectives—industrial and artisanal. The industrial ones are produced by highly standardized technologies, and are under continuous evolution in order to follow the changes of consumers behavior. For these products, their main paths regard the safety and nutritional characteristics, without excluding environmental sustainability and ethic/religious aspects. Differently, artisanal products are manufactured according to traditional technologies, and among the most important topical issues are the relationships between animal welfare and quality, the impact of feeding on the nutritional characteristics, and the link with territory.

This Special Issue will focus on aspects such as dairy processing and the chemical analysis of dairy products, both industrial and artisanal. Nevertheless, the above indicated aspects are not exhaustive, and articles dealing with cheese proteomics and volatile organic compounds, the impact of alternative technologies on cheese quality, and innovative analytical techniques are also welcome.

Prof. Dr. Michele Faccia
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • cheesemaking
  • dairy product analysis
  • traditional dairy products
  • cheese proteomics
  • VOCs

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Editorial

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4 pages, 162 KiB  
Editorial
Chemical and Technological Characterization of Dairy Products
Foods 2020, 9(10), 1475; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9101475 - 16 Oct 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1632
Abstract
The dairy sector is facing a decisive challenge in developed countries, which could deeply influence its future and its historical status of being a pillar for human nutrition [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical and Technological Characterization of Dairy Products)

Research

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14 pages, 972 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Biological, Textural, and Physicochemical Parameters of Panela Cheese Added with Probiotics
Foods 2020, 9(10), 1507; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9101507 - 21 Oct 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2602
Abstract
Biological, physicochemical and textural parameters of a Panela cheese with and without probiotics (LSB-c and C-c) were analyzed during 15 days of storage at 4 °C. Changes in cohesiveness, hardness, springiness, and chewiness were measured by texture profile analysis. Additionally, moisture, pH, nitrogenous [...] Read more.
Biological, physicochemical and textural parameters of a Panela cheese with and without probiotics (LSB-c and C-c) were analyzed during 15 days of storage at 4 °C. Changes in cohesiveness, hardness, springiness, and chewiness were measured by texture profile analysis. Additionally, moisture, pH, nitrogenous fractions (nitrogen soluble in pH 4.6, non-protein nitrogen, 70% ethanol-soluble nitrogen, and water-soluble extract) were evaluated. The peptide profile of nitrogenous fractions was also analyzed. Finally, biological activity was evaluated by ABTS (2,2′-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt) and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), as well as the Inhibition of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme. Analysis of variance showed significant differences for most of the evaluated parameters. By principal component analysis (PCA), two groups were separated, one corresponding to LSB-c and the other corresponding to C-c. The separation was given mostly by hardness, chewiness, and ABTS of all nitrogenous fractions. LSB-c showed higher biological activities than C-c. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical and Technological Characterization of Dairy Products)
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14 pages, 2818 KiB  
Article
Preparation and Characterization of Soy Isoflavones Nanoparticles Using Polymerized Goat Milk Whey Protein as Wall Material
Foods 2020, 9(9), 1198; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9091198 - 31 Aug 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2694
Abstract
Soy isoflavones (SIF) are a group of polyphenolic compounds with health benefits. However, application of SIF in functional foods is limited due to its poor aqueous solubility. SIF nanoparticles with different concentrations were prepared using polymerized goat milk whey protein (PGWP) as wall [...] Read more.
Soy isoflavones (SIF) are a group of polyphenolic compounds with health benefits. However, application of SIF in functional foods is limited due to its poor aqueous solubility. SIF nanoparticles with different concentrations were prepared using polymerized goat milk whey protein (PGWP) as wall material. The goat milk whey protein was prepared from raw milk by membrane processing technology. The encapsulation efficiencies of all the nanoparticles were found to be greater than 70%. The nanoparticles showed larger particle size and lower zeta potential compared with the PGWP. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy indicated that the secondary structure of goat milk whey protein was changed after interacting with SIF, with transformation of α-helix and β-sheet to disordered structures. Fluorescence data indicated that interactions between SIF and PGWP decreased the fluorescence intensity. All nanoparticles had spherical microstructure revealed by Transmission Electron Microscope. Data indicated that PGWP may be a good carrier material for the delivery of SIF to improve its applications in functional foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical and Technological Characterization of Dairy Products)
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12 pages, 238 KiB  
Article
Development of a Multifunction Set Yogurt Using Rubus suavissimus S. Lee (Chinese Sweet Tea) Extract
Foods 2020, 9(9), 1163; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9091163 - 24 Aug 2020
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3436
Abstract
Rubus suavissimus S. Lee leaves, also known as Chinese sweet tea or Tiancha, are used in folk medicine in southern China. This study evaluated the impact of the addition of Chinese sweet tea extract (0.25%, 0.5%, and 1%) on the chemical composition, organoleptic [...] Read more.
