New Insights into the Milk

A special issue of Animals (ISSN 2076-2615). This special issue belongs to the section "Animal System and Management".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2021) | Viewed by 34845

Special Issue Editors

Department of Soil, Plant and Food Sciences, University of Bari, Via Amendola 165/A, 70126 Bari, Italy
Interests: food biotechnology; dairy science; milk; milk quality; dairy management; dairy technology; milk proteins
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Department of Veterinary Science, University of Parma, Strada del Taglio 10, I-43126 Parma, Italy
Interests: milk composition; milk proteins; milk minerals; milk quality for cheesemaking; rennet-coagulation of milk; cheese yield; composition of milk of different species
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Department of Veterinary Science, University of Parma, Via del Taglio, 10, 43123 Parma, Italy
Interests: milk composition; milk protein; rennet coagulation; genetic polymorphism
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Department of Veterinary Science, University of Parma, Strada del Taglio 10, I-43126 Parma, Italy
Interests: quality of milk and cheese; dairy yield and cheesemaking efficiency; proteolysis, lipolysis and glycolysis in cheeses; effect of animal breed on milk quality and on its dairy properties; effect of milk cooling on its quality and its dairy properties; effect of milk somatic cells content on its chemical and technological properties
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Institute of Sciences of Food Production, Italian National Council of Research, ISPA-CNR, Via Celoria 2, 20133 Milan, Italy
Interests: food microbiology; dairy science; raw milk cheese; food quality; food safety; food spoilage
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Department of Veterinary Science, University of Parma, Via del Taglio 10, 43126 Parma, Italy
Interests: milk composition; milk proteins; genetic polymorphism; milk minerals; somatic cells count; rennet coagulation of milk; non-bovine milk
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

A number of factors can influence the yield and physicochemical characteristics of milk. Some of them are linked to the animal – such as genotype, lactation stage, number of parities, and health status of the mammary gland – while others are related to the environment, in terms of housing systems, climatic conditions, milking frequency, and feeding practices.

Milk quality does not have a single definition, as it varies depending on the final destination. In general, the first requirement for all types of milk and dairy products is safety. Milk for direct consumption also needs further hygienic, nutritional and technological features, such as low total microbial count, suitable nutrients concentration, and thermal stability. On the other hand, suitable aptitude to rennet-coagulation is the basic requirement for milk intended for cheese-making, as it affects cheese yield and quality. Caseins content (and their genetic variants), titratable acidity and pH, mineral profile, somatic cells count, and microbiological profile concur, individually or in synergy between them, to the milk rennet-coagulation properties.

From a nutritional point of view, milk and dairy products are important sources of nutrients for humans, such as proteins, lipids, calcium, and vitamins. For this reason, dairy is a strategic and historical sector for the world economy. New information on the influence of genetic, physiological, pathological, environmental, and technological factors on the quality characteristics of milk and dairy products, should contribute to the progress of the sector.

This Special Issue is, therefore, open to all contributions that aim to increase our knowledge about the different aspects of milk quality. Therefore, studies dealing with the mentioned topics are welcome.

Prof. Dr. Michele Faccia
Dr. Paolo Formaggioni
Prof. Massimo Malacarne
Dr. Piero Franceschi
Dr. Milena Brasca
Prof. Andrea Summer
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • Milk production
  • Milk composition
  • Milk nutritional properties
  • Milk safety
  • Milk coagulation and processing
  • Effect of genetic and environmental factors
  • Curd rheology
  • Dairy microbiology
  • Dairy technology

