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Feature Papers in Vehicular Sensing

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Vehicular Sensing".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2022) | Viewed by 53636

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Instituto Universitario de Investigación del Automóvil (INSIA), Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain
Interests: intelligent transport systems; advanced driver assistance systems; vehicle positioning; inertial sensors; digital maps; vehicle dynamics; driver monitoring; perception; autonomous vehicles; cooperative services; connected and autonomous driving
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are pleased to announce that the Section Vehicular Sensing is now compiling a collection of papers submitted by the Editorial Board Members (EBMs) of our Section and outstanding scholars in this research field. We welcome contributions as well as recommendations from the EBMs.

The purpose of this Special Issue is to publish a set of papers that typify the very best insightful and influential original articles or review where our Section’s EBMs discuss key topics in the field. We expect these papers to be widely read and highly influential within the field. All papers in this Special Issue will be collected into a printed edition book after the deadline and will be well promoted. 

We would also like to take this opportunity to call on more scholars to join the Section Vehicular Sensing so that we can work together to further develop this exciting field of research. Potential topics include but are not limited to the following:

  • Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV);
  • Unmanned aircraft;
  • Underwater vehicles;
  • Drones;
  • Cyber ship;
  • Intelligent transportation systems;
  • Intelligent vehicles;
  • Traffic monitoring;
  • Vehicle detection;
  • Vehicle localization system;
  • Smart mobility and sustainable transport services;
  • Driver behavior monitoring;
  • Sensors for fault detection of vehicles;
  • Fault-tolerant systems;
  • Cyber security in vehicle systems and networks;
  • Connected and autonomous vehicles;
  • Vehicular social networks (VSNs);
  • Connected vehicles in urban roads;
  • Internet of vehicles;
  • Vehicular networks;
  • Vehicle to Everything;
  • Blockchain in vehicles;
  • Wireless in-car networks;
  • Underwater communications;
  • Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs);
  • Vehicle communications: V2X, V2V, V2I;
  • Emerging IoT applications in vehicular social networks (VSNs);
  • Vehicle privacy and trust;
  • Artificial intelligence in automate vehicles, e.g., self-driving car;
  • Big data analysis in vehicular systems and networks;
  • Cyberphysical system control and safety in vehicular networks.

Dr. Felipe Jiménez
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (17 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 197 KiB  
Editorial
Feature Papers in Vehicular Sensing
by Felipe Jiménez
Sensors 2023, 23(9), 4495; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23094495 - 05 May 2023
Viewed by 726
Abstract
This Special Issue compiles papers submitted by the Editorial Board Members of the Vehicular Sensing Section and outstanding scholars in this field [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Vehicular Sensing)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