Rubus suavissimus S. Lee leaves, also known as Chinese sweet tea or Tiancha, are used in folk medicine in southern China. This study evaluated the impact of the addition of Chinese sweet tea extract (0.25%, 0.5%, and 1%) on the chemical composition, organoleptic properties, yogurt culture viability, and biological activities (i.e., antioxidant, anticancer, and antihypertensive activities) of yogurt. Seven phenolic compounds were reported in Chinese sweet tea for the first time. The numbers of the yogurt culture were similar across all yogurt treatments. The yogurt supernatant with 0.25%, 0.5%, and 1% Chinese sweet tea extract had a total phenolic content that was 3.6-, 6.1-, and 11.2-fold higher, respectively, than that of the control yogurt. The biological activities were significantly increased by the addition of Chinese sweet tea extract: Yogurt with the addition of 1% Chinese sweet tea extract had the highest biological activities in terms of the antioxidant activity (92.43%), antihypertensive activity (82.03%), and inhibition of the Caco-2 cell line (67.46%). Yogurt with the addition of 0.5% Chinese sweet tea extract received the highest aroma and overall acceptability scores. Overall, Chinese sweet tea extract is a promising food ingredient for producing functional yogurt products that may substantially contribute to reducing the risk of developing chronic diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical and Technological Characterization of Dairy Products)
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16 pages, 1028 KiB  
Article
Antioxidant, Antibacterial Activities and Mineral Content of Buffalo Yoghurt Fortified with Fenugreek and Moringa oleifera Seed Flours
Foods 2020, 9(9), 1157; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9091157 - 21 Aug 2020
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 4496
Abstract
Recently, there is an increasing demand for functional yoghurts by consumer, especially those produced through the incorporation of food of plant origin or its bioactive components. The current research was devoted to formulating functional buffalo yoghurt through the addition of 0.1 and 0.2% [...] Read more.
Recently, there is an increasing demand for functional yoghurts by consumer, especially those produced through the incorporation of food of plant origin or its bioactive components. The current research was devoted to formulating functional buffalo yoghurt through the addition of 0.1 and 0.2% of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seed flour (F1 and F2) and Moringa oleifera seed flour (M1 and M2). The effects of fortification were evaluated on physicochemical, total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant activity (AOA), the viability of yoghurt starter, and sensory acceptability of yoghurts during cold storage. Moringa oleifera seed flour had higher contents of TPC (140.12 mg GAE/g) and AOA (31.30%) as compared to fenugreek seed flour (47.4 mg GAE/g and 19.1%, respectively). Values of TPC and AOA significantly increased in fortified yoghurts, and M2 treatment had the highest values of TPC (31.61, 27.29, and 25.69 mg GAE/g) and AOA (89.32, 83.5, and 80.35%) at 1, 7, and 14 days of storage, respectively. M2 showed significantly higher antibacterial activity against E. coli, S. aureus, L. monocytogenes, and Salmonella spp. and the zones of inhibition were 12.65, 13.14, 17.23 and 14.49 mm, respectively. On the other hand, control yoghurt showed the lowest antibacterial activity and the zones of inhibition were (4.12, 5.21, 8.55, and 8.39 mm against E. coli, S. aureus, L. monocytogenes, and Salmonella spp., respectively). Incorporation of 0.1% and 0.2% of moringa seed flour (M1 and M2) led to a higher content of Ca, P, K, and Fe and lower content of Mg and Zn as compared to F1 and F2, respectively. Thus, it could be concluded that fenugreek and Moringa oleifera seed flour can be exploited in the preparation of functional novel yoghurt. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical and Technological Characterization of Dairy Products)
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19 pages, 7664 KiB  
Article
Effect of Black Tea Infusion on Physicochemical Properties, Antioxidant Capacity and Microstructure of Acidified Dairy Gel during Cold Storage
Foods 2020, 9(6), 831; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9060831 - 25 Jun 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3704
Abstract
The impacts of black tea infusion on physicochemical properties, antioxidant capacity and microstructure of stirred acidified dairy gel (ADG) system have not been fully explored. These impacts were studied during a 28-day cold storage (4 °C) period to explore the feasibility and technical [...] Read more.