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

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12 pages, 450 KiB  
Article
Effects of the Cooling Temperature at the Farm on Milk Maturation and Cheesemaking Process in the Manufacture of Parmigiano Reggiano PDO Cheese
Animals 2021, 11(10), 2835; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11102835 - 28 Sep 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1392
Abstract
Parmigiano Reggiano is a hard PDO cheese made from bovine raw milk, whose microbiological characteristics have important repercussions on cheese quality. According to the EU official production protocol, milk temperature at the farm must not drop below 18 °C. The present research aimed [...] Read more.
Parmigiano Reggiano is a hard PDO cheese made from bovine raw milk, whose microbiological characteristics have important repercussions on cheese quality. According to the EU official production protocol, milk temperature at the farm must not drop below 18 °C. The present research aimed to study the effect of cooling milk at the farm at 9 °C on the characteristics of milk and on the cheesemaking process and losses during manufacture. Six cheesemaking trials were performed in two different dairies. In each of them, two cheesemakings were made in parallel: one with milk kept at 9 °C (TM9) and the other with milk kept at 20 °C (TM20). TM9 milk, in comparison with TM20, showed after the creaming process a significant reduction not only of total bacterial count but also of psychrotrophic and lipolytic bacteria. At the same time, TM9 milk showed a higher creaming capacity and, consequently, a lower fat content than TM20. TM9 vat milk had worst coagulation properties than TM20, which caused slightly higher loss of fat and curd fines into the whey. Nevertheless, these changes were too small to influence the efficiency of the cheesemaking process; conversely, maintaining milk at the farm at 9 °C led to a reduction of the number of spoilage bacteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into the Milk)
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13 pages, 2283 KiB  
Article
Comprehensive Proteomic Analysis Revealed a Large Number of Newly Identified Proteins in the Small Extracellular Vesicles of Milk from Late-Stage Lactating Cows
Animals 2021, 11(9), 2506; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11092506 - 26 Aug 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2929
Abstract
Bovine milk contains small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) that provide proteins, miRNAs, mRNAs, DNAs, and lipids to target cells and play a role in intracellular communications. Previous studies have characterized proteins in milk sEVs from early- and mid-stage lactation. However, the proteins in milk [...] Read more.
Bovine milk contains small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) that provide proteins, miRNAs, mRNAs, DNAs, and lipids to target cells and play a role in intracellular communications. Previous studies have characterized proteins in milk sEVs from early- and mid-stage lactation. However, the proteins in milk sEVs from late-stage lactation are mostly unexplored. The aim of this study was to determine the proteomic profile of milk sEVs from late-stage lactating cows. A comprehensive nanoliquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (nanoLC-MS/MS) approach was carried out to reveal the proteins in milk sEVs. Additionally, bioinformatics analysis was carried out to interpret the molecular signatures of newly identified proteins in milk sEVs from three late-stage lactating cows. NanoLC-MS/MS analysis revealed a total of 2225 proteins in milk sEVs from cows. Notably, after comparing these identified proteins with previously deposited datasets of proteins in bovine milk sEVs, 429 proteins were detected as newly identified. Bioinformatic analysis indicated that these newly identified proteins in milk sEVs were engaged in a diverse range of molecular phenomena relevant to mammary gland physiology, milk production, immunity, and immune response. These findings suggest that the newly identified proteins could expand the inventory application of molecular cargos, nutritional status, and immune modulation of sEVs in milk during the late-stage lactation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into the Milk)
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14 pages, 547 KiB  
Article
Novel Genes Associated with Dairy Traits in Sarda Sheep
Animals 2021, 11(8), 2207; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11082207 - 26 Jul 2021
Viewed by 3039
Abstract
The aim of the present research was to analyze the variability of 45 SNPs from different genes involved in metabolism and innate immunity to perform an association analysis with the milk yield, composition and milk coagulation traits. A population of 1112 Sarda breed [...] Read more.
The aim of the present research was to analyze the variability of 45 SNPs from different genes involved in metabolism and innate immunity to perform an association analysis with the milk yield, composition and milk coagulation traits. A population of 1112 Sarda breed sheep was sampled. Genotyping was generated by a TaqMan Open ArrayTM. Thirty out of the 45 SNPs were polymorphic, and 12 displayed a minor allele frequency higher than 0.05. An association analysis showed that the variability at genes PRKAG3 and CD14 was significantly associated with the daily milk yield. The variability at PRKAG3 was also associated with the protein and casein content, somatic cell score and bacterial score. The variation at the PRKAA2 gene was associated with the milk lactose concentration. The SNPs at CD14 were also associated with the traditional milk coagulation properties, while the SNPs at GHR and GHRHR were associated with kSR, a derived coagulation parameter related to the rate of syneresis. The information provided here is new and increases our knowledge of genotype–phenotype interactions in sheep. Our findings might be useful in appropriate breeding schemes to be set up for the Sarda sheep breed, but these should be confirmed by further studies, possibly performed on independent populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into the Milk)
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14 pages, 365 KiB  
Article
Physicochemical, Microbiological and Technological Properties of Red Deer (Cervus elaphus) Milk during Lactation
Animals 2021, 11(3), 906; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11030906 - 22 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2388
