Feature Papers in Microwave and Wireless Communications Section

A special issue of Electronics (ISSN 2079-9292). This special issue belongs to the section "Microwave and Wireless Communications".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2024 | Viewed by 3092

Special Issue Editors

Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
Interests: antenna design; microwave components design; wireless communications; evolutionary algorithms; machine learning
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1. Department of Electrical, Electronic and Communication Engineering & Institute for Smart Cities (ISC), Public University of Navarre, 31006 Pamplona, Spain
2. School of Engineering and Science, Tecnologico de Monterrey, Monterrey 64849, Mexico
Interests: wireless networks; performance evaluation; distributed systems; context-aware environments; IoT; next-generation wireless systems
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Department of Computer Engineering, Modeling, Electronics and Systems (DIMES), University of Calabria, 87036 Arcavacata, Italy
Interests: microwave and millimeter-waves antennas and circuits; microwave biomedical applications; innovative materials for antennas; electromagnetics in health safety
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Department of Smart Device Engineering, Sejong University, Seoul 05006, Republic of Korea
Interests: antenna engineering; wireless power transfer; bioelectromagnetic (SAR reduction in mobile antennas, study of electromagnetic effects of human health)
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Instituto Universitario de Investigación del Automóvil (INSIA), Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain
Interests: intelligent transport systems; advanced driver assistance systems; vehicle positioning; inertial sensors; digital maps; vehicle dynamics; driver monitoring; perception; autonomous vehicles; cooperative services; connected and autonomous driving
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are pleased to announce that the Section Microwave and Wireless Communications is now compiling a collection of papers submitted by our Section’s Editorial Board Members and leading scholars in this field of research. We welcome contributions as well as recommendations from Editorial Board Members.

This Special Issue aims to publish high-quality papers, namely insightful and influential original articles or reviews in the field. We expect these papers to be widely read and highly influential. All papers in this Special Issue will be collected into a printed edition book after the deadline and will be well promoted.

Topics of interest include, but are not limited to:

  • Microwave engineering;
  • Wireless communication systems;
  • Antennas and propagation;
  • RF circuits and systems;
  • Electromagnetic measurements;
  • Radar systems design;
  • Signal processing for wireless systems;
  • Channel coding and error control;
  • Multiple access techniques;
  • Mobile and cellular networks;
  • Satellite communication systems;
  • Terahertz communications;
  • Communication applications;
  • 5G/6G.

Technical Committee Member:
Dr. Cesar Vargas-Rosales, Tecnologico de Monterrey

Dr. Sotirios K. Goudos
Prof. Dr. Francisco Falcone
Prof. Dr. Sandra Costanzo
Dr. Niamat Hussain
Dr. Felipe Jiménez
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Electronics is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • wireless communication technology
  • microwave theory and technology including antenna
  • radar technology
  • electromagnetic sensing and diagnostics
  • digital signal processing

