Special Issue "Enabling-5G"

A special issue of Electronics (ISSN 2079-9292). This special issue belongs to the section "Microwave and Wireless Communications".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 January 2022) | Viewed by 19227

Special Issue Editors

Signal Theory and Communications Department, University of Vigo, 36310 Vigo, Spain
Interests: wireless mobile communications; antenna design; waveform design; radar
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Signal Theory and Communications Department, University of Vigo, 36310 Vigo, Spain
Interests: wireless mobile communications; antenna design
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
1. Department of Electrical, Electronic and Communication Engineering & Institute for Smart Cities (ISC), Public University of Navarre, 31006 Pamplona, Spain
2. Tecnologico de Monterrey, School of Engineering and Sciences, Monterrey 64849, Mexico
Interests: wireless networks; performance evaluation; distributed systems; context-aware environments; IoT; next-generation wireless systems
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
School of Engineering and Sciences, Tecnologico de Monterrey, 64849 Monterrey, Mexico
Interests: wireless mobile communications; electromagnetic propagation; channel modeling
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The successful development of the fifth generation of wireless mobile communications will require disruptive technologies to fulfill unforeseen data rates, latency, and capacity, including, among others, network densification and virtualization, massive multiple input multiple output (MIMO), antenna beamforming, device-to-device communications, smart cells, and mitigation techniques. In this scenario, radio propagation acquires a new dimension and its proper modeling will contribute to ensuring the required 5G capacity.

Worldwide different spectrum bands have been released for 5G, with the first practicable bands being under 6GHz. However, high-frequency spectra, particularly 26 GHz, will soon be available and later millimeter wave spectrum will be a 5G pioneer band. Nonetheless, despite the exploitation of higher frequencies and millimeter wave spectrum being promoted to attain over gigabit data rates, the business model relying on expanding spectrum allocation is not valid for rural areas in terms of cost-effectiveness. Therefore, spectrum sharing of traditional and congested frequency bands will appear as a solution to avoid holding back those communities from a new era of connectivity. In short, 5G should work for all.

5G is also expected to expand wireless connectivity within the economy and society to create benefits for people and businesses, enabling revolutionary uses in sectors such as industry, manufacturing, transport, and healthcare. The potential applications of 5G enabling technologies must then be carefully considered, as all of them are data-driven, not only thinking of connected people.

In this Special Issue, we are particularly interested in describing, defining, and quantifying the challenges related to 5G deployment. We are looking at contributions presenting open-research, solutions, tools, prototypes, and demonstrators that address all of the aspects of key 5G enabling wireless mobile technologies. Any other topics related to 5G research challenges are also welcome.

Prof. Dr. Ana Vázquez Alejos
Prof. Dr. Manuel García Sanchez
Prof. Dr. Francisco Falcone
Prof. Dr. Leyre Azpilicueta
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Electronics is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Millimeter wave
  • Radio channel modeling
  • Antenna design
  • Beamforming
  • MIMO
  • Beyond OFDM waveform design
  • Spectrum sharing
  • Non-orthogonal medium access techniques and protocols
  • Full-duplex communications
  • D2D, IoT, and M2M communications
  • Software simulators
  • Design tools
  • Applications: healthcare, vehicular communications, transport