Abstract
This study describes chemical, physical, microbiological and technological characteristics of red deer milk and the effect of lactation on these parameters in order to know their potential aptitude to elaborate dairy products. During 18 weeks, milk from five hinds was monitored for composition, [...] Read more.
This study describes chemical, physical, microbiological and technological characteristics of red deer milk and the effect of lactation on these parameters in order to know their potential aptitude to elaborate dairy products. During 18 weeks, milk from five hinds was monitored for composition, bacteriology, somatic cell count (SCC), physical properties and rennet coagulation. Mean values (g/100 g) for fat, protein, lactose and dry matter were 10.4, 7.1, 4.3 and 24.2, respectively, and for urea, 265 mg/100 mL. Except for lactose, a significant increase in these components was observed (p < 0.01) as lactation progressed. The average values for bacteriology and SCC were 5.3 log cfu/mL and 4.7 log cells/mL, respectively. Regarding physical properties, conductivity (mean: 2.8 ms/cm), viscosity (3.1 Cp), coordinates L* (89.9) and a* (−3.1) and milk fat globule diameter (D4,3: 6.1 µm) increased along with lactation while density (1.038 g/mL) decreased (p < 0.01). The pH (6.7), acidity (22.9° Dornic), coordinate b* (8.4) and ethanol stability (66.6% v/v) were stable during the study period. The stage of lactation also has a significant impact on milk coagulation properties and mean curd yield was 3.29 g/10 mL. These results suggest that red deer milk could be a potential innovative source of milk for the dairy industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into the Milk)
12 pages, 526 KiB  
Article
Effects of Milk Storage Temperature at the Farm on the Characteristics of Parmigiano Reggiano Cheese: Chemical Composition and Proteolysis
Animals 2021, 11(3), 879; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11030879 - 19 Mar 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1906
Abstract
Parmigiano Reggiano is a Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) cheese whose official production protocol provides that milk cannot be stored at less than 18 °C at the farm. The possibility of refrigerating milk at the farm is highly debated, since it should allow [...] Read more.
Parmigiano Reggiano is a Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) cheese whose official production protocol provides that milk cannot be stored at less than 18 °C at the farm. The possibility of refrigerating milk at the farm is highly debated, since it should allow for the limiting of bacterial growth, thus improving the quality of the cheese. The present research aimed to study the influence of storing the milk at 9 °C on the chemical composition and proteolysis during the ripening of Parmigiano Reggiano cheese. The experimentation considered six cheese-making trials, in which both evening and morning milks were subdivided into two parts that were maintained at 9 and 20 °C. After Parmigiano Reggiano cheese-making, one of the twin wheels obtained was analyzed after 21 months of ripening. From each cheese, two different samples were taken, one from the inner zone, and the other from the outer zone. The results of the chemical analyses evidenced that milk storage at 9 °C significantly (p ≤ 0.05) influenced fat, crude protein, soluble nitrogen and peptone nitrogen contents. Nevertheless, the differences observed with respect to the cheese obtained with milk stored under standard condition were very small and should be considered within the “normal variations” of Parmigiano Reggiano chemical characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into the Milk)
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11 pages, 1069 KiB  
Article
Effect of Different Farming Practices on Lactic Acid Bacteria Content in Cow Milk
Animals 2021, 11(2), 522; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11020522 - 17 Feb 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1941
Abstract
The natural load of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in milk is the basis of the production of raw milk cheeses, such as Grana Padano PDO. In the last decades, improvements in livestock hygiene management resulted in bulk cow milk with less than 20,000 [...] Read more.
The natural load of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in milk is the basis of the production of raw milk cheeses, such as Grana Padano PDO. In the last decades, improvements in livestock hygiene management resulted in bulk cow milk with less than 20,000 colony forming units (CFU) of bacterial count, unable to ensure a sufficient supply of LAB, with a negative impact on cheese quality. This study investigated the relations between farm management practices and prevalence of different groups of bacteria in cow milk. Sixty-two intensive dairy farms located in Lombardy (Italy) where involved, most of them destined as milk for the production of Grana Padano. Season had no significant effect on the content of most of the bacterial groups, except for coliforms. A strong relation among standard plate count (SPC) and other bacterial groups was evidenced. Cluster analysis showed that the most productive farms applied a complete milking routine and produced milk with the lowest value of SPC, the lowest count of the other bacteria, including LAB, but the highest LAB/SPC. The study suggests that complexity of farming practices can affect the microbial population of milk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into the Milk)
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12 pages, 841 KiB  
Article
Milk Composition of Free-Ranging Impala (Aepyceros melampus) and Tsessebe (Damaliscus lunatus lunatus), and Comparison with Other African Bovidae
Animals 2021, 11(2), 516; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11020516 - 17 Feb 2021
Viewed by 2078
Abstract
The major nutrient and fatty acid composition of the milk of impala and tsessebe is reported and compared with other Bovidae and species. The proximate composition of impala milk was 5.56 ± 1.96% fat, 6.60 ± 0.51% protein, and 4.36 ± 0.94% lactose, [...] Read more.