The impacts of black tea infusion on physicochemical properties, antioxidant capacity and microstructure of stirred acidified dairy gel (ADG) system have not been fully explored. These impacts were studied during a 28-day cold storage (4 °C) period to explore the feasibility and technical boundaries of making acidified dairy gels in which black tea infusion (BTI) is incorporated. Reconstituted skim milks containing different proportions of BTI were acidified by GDL (glucono-δ-lactone) at 35 °C for making ADG systems. Both textural properties and structural features were characterized; antioxidant capacity was determined through three assays. They are (1) free radical scavenging ability by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assay; (2) ABTS [2,2′-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)] assay and (3) ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. The microstructure of the ADGs was observed using SEM (scanning electron microscopy) and CLSM (confocal laser scanning microscopy). Results showed that BTI significantly increased the antioxidant capacity of the gel systems and the gel containing 15% BTI was as stable as the control gel in terms of syneresis rate. However lower phase stability (higher syneresis rate) was observed in the ADG with a higher portion of BTI (30% to 60%). The microstructure of the ADGs observed may explain to the phase stability and textural attributes. The results suggested that tea polyphenols (TPs) improved antioxidant capacity in all samples and the interactions between BTI and dairy components significantly altered the texture of ADGs. Such alterations were more pronounced in the samples with higher proportion of BTI (60%) and/or longer storage time (28 days). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical and Technological Characterization of Dairy Products)
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14 pages, 8892 KiB  
Article
Applicability of Confocal Raman Microscopy to Observe Microstructural Modifications of Cream Cheeses as Influenced by Freezing
Foods 2020, 9(5), 679; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9050679 - 25 May 2020
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 4306
Abstract
Confocal Raman microscopy is a promising technique to derive information about microstructure, with minimal sample disruption. Raman emission bands are highly specific to molecular structure and with Raman spectroscopy it is thus possible to observe different classes of molecules in situ, in complex [...] Read more.
Confocal Raman microscopy is a promising technique to derive information about microstructure, with minimal sample disruption. Raman emission bands are highly specific to molecular structure and with Raman spectroscopy it is thus possible to observe different classes of molecules in situ, in complex food matrices, without employing fluorescent dyes. In this work confocal Raman microscopy was employed to observe microstructural changes occurring after freezing and thawing in high-moisture cheeses, and the observations were compared to those obtained with confocal laser scanning microscopy. Two commercially available cream cheese products were imaged with both microscopy techniques. The lower resolution (1 µm/pixel) of confocal Raman microscopy prevented the observation of particles smaller than 1 µm that may be part of the structure (e.g., sugars). With confocal Raman microscopy it was possible to identify and map the large water domains formed during freezing and thawing in high-moisture cream cheese. The results were supported also by low resolution NMR analysis. NMR and Raman microscopy are complementary techniques that can be employed to distinguish between the two different commercial formulations, and different destabilization levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical and Technological Characterization of Dairy Products)
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15 pages, 496 KiB  
Article
Nutraceutical and Technological Properties of Buffalo and Sheep Cheese Produced by the Addition of Kiwi Juice as a Coagulant
Foods 2020, 9(5), 637; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9050637 - 15 May 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3239
Abstract
Kiwifruit is an interesting alternative to chymosin for milk coagulation. Although the clotting properties of actinidin (the proteolytic agent present in kiwi) have been widely investigated, little is known about the nutraceutical and organoleptic effects of kiwifruit on the characteristics of cheese. We [...] Read more.
Kiwifruit is an interesting alternative to chymosin for milk coagulation. Although the clotting properties of actinidin (the proteolytic agent present in kiwi) have been widely investigated, little is known about the nutraceutical and organoleptic effects of kiwifruit on the characteristics of cheese. We investigated kiwifruit pulp, compared to calf rennet, in cheesemaking using sheep and buffalo milk. Although the kiwifruit extract showed a longer coagulation and syneresis time than calf rennet, it could nevertheless be exploited as a plant coagulant due to its positive effect on the nutraceutical properties. In fact, the sheep and buffalo cheese were higher in polyphenols and phytosterols than the cheese obtained using calf rennet. In addition, the nutraceutical properties were enhanced, with just a slight effect on the aroma of the cheese. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical and Technological Characterization of Dairy Products)
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16 pages, 450 KiB  
Article
Characterisation of Formaggella della Valle di Scalve Cheese Produced from Cows Reared in Valley Floor Stall or in Mountain Pasture: Fatty Acids Profile and Sensory Properties
Foods 2020, 9(4), 383; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9040383 - 26 Mar 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2465
Abstract
An important problem in mountain areas is the abandonment of pasture. This trend can be combated by the valorisation of typical dairy products, such as “Formaggella della Valle di Scalve”, a semi-cooked traditional cheese made from whole milk in a mountain area in [...] Read more.