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Article
5G UFMC Scheme Performance with Different Numerologies
Electronics 2021, 10(16), 1915; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10161915 - 10 Aug 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2869
Abstract
5G is the latest mobile communications standard that is spreading fast across the world. Recently defined requirements for 5G systems have led to higher applications’ requirements regarding data rates, lower requirements for latency, and higher efficiency regarding the spectrum usage. Universal Filtered Multi-Carrier [...] Read more.
5G is the latest mobile communications standard that is spreading fast across the world. Recently defined requirements for 5G systems have led to higher applications’ requirements regarding data rates, lower requirements for latency, and higher efficiency regarding the spectrum usage. Universal Filtered Multi-Carrier (UFMC) is one new candidate modulation scheme for emergent Fifth Generation (5G) communication systems. This paper focuses on Universal Filtered Multi-Carrier (UFMC) design aspects in terms of Bit Error Rate (BER) performance in relation to the filter length used in subband filtering. Simulation results show that BER and CCDF performance varies for different filter lengths and modulation schemes. The main achievement of this work is that the results show that different Dolph–Chebyshev FIR filter lengths do not affect the BER performance both for the 64 and 256 QAM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enabling-5G)
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Article
Experimental Analysis of Concentrated versus Distributed Massive MIMO in an Indoor Cell at 3.5 GHz
Electronics 2021, 10(14), 1646; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10141646 - 10 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1460
Abstract
This paper presents a measurement-based comparison between distributed and concentrated massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems, which are called D-mMIMO and C-mMIMO systems, in an indoor environment considering a 400 MHz bandwidth centered at 3.5 GHz. In both cases, we have considered an array [...] Read more.
This paper presents a measurement-based comparison between distributed and concentrated massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems, which are called D-mMIMO and C-mMIMO systems, in an indoor environment considering a 400 MHz bandwidth centered at 3.5 GHz. In both cases, we have considered an array of 64 antennas in the base station and eight simultaneously active users. The work focuses on the characterization of both schemes in the up-link, considering the analysis of the sum capacity, the total spectral efficiency (SE) achievable by using the zero forcing (ZF) combining method, as well as the user fairness. The effect of the power imbalance between the different transmitters or user terminal (UT) locations, and thus, the benefits of performing an adequate power control are also investigated. The differences between the C-mMIMO and D-mMIMO channel performances are explained through the observation of the structure of their respective measured channel matrices through parameters such as the condition number or the power imbalance between the channels established by each UT. The channel measurements have been performed in the frequency domain, emulating a massive MIMO system in the framework of a time-domain duplex orthogonal frequency multiple access network (TDD-OFDM-MIMO). The characterization of the MIMO channel is based on the virtual array technique for both C-mMIMO and D-mMIMO systems. The deployment of the C-mMIMO and D-MIMO systems, as well as the distribution of users in the measurement environment, has been arranged as realistically as possible, avoiding the movement of people or machines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enabling-5G)
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Article
5G Mobile Phone Network Introduction in Colombia
Electronics 2021, 10(8), 922; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10080922 - 13 Apr 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 4143
Abstract
The deployment of the 5G mobile network is currently booming, offering commercially available services that improve network performance metrics by minimizing network latency in countries such as the USA, China, and Korea. However, many countries around the world are still in the pilot [...] Read more.
The deployment of the 5G mobile network is currently booming, offering commercially available services that improve network performance metrics by minimizing network latency in countries such as the USA, China, and Korea. However, many countries around the world are still in the pilot phase promoted and regulated by government agencies. This is the case in Colombia, where the assignment of the first 5G band is planned for the third quarter of 2021. By analyzing the results of the pilot phase and the roadmap of the Colombian Ministry of Information and Communication Technologies (MinTIC), we can determine the main issues, which contribute to the deployment of 5G mobile technology as well as the plans to achieve a 5G stand-alone network from 4G networks. This is applicable to other countries in Latin America and the world. Then, our objective is to synthesize and share the most important concepts of 5G mobile technology such as the MIMO (multiple input/multiple output) antenna, RAN (Radio Access Network), C-RAN (Centralised-RAN), and frequency bands, and evaluate the current stage of its introduction in Colombia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enabling-5G)
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Article
Study of 5G-NR-MIMO Links in the Presence of an Interferer
Electronics 2021, 10(6), 732; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10060732 - 19 Mar 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1970
Abstract
Many communication systems are based on the Multiple Input, Multiple Output (MIMO) scheme, and Orthogonal Space–time Block Transmit diversity Coding (OSTBC), combined with Maximal Ratio Receive Combining (MRRC), to create an optimal diversity system. A system with optimal diversity fixes and optimizes the [...] Read more.
Many communication systems are based on the Multiple Input, Multiple Output (MIMO) scheme, and Orthogonal Space–time Block Transmit diversity Coding (OSTBC), combined with Maximal Ratio Receive Combining (MRRC), to create an optimal diversity system. A system with optimal diversity fixes and optimizes the channel’s effects under multi-path and Rayleigh fading with maximum energy efficiency; however, the challenge does not end with dealing with the channel destruction of the multi-path impacts. Susceptibility to interference is a significant vulnerability in future wireless mobile networks. The 5th Generation New Radio (5G-NR) technologies bring hundreds of small cells and pieces of User Equipment (UE) per indoor or outdoor local area scenario under a specific Long Term Evolution (LTE)-based station (e-NodeB), or under 5G-NR base-station (g-NodeB). It is necessary to study issues that deal with many interference signals, and smart jammers from advanced communication equipment cause deterioration in the links between the UE, the small cells, and the NodeB. In this paper, we study and present the significant impact and performances of 2×2 Alamouti Phase-Shift Keying (PSK) modulation techniques in the presence of an interferer and a smart jammer. The destructive effects affecting the MIMO array and the advanced diversity technique without closed-loop MIMO are analyzed. The performance is evaluated in terms of Bit Error Rate (BER) vs. Signal to Interference Ratio (SIR). In addition, we proved the impairment of the orthogonal spectrum assumption mathematically. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enabling-5G)
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Article
Full Duplex Component-Forward Cooperative Communication for a Secure Wireless Communication System
Electronics 2020, 9(12), 2102; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9122102 - 10 Dec 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1981
Abstract
The technological breakthrough in the form of Internet of Things (IoT), Big data and connected world is increasing the demand of better spectrum utilization. Half-Duplex (HD) transmission is mostly used in the earlier communication systems. The high transmission demand requires the better utilization [...] Read more.
The technological breakthrough in the form of Internet of Things (IoT), Big data and connected world is increasing the demand of better spectrum utilization. Half-Duplex (HD) transmission is mostly used in the earlier communication systems. The high transmission demand requires the better utilization of the existing spectrum. There are several possible ways to overcome the problem of better spectrum usage. In-Band Full Duplex (IBFD) is one of the techniques that can double the Spectral Efficiency (SE) in a Beyond 5G (B5G) communication system. In this paper, our aim is to use the spectral efficient IBFD scheme to improve the security of the system with minimum interference. The interference can be reduced by the addition of orthogonality between the transmitted and received signal of a relay. A component-forward scheme is proposed in this paper to create such orthogonality. For achieving the desired aim, IBFD is used with Device-to-Device (D2D), Artificial Noise (AN), Modulation based orthogonalization, Radio Frequency Energy Harvesting (RFEH) and proposed Full-Duplex Component Forward (FD-CF) algorithm for multiple relays. We also use non-linear harvested power as one of the sources to reuse the exiting power for evaluating the system performance. The derivation of Secrecy Outage Probability (SOP) and throughput is derived in this paper for the FD-CF cooperative communication and is explored with and without non-linear RFEH. The simulation results show the comparison between the component-forward and decode-and-forward communication with one or more relays. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enabling-5G)
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Article
Scaling Laws of Scheduling Gain for Uplink Massive MIMO Systems: Is User Scheduling Still Beneficial for Massive MIMO?
Electronics 2020, 9(10), 1650; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9101650 - 10 Oct 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1500
Abstract
In this paper, the scaling laws of scheduling gain and the feasibility of user scheduling for uplink massive multiple input–multiple output (MIMO) systems are investigated by analyzing the second moment of mutual information. We consider two well-known linear receivers of matched filter (MF) [...] Read more.
In this paper, the scaling laws of scheduling gain and the feasibility of user scheduling for uplink massive multiple input–multiple output (MIMO) systems are investigated by analyzing the second moment of mutual information. We consider two well-known linear receivers of matched filter (MF) and zero-forcing (ZF). The exact distribution of the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) and its moment-generating function are first obtained, and the approximated variance of the mutual information for a user is derived as a closed form with a function of the number of antennas. The achievable scheduling gain under the optimal user scheduler is then derived using the Gaussianity of the sum rate. From the analyses and simulation results, it is found that the scheduling gain for the MF receiver increases with the number of base station (BS) antennas, while that for the ZF receiver decreases as the number of BS antennas increases, for most cases (except some impractical scenarios). Therefore, it is verified that user scheduling is still beneficial for the MF receiver while random user selection is sufficient for the ZF receiver in massive MIMO systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enabling-5G)
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Review