The major nutrient and fatty acid composition of the milk of impala and tsessebe is reported and compared with other Bovidae and species. The proximate composition of impala milk was 5.56 ± 1.96% fat, 6.60 ± 0.51% protein, and 4.36 ± 0.94% lactose, and that of tsessebe milk was 8.44 ± 3.19%, 5.15 ± 0.49%, and 6.10 ± 3.85%, respectively. The high protein content of impala milk accounted for 42% of gross energy, which is typical for African Bovids that use a “hider” postnatal care system, compared to the 25% of the tsessebe, a “follower”. Electrophoresis showed that the molecular size and surface charge of the tsessebe caseins resembled that of other Alcelaphinae members, while that of the impala resembled that of Hippotraginae. The milk composition of these two species was compared by statistical methods with 13 other species representing eight suborders, families, or subfamilies of African Artiodactyla. This showed that the tsessebe milk resembled that of four other species of the Alcelaphinae sub-family and that the milk of this sub-family differs from other Artiodactyla by its specific margins of nutrient contents and milk fat with a high content of medium-length fatty acids (C8–C12) above 17% of the total fatty acids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into the Milk)
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11 pages, 1252 KiB  
Article
Genetic and Non-Genetic Variation of Milk Total Antioxidant Activity Predicted from Mid-Infrared Spectra in Holstein Cows
Animals 2020, 10(12), 2372; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10122372 - 10 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1827
Abstract
Food antioxidants enhance products shelf life and stability during technological treatments through the maintenance of their physical and chemical properties. Moreover, they are endowed with several positive effects on human health, including cell membranes preservation, enzyme functionality, and DNA integrity. Milk has been [...] Read more.
Food antioxidants enhance products shelf life and stability during technological treatments through the maintenance of their physical and chemical properties. Moreover, they are endowed with several positive effects on human health, including cell membranes preservation, enzyme functionality, and DNA integrity. Milk has been described in relation to a wide array of fat soluble and water-soluble antioxidant compounds, in particular vitamin A, C, and E, lactoferrin and peptides derived from casein and whey proteins. The total antioxidant activity (TAA) of milk is a novel and scarcely explored trait, defined as the sum of antioxidant contributions of the aforementioned compounds. On this background, the aims of the present study were to investigate the variability of milk TAA on a large scale exploiting predictions obtained through mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy and to estimate genetic parameters of this trait in Holstein cows. Individual milk samples were collected between January 2011 and December 2018 during the routine milk recording procedure. Samples were analysed for gross composition through MIR spectroscopy and MIR spectra were stored. Milk TAA was then predicted (pTAA) from the stored milk MIR spectra (111,653 test-day records of 9519 cows in 344 herds) using the previously developed prediction model; considering the prediction accuracy, pTAA might be considered a proxy of the TAA determined through the reference method. Overall, pTAA averaged 7.16 mmoL/L of Trolox equivalents, showed a nadir around 40 days after calving and increased thereafter, following a linear trend up to the end of lactation. The lowest pTAA was observed in milk sampled from June to September. Milk pTAA was heritable (0.401 ± 0.015) and genetically associated to fat yield (0.366 ± 0.049), crude protein (CP) yield (0.238 ± 0.052), fat percentage (0.616 ± 0.022) and CP percentage (0.754 ± 0.015). The official selection index of Italian Holstein put the 49% of the emphasis on fat and protein yield and percentage; therefore, it derives that an indirect favourable selection for milk pTAA should be already in progress in Italian Holstein population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into the Milk)
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14 pages, 822 KiB  
Article
Influence of Environmental and Productive Factors on the Biodiversity of Lactic Acid Bacteria Population from Sheep Milk
Animals 2020, 10(11), 2180; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10112180 - 22 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2032
Abstract
Milk is a typical and satisfactory medium for the growth of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). These microorganisms are of vital importance in the quality of the milk since they contribute to its preservation and give differential organoleptic properties to the final product. Furthermore, [...] Read more.
Milk is a typical and satisfactory medium for the growth of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). These microorganisms are of vital importance in the quality of the milk since they contribute to its preservation and give differential organoleptic properties to the final product. Furthermore, LABs can act as biocontrol agents in the dairy industry by inhibiting the growth of undesirable bacteria present in milk and by improving the quality of dairy products such as cheese. In this context, knowing the transfer routes used by LABs from the livestock environment to the milk is of great importance within the dairy industry. Therefore, the objectives of the present study were to expand the knowledge of the LAB population present in the milk of Manchego ewe by means of DNA sequencing techniques and to evaluate the possible transfers of LAB species based on the management of each dairy farm. Samples of bulk tank milk, air (from the milking parlour and from the livestock housing), animal feed and teat surface (taken from 10 sheep per farm) were collected in 12 traditional livestock farms in Castilla-La Mancha (Spain), where each farm presented differences regarding their farming practices. A mixed-effects model was used to evaluate the effects of livestock practices on the distribution of LAB species. Results showed that the vast majority of species identified in the milk had an isolate that was also found in other matrices, which could indicate a microbial transference via the livestock environment to the milk. In addition, the mixed model showed that the factors that positively influence the LAB count were the low-line milking system and the daily use of acid detergent in cleaning the milking machine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into the Milk)
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20 pages, 1248 KiB  
Article
Farming Practices Influence Antibiotic Resistance and Biogenic Amine Capacity of Staphylococci from Bulk Tank Ewe’s Milk