An important problem in mountain areas is the abandonment of pasture. This trend can be combated by the valorisation of typical dairy products, such as “Formaggella della Valle di Scalve”, a semi-cooked traditional cheese made from whole milk in a mountain area in Italy. The aim of the present research was to compare the fatty acid (FA) profile and the sensory properties of this cheese as manufactured under different conditions: i) from the milk of cows grazing on mountain or valley pasture or fed indoors; ii) from the milk of cows fed hay or fed silage. In the first case, five cheesemaking trials were conducted during two years for each of the following situations: mountain pasture (A); pasture at the bottom of the valley (P) (about 1000m asl); stall (S). In the second case, three cheesemaking trials were conducted for each of the following situations: cows fed silage (I); cows fed hay (F). S cheese was richer in medium-chain FAs, while long-chain FAs were higher in P and A cheeses. On the other hand, long chain fatty acids (LCFA) were more abundant in P and A cheeses than in S. In general, MUFA, PUFA and, consequently, total unsaturated FA (UFA), were significantly higher in the P and A cheeses than S (UFA: 36.55 and 38.34, respectively, vs. 31.13; p < 0.001), while SFA showed higher values in S (68.85 vs. 63.41 and 61.68 in P and A, respectively; p < 0.001). Conjugated linoleic acid isomers (CLA) were more represented in the P and A samples (1.86 in P and 1.52 in A, vs. 0.80 in S; p < 0.001); Omega 3 fatty acids, and in particular α-linolenic acid, were more abundant in P than in S cheese. In winter, the I sample (silage) presented higher percentages of myristic (C14), myristoleic (C14:1) and omega 6 acids, whereas F cheese (hay) contained higher concentrations of CLA. The triangular test of sensory analysis showed that, in general, F cheeses were judged as “sweeter” than I, with aromatic profiles characterized by higher content of 2- butanol and ethyl capronate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical and Technological Characterization of Dairy Products)
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12 pages, 1772 KiB  
Article
Characterization of Defatted Products Obtained from the Parmigiano–Reggiano Manufacturing Chain: Determination of Peptides and Amino Acids Content and Study of the Digestibility and Bioactive Properties
Foods 2020, 9(3), 310; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9030310 - 09 Mar 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2813
Abstract
Parmigiano–Reggiano (PR) is a worldwide known Italian, long ripened, hard cheese. Its inclusion in the list of cheeses bearing the protected designation of origin (PDO, EU regulation 510/2006) poses restrictions to its geographic area of production and its technological characteristics. To innovate the [...] Read more.
Parmigiano–Reggiano (PR) is a worldwide known Italian, long ripened, hard cheese. Its inclusion in the list of cheeses bearing the protected designation of origin (PDO, EU regulation 510/2006) poses restrictions to its geographic area of production and its technological characteristics. To innovate the Parmigiano–Reggiano (PR) cheese manufacturing chain from the health and nutritional point of view, the output of defatted PR is addressed. Two defatting procedures (Soxhlet, and supercritical CO2 extraction) were tested, and the obtained products were compared in the composition of their nitrogen fraction, responsible for their nutritional, organoleptic, and bioactive functions. Free amino acids were quantified, and other nitrogen compounds (peptides, proteins, and non-proteolytic aminoacyl derivatives) were identified in the extracts and the mixtures obtained after simulated gastrointestinal digestion. Moreover, antioxidant and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition capacities of the digests were tested. Results obtained from the molecular and biofunctional characterization of the nitrogen fraction, show that both the defatted products keep the same nutritional properties of the whole cheese. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical and Technological Characterization of Dairy Products)
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13 pages, 857 KiB  
Article
Effect of Different Starches on the Rheological, Sensory and Storage Attributes of Non-fat Set Yogurt
Foods 2020, 9(1), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9010061 - 07 Jan 2020
Cited by 40 | Viewed by 7023
Abstract
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of various native starches on the rheological and textural properties of non-fat set yogurt. The yogurt samples were prepared while using five types of starches (potato, sweet potato, corn, chickpea, and Turkish beans). The physical [...] Read more.
