Environmental Hydraulics, Turbulence and Sediment Transport, 2nd edition

A special issue of Fluids (ISSN 2311-5521). This special issue belongs to the section "Geophysical and Environmental Fluid Mechanics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 January 2024) | Viewed by 18812

Special Issue Editors

Faculty of Engineering and Informatics, University of Bradford, Bradford BD7 1DP, UK
Interests: river hydrodynamics; numerical method; flow measurement; acoustic doppler velocimetry; flow-structure interaction; flow turbulence; sediment transport; vegetated flow
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Pin 721302, India
Interests: sediment transport; turbulence; pipeline engineering; water distribution networks; hydrodynamics; unsteady flows
Faculty of Civil Engineering, National Institute of Technology Warangal, Telangana 506004, India
Interests: experimental hydraulics; sediment transport; river training works
Galgotia College of Engineering, Knowledge Park I, Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh 201310, India
Interests: river engineering; turbulence; braiding; mid-channel bar; water resource

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleague,

Bedforming within rivers is a complex process that can be influenced by hydraulics, the vegetated field, and various suspended and bedload transports. Changes in flow conditions due to rain and floods further complicate a river’s behavior. To date, the morphologic and bedforming characteristics of natural rivers are still not sufficiently understood. This Special Issue aims to build a collection of state-of-the-art research and technologies to form a useful guide for the related research and engineering communities. This Special Issue’s scope comprises, but is not limited to, the characteristics of river hydraulics, temporal and spatial developments of the riverbed under different geometric and sedimentation factors, the vegetation impact within the river flow, and extreme river flow events (i.e., floods and dam-break flows). Although this Special Issue is focused on the latest research in the analytical and experimental fields, interesting numerical works are also welcome.

Dr. Jaan H. Pu
Dr. Prashanth Reddy Hanmaiahgari
Dr. Manish Pandey
Dr. Mohammad Amir Khan
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • bedform
  • river hydrodynamics
  • morphology processes
  • sediment transport
  • vegetated flow
  • flood
  • dam-induced flow
  • analytical modeling
  • numerical modeling

Published Papers (10 papers)