Animals 2020, 10(9), 1622; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10091622 - 10 Sep 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1942
Abstract
Staphylococci are one of the main microorganisms responsible for intramammary infections in sheep, causing important economic losses for farmers and eventually health problems in humans, especially by the consumption of dairy products made with raw milk containing toxic compounds, such as biogenic amines [...] Read more.
Staphylococci are one of the main microorganisms responsible for intramammary infections in sheep, causing important economic losses for farmers and eventually health problems in humans, especially by the consumption of dairy products made with raw milk containing toxic compounds, such as biogenic amines or antibiotic resistant bacteria. This study aimed to check the presence and safety of staphylococci in bulk tank ewe’s milk from different farms, and to determine the relationship between the presence of these staphylococci and farming practices, by applying nonlinear canonical correlation models (OVERALS). Two-hundred and fifty-nine staphylococci from milk samples from eighteen farms were genotyped and representative isolates of the major clusters were identified as belonging to Staphylococcus (S.) aureus, S. epidermidis, S. arlettae, S. lentus, S. simulans, and S. chromogenes species. Identified isolates were assayed in terms of their safety, by evaluating resistance to antimicrobial drugs and the aminobiogenic capacity, using both phenotypic and genetic assays. Antibiotic resistance phenotypic assay revealed that 82.9% were resistant to some antibiotics, although in the genotypic assay only the genes tetM, ermB, ermC, and grlA were detected. Fifty-three percent were high biogenic amine (BA) producers, being putrescine the most produced amine. A lowered risk of finding antibiotic-resistant and BA-producing staphylococci is related to some farming methods such as enrolling in a breeding program, use of good farming practices, postdipping teat disinfection, hygienic livestock housing, or periodic check of the milking machine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into the Milk)
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10 pages, 238 KiB  
Article
Quantification of the Effect of the Cattle Breed on Milk Cheese Yield: Comparison between Italian Brown Swiss and Italian Friesian
Animals 2020, 10(8), 1331; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10081331 - 01 Aug 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2138
Abstract
Milk from different cattle breeds can present different casein and fat contents, which are reflected in different cheese yields (CY). However, CY is also related to some breed-related molecular characteristics. The aim of the present work was to quantify the effect of these [...] Read more.
Milk from different cattle breeds can present different casein and fat contents, which are reflected in different cheese yields (CY). However, CY is also related to some breed-related molecular characteristics. The aim of the present work was to quantify the effect of these characteristics by comparing a series of Parmigiano Reggiano (PR) cheese-making trials made with milks from Italian Brown (IB) and Italian Friesian (IF) cattle herds. Twelve trials were carried out in a cheese factory in one year (one trial per month), each one consisting of four vats processed in parallel: three vats contained milk from three different IF cattle herds (IF1, IF2 and IF3) and one contained milk from a single IB cattle herd. A 24-h CY prediction formula was developed with data from IF1, IF2 and IF3 trials (calibration) and successively validated by applying it to 12 PR trials made with IF milk in six different cheese factories (external validation). The predicted values of 24-h CY were no different to the actual ones in both calibration and external validation. Finally, the formula was tested on trials made with IB milk. In this case, the predicted values were lower than the actual ones. The quantity of IF milk casein necessary to give the same CY of IB milk was 0.20 g/100 g. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into the Milk)
16 pages, 2051 KiB  
Article
Dominant Yeast Community in Raw Sheep’s Milk and Potential Transfers of Yeast Species in Relation to Farming Practices
Animals 2020, 10(5), 906; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10050906 - 22 May 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2373
Abstract
Yeasts are always present in any type of cheese, as well as in the factories where it is produced. However, the role of the yeast community in the cheese making process, as well as the routes of contamination used by yeast species to [...] Read more.
Yeasts are always present in any type of cheese, as well as in the factories where it is produced. However, the role of the yeast community in the cheese making process, as well as the routes of contamination used by yeast species to contaminate milk from the dairy farm environment, are not well known. The objectives of this study were to broaden the knowledge of the dominant yeast community in Manchega sheep’s milk and to assess the contamination routes of the yeast species depending on the farm practices. Milk, teat surface (collected from ten ewes per farm), feed, and air (collected in milking parlours and livestock housing) samples were collected from 12 typical farms in Castilla-La Mancha, Spain with differences in farming practices, and the yeast species were identified using DNA sequencing methods. To evaluate whether certain farming practices have an effect on the distribution of species of yeast in the milk samples, a mixed model was used. The results showed that most of the dominant yeast species (mainly belonging to the genus Candida) found in milk were also found in the other samples, indicating a microbial transfer from the farm environment to the milk. Furthermore, the statistical model showed that factors influencing yeast counts in milk were the presence of yeasts in the milking parlour, the use of silage, and the frequency of acid treatment for cleaning the milking machines. In conclusion, milk contamination from the yeast species present in the dairy farm environment is related to certain farming practices such as the use of silage and the daily use of acid in the cleaning of the milking machines, which favours the presence of desirable microbiota in milk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into the Milk)
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Review