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of various native starches on the rheological and textural properties of non-fat set yogurt. The yogurt samples were prepared while using five types of starches (potato, sweet potato, corn, chickpea, and Turkish beans). The physical properties of the prepared yogurt were analyzed while using shear viscosity, viscoelasticity, and texture analysis. The tests were performed after 0, 7, and 15 days storage. The effect of these starches on the yogurt viscoelastic properties, texture, syneresis, and sensory evaluation were determined under optimum conditions. The results showed that adding 1% starch could significantly (p < 0.05) reduce syneresis and improve yogurt firmness. Starches exhibited different effect on the overall quality of the yogurt due to their origin and amylose content. Regardless of the number of storage period duration, all of the samples, including the control behaved as pseudoplastic materials (n < 1) with various levels of pseudoplasticity. Yogurts with corn and tuber starches had the highest consistency coefficient (k), which indicated higher viscosity. The yogurt sample with chickpea starch exhibited the highest G´, making the gel more solid like. Therefore, the influence of tuber starches (potato and sweet potato) on G´ was different when compared to corn or legume starches. The behavior of the starches changed with storage time, where some starches performed better only at the beginning of the storage period duration. Wheying-off was significantly reduced, regardless of starch type. The pH of the yogurt remained unchanged through storage. Sensory evaluation showed a preference for starch-containing samples as compared to the control, regardless of the starch type. The variation in yogurt quality as a function of starch type could be attributed to the starch granule structure, gelatinization mechanism, or amylose content. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical and Technological Characterization of Dairy Products)
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13 pages, 1682 KiB  
Article
Chemical-Sensory Traits of Fresh Cheese Made by Enzymatic Coagulation of Donkey Milk
Foods 2020, 9(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9010016 - 23 Dec 2019
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 3994
Abstract
Making cheese from donkey milk is considered unfeasible, due to difficulties in coagulation and curd forming. Two recent studies have reported the protocols for making fresh cheese by using camel chymosin or calf rennet, but the chemical and sensory characteristics of the products [...] Read more.
Making cheese from donkey milk is considered unfeasible, due to difficulties in coagulation and curd forming. Two recent studies have reported the protocols for making fresh cheese by using camel chymosin or calf rennet, but the chemical and sensory characteristics of the products were not thoroughly investigated. The present paper aims to give a further contribution to the field, by investigating cheesemaking with microbial rennet and evaluating the chemical composition, total fatty acid, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and sensory profile of the resultant product. Six trials were undertaken at laboratory scale on donkey milk from a Martina Franca ass, by applying the technological scheme as reported for calf rennet, with some modifications. Bulk cow milk was used as a control. Donkey milk coagulated rapidly, but the curd remained soft, and was only suitable for making fresh cheese; differently, cow milk coagulated almost instantaneously under these strong technological conditions, giving rise to a semi-hard curd in very short time. The moisture level of donkey cheese was almost the same as reported in the literature, whereas the yield was higher, probably due to the high protein content of the milk used. The total fatty acid composition of cheese presented some differences with respect to milk, mostly consisting in a higher presence of saturated compounds. A connection with a better retention of the large sized fat globules into the curd was hypothesised and discussed. The VOC analyses, performed by solid-phase micro extraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, allowed the identification of 11 compounds in milk and 18 in cheese. The sensory characteristics of donkey cheese were strongly different with respect to the control, and revealed unique and pleasant flavours. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical and Technological Characterization of Dairy Products)
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12 pages, 405 KiB  
Article
Influence of Zinc Feeding on Nutritional Quality, Oxidative Stability and Volatile Profile of Fresh and Ripened Ewes’ Milk Cheese
Foods 2019, 8(12), 656; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8120656 - 07 Dec 2019
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2159
Abstract
Zinc represents a ubiquitous element in cells with relevant roles in the metabolism of essential nutrients in animals. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary zinc supplementation on nutritional and aromatic properties of milk and Pecorino cheeses obtained [...] Read more.