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

17 pages, 1176 KiB  
Article
A Wideband Non-Stationary 3D GBSM for HAP-MIMO Communication Systems at Millimeter-Wave Bands
Electronics 2024, 13(4), 678; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics13040678 - 06 Feb 2024
Viewed by 493
Abstract
High-altitude platforms (HAPs) are considered to be the most important equipment for next-generation wireless communication technologies. In this paper, we investigate the channel characteristics under the configurations of massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) space and large bandwidth at millimeter-wave (mmWave) bands, along with the [...] Read more.
High-altitude platforms (HAPs) are considered to be the most important equipment for next-generation wireless communication technologies. In this paper, we investigate the channel characteristics under the configurations of massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) space and large bandwidth at millimeter-wave (mmWave) bands, along with the moving essence of the HAP and ground terminals. A non-stationary three-dimensional (3D) geometry-based stochastic model (GBSM) is proposed for a HAP communication system. We use a cylinder-based geometric modeling method to construct the channel and derive the channel impulse response (CIR). Additionally, the birth–death process of the scatterers is enclosed using the Markov process. Large-scale parameters such as free space loss and rainfall attenuation are also taken into consideration. Due to the relative motion between HAP and ground terminals, the massive MIMO space, and the wide bandwidth in the mmWave band, the channel characteristics of HAP exhibit non-stationarities in time, space, and frequency domains. By deriving the temporal auto-correlation function (ACF), we explore the non-stationarity in the time domain and the impact of various parameters on the correlations across the HAP-MIMO channels. The spatial cross-correlation function (CCF) for massive MIMO scenarios, and the frequency correlation function (FCF) in the mmWave bands are also considered. Moreover, we conduct simulation research using MATLAB. Simulation results show that the theoretical results align well with the simulation results, and this highlights the fact that the constructed 3D GBSM can characterize the non-stationary characteristics of HAP-MIMO channels across the time, space, and frequency domains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Microwave and Wireless Communications Section)
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16 pages, 15311 KiB  
Article
A Circularly Polarized Millimeter Wave Radar for Wind Turbine Sensing
Electronics 2024, 13(2), 462; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics13020462 - 22 Jan 2024
Viewed by 640
Abstract
Wind power is a crucial direction for new energy transition technology in response to the challenges of global warming. However, the potential for collisions between the blades and the tower barrel remains a significant concern. To address this issue, a large number of [...] Read more.
Wind power is a crucial direction for new energy transition technology in response to the challenges of global warming. However, the potential for collisions between the blades and the tower barrel remains a significant concern. To address this issue, a large number of sensors, such as lasers and cameras, are attached to the structure, but they struggle to operate in complex weather and at night. This paper presents a method of employing a 79 GHz FMCW (frequency-modulated continuous wave) mmWave (millimeter-wave) radar with circularly polarization on the top of the tower. During the design, two main considerations are raised: (1) Since the small-RCS (radar cross-section) blade experiences an oblique incidence from more than 70 m away, the channel SNR (signal-to-noise ratio) is low, so high-gain antennas and SIMO (single-input multiple-output) radar configurations are designed to increase the Pt (transmitting power). (2) Wind turbines are often located in offshore or mountainous areas with a high level of weather interference, so a pair of circularly polarized antenna is used to reduce the interference of meteorological particles to the radar. Finally, test results from a practical wind turbine in different weather conditions prove its practicality. During tests, the wind turbine operates at a rotor speed of 6 to 12 rounds per minute, and the clearance range has an obvious inverse relationship with it, ranging from 6 to 12 m. This technology enhances safety, maximizes efficiency, and enables optimal length and weight determination during design for improved power generation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Microwave and Wireless Communications Section)
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14 pages, 8860 KiB  
Article
An Effective Spherical NF/FF Transformation Suitable for Characterising an Antenna under Test in Presence of an Infinite Perfectly Conducting Ground Plane
Electronics 2024, 13(2), 397; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics13020397 - 18 Jan 2024
Viewed by 435
Abstract
An effective near-field to far-field transformation using a reduced number of near-field measurements collected via a spherical scan over the upper hemisphere, due to the presence of a flat metallic ground, is devised in this paper. Such a transformation relies on the non-redundant [...] Read more.