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26 pages, 8807 KiB  
Article
Numerical Investigation of Critical Hydraulic Parameters Using FLOW-3D: A Case Study of Taunsa Barrage, Pakistan
Fluids 2023, 8(12), 310; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids8120310 - 28 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1112
Abstract
Hydraulic structures, such as barrages, play an important role in the sustainable development of several regions worldwide. The aim of this novel study is to identify the critical hydraulic parameters (CHPs) of Taunsa Barrage, built on the Indus River. These CHPs, including free [...] Read more.
Hydraulic structures, such as barrages, play an important role in the sustainable development of several regions worldwide. The aim of this novel study is to identify the critical hydraulic parameters (CHPs) of Taunsa Barrage, built on the Indus River. These CHPs, including free surface profiles, flow depths, Froude number, velocity profiles, energy dissipation and turbulence kinetic energy, were investigated using simulation via FLOW-3D numerical models. Incompressible Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) equations on each computational cell were solved using the numerical methods available in FLOW-3D. The simulation results indicated that the locations of hydraulic jumps (HJs) were lower than that were reported in the previous one-dimensional study. Similarly, the distances of the HJs from the downstream toe of the glacis were reached at 2.97 m and 6 m at 129.10 m and 130.30 m tailwater levels, respectively, which deviated from the previous studies. In higher tailwater, the sequent depth ratio also deviated from the previous data. The maximum turbulent kinetic energies were observed in the developing regions of HJs, which were found to be decreased as the distance from the HJ was increased. The results of this research will be highly useful for engineers working in the field of design of hydraulic structures. Full article
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14 pages, 1954 KiB  
Article
Experimental Study on the Optimum Installation Depth and Dimensions of Roughening Elements on Abutment as Scour Countermeasures
Fluids 2023, 8(6), 175; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids8060175 - 05 Jun 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1038
Abstract
The causes of many bridge failures have been reported to be local scour around abutments. This study examines roughening elements as devices with which to intercept the downflow responsible for the formation of the principal vortex, which is what triggers local scour around [...] Read more.
The causes of many bridge failures have been reported to be local scour around abutments. This study examines roughening elements as devices with which to intercept the downflow responsible for the formation of the principal vortex, which is what triggers local scour around abutments. Two vertical wall abutments with different widths were examined under four different hydraulic conditions in a clear-water regime. Elements with different thicknesses (t) and protrusions (P) with the same dimensions, (P = t = 0.05 L, 0.1 L, 0.2 L, and 0.3 L, where L is the length of the abutment) and with varying depths of installation (Z) were considered. Elements were installed in two positions: between the sediment surface and water elevation and buried within the sediment. To determine the optimum depth of installation, one element was first installed on the sediment surface, and the number of elements was increased in each subsequent test. The results show that installing elements between water surface elevation and the sediment’s initial level did not show any defined trend on scour depth reduction. However, the optimum installation depth of the elements is 0.6–0.8 L below the initial bed level. Moreover, the roughening elements with thickness and protrusion of P = t = 0.2 L resulted in the most effective protection of the foundation. The best arrangement, (P = t = 0.2 L and Z = >0.6–0.8 L) reduced the maximum scour depth by up to 30.4% and 32.8% for the abutment with smaller and larger widths, respectively. Full article
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17 pages, 3753 KiB  
Article
Combination of Riprap and Submerged Vane as an Abutment Scour Countermeasure
Fluids 2023, 8(2), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids8020041 - 21 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1418
Abstract
Scour is one of the main causes of hydraulic structural failures. The present experimental study examines the use of riprap, submerged vanes, and a combination of these for scour reduction around vertical walls and spill-through abutments under clear-water conditions. Specifically, the influence of [...] Read more.
Scour is one of the main causes of hydraulic structural failures. The present experimental study examines the use of riprap, submerged vanes, and a combination of these for scour reduction around vertical walls and spill-through abutments under clear-water conditions. Specifically, the influence of placing riprap stones with different apron shapes (geometry) and/or a group of submerged vanes of constant height and length on abutment scour was examined. The main aim is to propose the optimum apron geometry and placement of submerged vanes to (1) reduce edge failure at vertical walls and spill-through abutments; and (2) prevent shear failure at the spill-through abutment (no shear failure is observed around the vertical wall abutment). The results show that using ripraps for scour protection is more effective than submerged vanes. However, the highest reduction in scour depth was achieved when a combination of riprap and submerged vanes was used together. This arrangement can reduce the maximum clear-water scour depth by up to 54% and 39% with vertical walls and spill-through abutments, respectively. Furthermore, selecting appropriate apron scale ratios reduces the required riprap volume by up to 46% and 31% for the vertical wall and spill-through abutment, respectively. In addition, the installation of vanes increased the riprap stability and reduced edge failure in both abutments tested. Finally, using riprap aprons with proper scales ratios at the downstream side of the spill-through abutment also prevents shear failure in this zone. Full article
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14 pages, 4282 KiB  
Article
Local Scour Patterns around a Bridge Pier with Cable-Wrapping
Fluids 2023, 8(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids8010003 - 21 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1125
Abstract
The performance of cable flow-altering bed scour countermeasures was experimentally evaluated based on the scour reduction, bed morphology, and the effects on the flow field. An unprotected 40 mm diameter pier was compared to piers protected with spiral cables (2, 4, 6, 8 [...] Read more.