Zinc represents a ubiquitous element in cells with relevant roles in the metabolism of essential nutrients in animals. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary zinc supplementation on nutritional and aromatic properties of milk and Pecorino cheeses obtained from lactating ewes. Fifty-two commercial ewes were randomly assigned to two groups. The control group was fed with a conventional complete diet, while the experimental group received a daily supplementation of 375 mg/head of zinc oxide. At the end of the trial, which lasted 30 days, samples of milk and related cheese were collected in order to obtain information about the chemical composition and volatile profile. The experimental feeding strategy induced a significant increase in zinc concentration in milk. Furthermore, both in milk and cheese, was observed an increase in vaccenic, rumenic and total polyunsaturated fatty acids, with the consequent significant reduction of atherogenic and thrombogenic indices. The volatile profile of dairy products was also positively affected by dietary zinc intake, with an increase in concentration of hexanoic acid and ethyl esters. The present study suggests interesting possible effects of dietary zinc supplementation of ewes in improving the nutritional characteristics of fresh and ripened dairy products, although more specific and in-depth assessments should be performed on these new products, in order to characterize potential variations on consumers acceptability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical and Technological Characterization of Dairy Products)
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9 pages, 215 KiB  
Article
Effect of Season and Factory on Cheese-Making Efficiency in Parmigiano Reggiano Manufacture
Foods 2019, 8(8), 315; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8080315 - 03 Aug 2019
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2852
Abstract
The assessment of the efficiency of the cheese-making process (ECMP) is crucial for the profitability of cheese-factories. A simple way to estimate the ECMP is the measure of the estimated cheese-making losses (ECL), expressed by the ratio between the concentration of each constituent [...] Read more.
The assessment of the efficiency of the cheese-making process (ECMP) is crucial for the profitability of cheese-factories. A simple way to estimate the ECMP is the measure of the estimated cheese-making losses (ECL), expressed by the ratio between the concentration of each constituent in the residual whey and in the processed milk. The aim of this research was to evaluate the influence of the season and cheese factory on the efficiency of the cheese-making process in Parmigiano Reggiano cheese manufacture. The study followed the production of 288 Parmigiano Reggiano cheese on 12 batches in three commercial cheese factories. For each batch, samples of the processed milk and whey were collected. Protein, casein, and fat ECL resulted in an average of 27.01%, 0.72%, and 16.93%, respectively. Both milk crude protein and casein contents were negatively correlated with protein ECL, r = −0.141 (p ≤ 0.05), and r = −0.223 (p ≤ 0.001), respectively. The same parameters resulted in a negative correlation with casein ECL (p ≤ 0.001) (r = −0.227 and −0.212, respectively). Moreover, fat ECL was correlated with worse milk coagulation properties and negatively correlated with casein content (r = −0.120; p ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, ECLs depend on both milk characteristics and season. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical and Technological Characterization of Dairy Products)

Review

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17 pages, 1632 KiB  
Review
Comparative Proteomics of Milk Fat Globule Membrane (MFGM) Proteome across Species and Lactation Stages and the Potentials of MFGM Fractions in Infant Formula Preparation
Foods 2020, 9(9), 1251; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9091251 - 07 Sep 2020
Cited by 48 | Viewed by 6032
Abstract
Milk is a lipid-in-water emulsion with a primary role in the nutrition of newborns. Milk fat globules (MFGs) are a mixture of proteins and lipids with nutraceutical properties related to the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM), which protects them, thus preventing their coalescence. [...] Read more.
Milk is a lipid-in-water emulsion with a primary role in the nutrition of newborns. Milk fat globules (MFGs) are a mixture of proteins and lipids with nutraceutical properties related to the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM), which protects them, thus preventing their coalescence. Human and bovine MFGM proteomes have been extensively characterized in terms of their formation, maturation, and composition. Here, we review the most recent comparative proteomic analyses of MFGM proteome, above all from humans and bovines, but also from other species. The major MFGM proteins are found in all the MFGM proteomes of the different species, although there are variations in protein expression levels and molecular functions across species and lactation stages. Given the similarities between the human and bovine MFGM and the bioactive properties of MFGM components, several attempts have been made to supplement infant formulas (IFs), mainly with polar lipid fractions of bovine MFGM and to a lesser extent with protein fractions. The aim is thus to narrow the gap between human breast milk and cow-based IFs. Despite the few attempts made to date, supplementation with MFGM proteins seems promising as MFGM lipid supplementation. A deeper understanding of MFGM proteomes should lead to better results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical and Technological Characterization of Dairy Products)
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