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25 pages, 720 KiB  
Review
Milk Products from Minor Dairy Species: A Review
Animals 2020, 10(8), 1260; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10081260 - 24 Jul 2020
Cited by 36 | Viewed by 6751
Abstract
Milk processing is one of the most ancient food technologies, dating back around 6000 BC. The majority of dairy products are manufactured from cows, buffaloes, goats, and sheep; their production technologies are mostly standardized and have been widely investigated. Milk and dairy products [...] Read more.
Milk processing is one of the most ancient food technologies, dating back around 6000 BC. The majority of dairy products are manufactured from cows, buffaloes, goats, and sheep; their production technologies are mostly standardized and have been widely investigated. Milk and dairy products from minor species are less important under the economic point of view, but they play a fundamental social role in many marginal and poor areas. Due to scarce interest of the dairy industry, their technological characteristics and related issues have been investigated less. Recently, the increasing interest toward ethnic foods and food biodiversity is helping these minor products to emerge from the “darkness” in which they have remained for long time. Some of them are increasingly seen as useful for the valorization of marginal areas, while others are recognized as innovative or healthy foods. The present review aims to resume the most recent knowledge about these less-known dairy products. The first part summarizes the main technological properties of equine, camel, and yak milk with a view to processing. The second is a survey on the related dairy products, both the traditional ones that have been manufactured for a long time and those that have been newly developed by food researchers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into the Milk)
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