The performance of cable flow-altering bed scour countermeasures was experimentally evaluated based on the scour reduction, bed morphology, and the effects on the flow field. An unprotected 40 mm diameter pier was compared to piers protected with spiral cables (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 mm diameters) wrapped at a 15-degree angle for two-bed sediment sizes with median grain sizes of 0.86 and 1.83 mm, for a cylinder Reynolds number of 7120. The scour depth was reduced by the cables by up to 52 percent compared to the unprotected pier case, a reduction that increased with increasing cable diameter for both sediment beds. Scour depth and sediment deposition varied by sediment size, where the scour hole was up to 45 percent deeper for the finer sediment bed than that of the coarser bed. Velocity and turbulence statistics showed that cables attenuated the flow within the scour hole by diminishing the downflow and horseshoe vortex, whereas in the case of finer sediment, spatially averaged turbulent kinetic energy and Reynolds shear stresses were respectively up to 1.4 and 1.8 times higher for the unprotected pier than the protected pier, resulting in scour depth reduction. The presence of the cable also reduced the vortex shedding frequency in the pier wake as indicated by a Strouhal number of around 0.175. The results demonstrate the potential of cable threading as a flow-altering scour countermeasure to reduce bridge pier scour. Full article
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14 pages, 4248 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Two Hydrological Models, HEC-HMS and SWAT in Runoff Estimation: Application to Huai Bang Sai Tropical Watershed, Thailand
Fluids 2022, 7(8), 267; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids7080267 - 04 Aug 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3856
Abstract
In the present study, the streamflow simulation capacities between the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and the Hydrologic Engineering Centre-Hydrologic Modelling System (HEC-HMS) were compared for the Huai Bang Sai (HBS) watershed in northeastern Thailand. During calibration (2007–2010) and validation (2011–2014), the [...] Read more.
In the present study, the streamflow simulation capacities between the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and the Hydrologic Engineering Centre-Hydrologic Modelling System (HEC-HMS) were compared for the Huai Bang Sai (HBS) watershed in northeastern Thailand. During calibration (2007–2010) and validation (2011–2014), the SWAT model demonstrated a Coefficient of Determination (R2) and a Nash Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) of 0.83 and 0.82, and 0.78 and 0.77, respectively. During the same periods, the HEC-HMS model demonstrated values of 0.80 and 0.79, and 0.84 and 0.82. The exceedance probabilities at 10%, 40%, and 90% were 144.5, 14.5, and 0.9 mm in the flow duration curves (FDCs) obtained for observed flow. From the HEC-HMS and SWAT models, these indices yielded 109.0, 15.0, and 0.02 mm, and 123.5, 16.95, and 0.02 mm. These results inferred those high flows were captured well by the SWAT model, while medium flows were captured well by the HEC-HMS model. It is noteworthy that the low flows were accurately simulated by both models. Furthermore, dry and wet seasonal flows were simulated reasonably well by the SWAT model with slight under-predictions of 2.12% and 13.52% compared to the observed values. The HEC-HMS model under-predicted the dry and wet seasonal flows by 10.76% and 18.54% compared to observed flows. The results of the present study will provide valuable recommendations for the stakeholders of the HBS watershed to improve water usage policies. In addition, the present study will be helpful to select the most appropriate hydrologic model for humid tropical watersheds in Thailand and elsewhere in the world. Full article
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30 pages, 7463 KiB  
Article
Inclusive Hyper- to Dilute-Concentrated Suspended Sediment Transport Study Using Modified Rouse Model: Parametrized Power-Linear Coupled Approach Using Machine Learning
Fluids 2022, 7(8), 261; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids7080261 - 30 Jul 2022
Viewed by 1611
Abstract
The transfer of suspended sediment can range widely from being diluted to being hyper-concentrated, depending on the local flow and ground conditions. Using the Rouse model and the Kundu and Ghoshal (2017) model, it is possible to look at the sediment distribution for [...] Read more.
The transfer of suspended sediment can range widely from being diluted to being hyper-concentrated, depending on the local flow and ground conditions. Using the Rouse model and the Kundu and Ghoshal (2017) model, it is possible to look at the sediment distribution for a range of hyper-concentrated and diluted flows. According to the Kundu and Ghoshal model, the sediment flow follows a linear profile for the hyper-concentrated flow regime and a power law applies for the dilute concentrated flow regime. This paper describes these models and how the Kundu and Ghoshal parameters (linear-law coefficients and power-law coefficients) are dependent on sediment flow parameters using machine-learning techniques. The machine-learning models used are XGboost Classifier, Linear Regressor (Ridge), Linear Regressor (Bayesian), K Nearest Neighbours, Decision Tree Regressor, and Support Vector Machines (Regressor). The models were implemented on Google Colab and the models have been applied to determine the relationship between every Kundu and Ghoshal parameter with each sediment flow parameter (mean concentration, Rouse number, and size parameter) for both a linear profile and a power-law profile. The models correctly calculated the suspended sediment profile for a range of flow conditions (0.268 mmd502.29 mm, 0.00105gmm3particle density2.65gmm3, 0.197mmsvs96mms, 7.16mmsu*63.3mms, 0.00042cˉ0.54), including a range of Rouse numbers (0.0076P23.5). The models showed particularly good accuracy for testing at low and extremely high concentrations for type I to III profiles. Full article
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21 pages, 10321 KiB  
Article
Numerical Investigation of 3D Flow Properties around Finite Emergent Vegetation by Using the Two-Phase Volume of Fluid (VOF) Modeling Technique
Fluids 2022, 7(5), 175; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids7050175 - 18 May 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1678
Abstract
This study predicts how the Free Surface Level (FSL) variations around finite length vegetation affect flow structure by using a numerical simulation. The volume of fluid (VOF) technique with the Reynolds stress model (RSM) was used for the simulation. Multizone Hexahedral meshing was [...] Read more.