An effective near-field to far-field transformation using a reduced number of near-field measurements collected via a spherical scan over the upper hemisphere, due to the presence of a flat metallic ground, is devised in this paper. Such a transformation relies on the non-redundant sampling representations of electromagnetic fields and exploits the image principle to properly account for the metallic ground, supposed to be of infinite extent and realised by perfectly conducting material. The sampling representation of the probe voltage over the upper hemisphere is developed by modelling the antenna under test and its image by a very adaptable convex surface, which is able to fit as much as possible the geometry of any kind of antenna, thus minimising the volumetric redundancy and, accordingly, the number of required samples as well as the measurement time. Then, the use of a two-dimensional optimal sampling interpolation algorithm allows the reconstruction of the voltage value at each sampling point of the spherical grid required by the classical near-field-to-far-field transformation developed by Hansen. Numerical examples proving the effectiveness of the developed sampling representation and related near-field-to-far-field transformation techniques are reported. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Microwave and Wireless Communications Section)
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18 pages, 2413 KiB  
Article
A Federated Learning-Based Resource Allocation Scheme for Relaying-Assisted Communications in Multicellular Next Generation Network Topologies
Electronics 2024, 13(2), 390; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics13020390 - 17 Jan 2024
Viewed by 472
Abstract
Growing and diverse user needs, along with the need for continuous access with minimal delay in densely populated machine-type networks, have led to a significant overhaul of modern mobile communication systems. Within this realm, the integration of advanced physical layer techniques such as [...] Read more.
Growing and diverse user needs, along with the need for continuous access with minimal delay in densely populated machine-type networks, have led to a significant overhaul of modern mobile communication systems. Within this realm, the integration of advanced physical layer techniques such as relaying-assisted transmission in beyond fifth-generation (B5G) networks aims to not only enhance network performance but also extend coverage across multicellular orientations. However, in cellular environments, the increased interference levels and the complex channel representations introduce a notable rise in the computational complexity associated with radio resource management (RRM) tasks. Machine and deep learning (ML/DL) have been proposed as an efficient way to support the enhanced user demands in densely populated environments since ML/DL models can relax the traffic load that is associated with RRM tasks. There is, however, in these solutions the need for distributed execution of training tasks to accelerate the decision-making process in RRM tasks. For this purpose, federated learning (FL) schemes are considered a promising field of research for next-generation (NG) networks’ RRM. This paper proposes an FL approach to tackle the joint relay node (RN) selection and resource allocation problem subject to power management constraints when in B5G networks. The optimization objective of this approach is to jointly elevate energy (EE) and spectral efficiency (SE) levels. The performance of the proposed approach is evaluated for various relaying-assisted transmission topologies and through comparison with other state-of-the-art ones (both ML and non-ML). In particular, the total system energy efficiency (EE) and spectral efficiency (SE) can be improved by up to approximately 10–20% compared to a state-of-the-art centralized ML scheme. Moreover, achieved accuracy can be improved by up to 10% compared to state-of-the-art non-ML solutions, while training time is reduced by approximately 50%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Microwave and Wireless Communications Section)
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15 pages, 9951 KiB  
Article
A Dual-Polarized CTS Array Antenna with Four Reconfigurable Beams for mm-Wave Wind Profile Radar
Electronics 2024, 13(1), 238; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics13010238 - 04 Jan 2024
Viewed by 671
Abstract
The wind profiler radar (WPR) system requires a dual-polarized antenna with multiple low-sidelobe and high-gain beams to facilitate the detection of weak signals reflected by atmospheric turbulence. This paper proposes a dual-polarized continuous transverse stub (CTS) K-band antenna with four reconfigurable beams, which [...] Read more.
The wind profiler radar (WPR) system requires a dual-polarized antenna with multiple low-sidelobe and high-gain beams to facilitate the detection of weak signals reflected by atmospheric turbulence. This paper proposes a dual-polarized continuous transverse stub (CTS) K-band antenna with four reconfigurable beams, which comprises a series-fed CTS array and four 1-to-14 power dividers as line source generators (LSGs) to generate a high-quality quasi-TEM wave. The CTS element incorporates a stepped transition radiation stub design and employs a short cutoff stub on the upper surface of the series-fed parallel plate waveguide (PPW) to achieve optimal impedance matching. The entire antenna is an all-metal structure with remarkably low loss, and low-cost standard fabrication processes are employed for the prototype, which achieves fast reconfigurable four-beam scanning to 15°, with a gain of 31.09 dBi and sidelobe levels below −17.6 dB. Measurement results in an anechoic chamber agree well with simulations, demonstrating the antenna’s ease of manufacture, stability, and suitability for wind profile radar applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Microwave and Wireless Communications Section)
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