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Review
Network Slicing for Beyond 5G Systems: An Overview of the Smart Port Use Case
Electronics 2021, 10(9), 1090; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10091090 - 05 May 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3795
Abstract
As the idea of a new wireless communication standard (5G) started to circulate around the world, there was much speculation regarding its performance, making it necessary to carry out further research by keeping in view the challenges presented by it. 5G is considered [...] Read more.
As the idea of a new wireless communication standard (5G) started to circulate around the world, there was much speculation regarding its performance, making it necessary to carry out further research by keeping in view the challenges presented by it. 5G is considered a multi-system support network due to its ability to provide benefits to vertical industries. Due to the wide range of devices and applications, it is essential to provide support for massively interconnected devices. Network slicing has emerged as the key technology to meet the requirements of the communications network. In this paper, we present a review of the latest achievements of 5G network slicing by comparing the architecture of The Next Generation Mobile Network Alliance’s (NGMN’s) and 5G-PPP, using the enabling technologies software-defined networking (SDN) and network function virtualization (NFV). We then review and discuss machine learning (ML) techniques and their integration with network slicing for beyond 5G networks and elaborate on how ML techniques can be useful for mobility prediction and resource management. Lastly, we propose the use case of network slicing based on ML techniques in a smart seaport environment, which will help to manage the resources more efficiently. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enabling-5G)
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