This study predicts how the Free Surface Level (FSL) variations around finite length vegetation affect flow structure by using a numerical simulation. The volume of fluid (VOF) technique with the Reynolds stress model (RSM) was used for the simulation. Multizone Hexahedral meshing was adopted to accurately track the free surface level with minimum numerical diffusion at the water–air interface. After the validation, finite length emergent vegetation patches were selected based on the aspect ratio (AR = vegetation width-length ratio) under constant subcritical flow conditions for an inland tsunami flow. The results showed that the generation of large vortices was predominated in wider vegetation patches (AR > 1) due to the increase and decrease in the FSL at the front and back of the vegetation compared to longer vegetation patches (AR ≤ 1), as this offered more resistance against the approaching flow. The wider vegetation patches (AR > 1) are favorable in terms of generating a large area of low velocity compared to the longer vegetation patch (AR < 1) directly downstream of the vegetation patch. On the other hand, it has a negative impact on the adjacent downstream gap region, where a 14.3–34.9% increase in velocity was observed. The longer vegetation patches (AR < 1) generate optimal conditions within the vegetation region due to great velocity reduction. Moreover, in all the AR vegetation cases, the water turbulent intensity was maximum in the vegetation region compared to the adjacent gap region and air turbulent intensity above the FSL, suggesting strong air entrainment over this region. The results of this study are important in constructing vegetation layouts based on the AR of the vegetation for tsunami mitigation. Full article
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30 pages, 6032 KiB  
Systematic Review
Hydraulic Flushing of Sediment in Reservoirs: Best Practices of Numerical Modeling
Fluids 2024, 9(2), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9020038 - 01 Feb 2024
Viewed by 618
Abstract
This article provides a comprehensive review and best practices for numerically simulating hydraulic flushing for reservoir sediment management. Three sediment flushing types are discussed: drawdown flushing, pressure flushing, and turbidity current venting. The need for reservoir sediment management and the current practices are [...] Read more.
This article provides a comprehensive review and best practices for numerically simulating hydraulic flushing for reservoir sediment management. Three sediment flushing types are discussed: drawdown flushing, pressure flushing, and turbidity current venting. The need for reservoir sediment management and the current practices are reviewed. Different hydraulic drawdown types are described in terms of the basic physical processes involved as well as the empirical/analytical assessment tools that may be used. The primary focus has been on the numerical modeling of various hydraulic flushing options. Three model categories are reviewed: one-dimensional (1D), two-dimensional (2D) depth-averaged or layer-averaged, and three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models. General guidelines are provided on how to select a proper model given the characteristics of the reservoir and the flushing method, as well as specific guidelines for modeling. Case studies are also presented to illustrate the guidelines. Full article
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11 pages, 5661 KiB  
Technical Note
Sediment Transport Patterns of Channels on Tidal Lowland
Fluids 2022, 7(8), 277; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids7080277 - 15 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1159
Abstract
Many reclaimed areas in Indonesia have abandoned swampland or idle land which is attributed to various factors. One of the main factors is the unsuitability of the exiting flow system in this area since the condition of the canals and water structures in [...] Read more.
Many reclaimed areas in Indonesia have abandoned swampland or idle land which is attributed to various factors. One of the main factors is the unsuitability of the exiting flow system in this area since the condition of the canals and water structures in this area has not been rehabilitated for a long time. No study has been carried out to investigate the suitable model for simulating the appropriate criteria for assessment of erosion within the channel on Tidal lowland in Indonesia. This study focuses on the investigation of erosion occurring within the Rural Channel and Main Drainage Channel on Tidal lowland in Palembang, Indonesia which becomes the originality of this manuscript. The erosion was attributed to the accumulation of sediment transport within the channel of the reclaimed tidal delta region Telang I. The results of the research on the P8-13S scheme show that equilibrium on the accumulation of sediment transport in the channel was observed in the Rural Channel and Main Drainage Channel on average ranging from 3,301,859 m3 to 3,349,103 m3 while the average sedimentation ranged from 809,232–898,467 m3. This study is very important in minimizing the possible erosion near riverbank. Full article
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12 pages, 3652 KiB  
Case Report
A Simplified Mathematical Formulation for Water Quality Index (WQI): A Case Study in the Kelani River Basin, Sri Lanka
Fluids 2022, 7(5), 147; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids7050147 - 23 Apr 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3776
Abstract
Surface water quality is degraded due to industrialization; however, it is one of the widely used sources for water supply systems worldwide. Thus, the polluted water creates significant issues for the health of the end users. However, poor attention and concern can be [...] Read more.
Surface water quality is degraded due to industrialization; however, it is one of the widely used sources for water supply systems worldwide. Thus, the polluted water creates significant issues for the health of the end users. However, poor attention and concern can be identified on this important issue in most developing countries, including Sri Lanka. The Kelani River in Sri Lanka is the heart of the water supply of the whole Colombo area and has the water intake for drinking purposes near an industrialized zone (Biyagama). Therefore, this study intends to analyze the effect of industrialization on surface water quality variation of the Kelani River basin in Sri Lanka in terms of the water quality index (WQI). We proposed a regression model to predict the WQI using the water quality parameters. Nine water quality parameters, including pH, total phosphate, electric conductivity, biochemical oxygen demand, temperature, nitrates, dissolved oxygen, chemical oxygen demand, and chlorine evaluated the Kelani River water quality. The proposed regression model was used to examine the water quality of samples obtained at twelve locations from January 2005 to December 2012. The highest WQI values were found in Raggahawatte Ela throughout the 8 years, located near the Biyagama industrial zone. The relationship of industries to water quality in the Kelani River is stated. The surface water quality gradually decreased as a result of development and industrialized activities. Therefore, this work showcases and recommends the importance of introducing necessary actions and considerations for future water management systems. Full article
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