15 pages, 2541 KiB  
Article
AST-GIN: Attribute-Augmented Spatiotemporal Graph Informer Network for Electric Vehicle Charging Station Availability Forecasting
by Ruikang Luo, Yaofeng Song, Liping Huang, Yicheng Zhang and Rong Su
Sensors 2023, 23(4), 1975; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23041975 - 10 Feb 2023
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2259
Abstract
Electric Vehicle (EV) charging demand and charging station availability forecasting is one of the challenges in the intelligent transportation system. With accurate EV station availability prediction, suitable charging behaviors can be scheduled in advance to relieve range anxiety. Many existing deep learning methods [...] Read more.
Electric Vehicle (EV) charging demand and charging station availability forecasting is one of the challenges in the intelligent transportation system. With accurate EV station availability prediction, suitable charging behaviors can be scheduled in advance to relieve range anxiety. Many existing deep learning methods have been proposed to address this issue; however, due to the complex road network structure and complex external factors, such as points of interest (POIs) and weather effects, many commonly used algorithms can only extract the historical usage information and do not consider the comprehensive influence of external factors. To enhance the prediction accuracy and interpretability, the Attribute-Augmented Spatiotemporal Graph Informer (AST-GIN) structure is proposed in this study by combining the Graph Convolutional Network (GCN) layer and the Informer layer to extract both the external and internal spatiotemporal dependence of relevant transportation data. The external factors are modeled as dynamic attributes by the attributeaugmented encoder for training. The AST-GIN model was tested on the data collected in Dundee City, and the experimental results showed the effectiveness of our model considering external factors’ influence on various horizon settings compared with other baselines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Vehicular Sensing)
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24 pages, 11528 KiB  
Article
Driver Take-Over Behaviour Study Based on Gaze Focalization and Vehicle Data in CARLA Simulator
by Javier Araluce, Luis M. Bergasa, Manuel Ocaña, Elena López-Guillén, Rodrigo Gutiérrez-Moreno and J. Felipe Arango
Sensors 2022, 22(24), 9993; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22249993 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2904
Abstract
Autonomous vehicles are the near future of the automobile industry. However, until they reach Level 5, humans and cars will share this intermediate future. Therefore, studying the transition between autonomous and manual modes is a fascinating topic. Automated vehicles may still need to [...] Read more.
Autonomous vehicles are the near future of the automobile industry. However, until they reach Level 5, humans and cars will share this intermediate future. Therefore, studying the transition between autonomous and manual modes is a fascinating topic. Automated vehicles may still need to occasionally hand the control to drivers due to technology limitations and legal requirements. This paper presents a study of driver behaviour in the transition between autonomous and manual modes using a CARLA simulator. To our knowledge, this is the first take-over study with transitions conducted on this simulator. For this purpose, we obtain driver gaze focalization and fuse it with the road’s semantic segmentation to track to where and when the user is paying attention, besides the actuators’ reaction-time measurements provided in the literature. To track gaze focalization in a non-intrusive and inexpensive way, we use a method based on a camera developed in previous works. We devised it with the OpenFace 2.0 toolkit and a NARMAX calibration method. It transforms the face parameters extracted by the toolkit into the point where the user is looking on the simulator scene. The study was carried out by different users using our simulator, which is composed of three screens, a steering wheel and pedals. We distributed this proposal in two different computer systems due to the computational cost of the simulator based on the CARLA simulator. The robot operating system (ROS) framework is in charge of the communication of both systems to provide portability and flexibility to the proposal. Results of the transition analysis are provided using state-of-the-art metrics and a novel driver situation-awareness metric for 20 users in two different scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Vehicular Sensing)
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15 pages, 943 KiB  
Article
A Methodology for Abstracting the Physical Layer of Direct V2X Communications Technologies
by Zhuofei Wu, Stefania Bartoletti, Vincent Martinez and Alessandro Bazzi
Sensors 2022, 22(23), 9330; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22239330 - 30 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1480
Abstract
Recent advancements in vehicle-to-everything (V2X) communications have greatly increased the flexibility of the physical (PHY) and medium access control (MAC) layers. This increases the complexity when investigating the system from a network perspective to evaluate the performance of the supported applications. Such flexibility, [...] Read more.
Recent advancements in vehicle-to-everything (V2X) communications have greatly increased the flexibility of the physical (PHY) and medium access control (MAC) layers. This increases the complexity when investigating the system from a network perspective to evaluate the performance of the supported applications. Such flexibility, in fact, needs to be taken into account through a cross-layer approach, which might lead to challenging evaluation processes. As an accurate simulation of the signals appears unfeasible, a typical solution is to rely on simple models for incorporating the PHY layer of the supported technologies based on off-line measurements or accurate link-level simulations. Such data are, however, limited to a subset of possible configurations, and extending them to others is costly when not even impossible. The goal of this paper is to develop a new approach for modeling the PHY layer of V2X communications that can be extended to a wide range of configurations without leading to extensive measurement or simulation campaigns at the link layer. In particular, given a scenario and starting from results in terms of the packet error rate (PER) vs. signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) related to a subset of possible configurations, we first approximated the curves with step functions characterized by a given SINR threshold, and we then derived one parameter, called implementation loss, that was used to obtain the SINR threshold and evaluate the network performance under any configuration in the same scenario. The proposed methodology, leading to a good trade-off among the complexity, generality, and accuracy of the performance evaluation process, was validated through extensive simulations with both IEEE 802.11p and LTE-V2X sidelink technologies in various scenarios. The results first show that the curves can be effectively approximated by using an SINR threshold, with a value corresponding to 0.5 PER, and then demonstrate that the network-level outputs derived from the proposed approach are very close to those obtained with complete curves, despite not being restricted to a few possible configurations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Vehicular Sensing)
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14 pages, 1535 KiB  
Article
A Deep Learning Approach to Detect Anomalies in an Electric Power Steering System
by Lawal Wale Alabe, Kimleang Kea, Youngsun Han, Young Jae Min and Taekyung Kim
Sensors 2022, 22(22), 8981; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22228981 - 20 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3405
Abstract
As anomaly detection for electrical power steering (EPS) systems has been centralized using model- and knowledge-based approaches, EPS system have become complex and more sophisticated, thereby requiring enhanced reliability and safety. Since most current detection methods rely on prior knowledge, it is difficult [...] Read more.
As anomaly detection for electrical power steering (EPS) systems has been centralized using model- and knowledge-based approaches, EPS system have become complex and more sophisticated, thereby requiring enhanced reliability and safety. Since most current detection methods rely on prior knowledge, it is difficult to identify new or previously unknown anomalies. In this paper, we propose a deep learning approach that consists of a two-stage process using an autoencoder and long short-term memory (LSTM) to detect anomalies in EPS sensor data. First, we train our model on EPS data by employing an autoencoder to extract features and compress them into a latent representation. The compressed features are fed into the LSTM network to capture any correlated dependencies between features, which are then reconstructed as output. An anomaly score is used to detect anomalies based on the reconstruction loss of the output. The effectiveness of our proposed approach is demonstrated by collecting sample data from an experiment using an EPS test jig. The comparison results indicate that our proposed model performs better in detecting anomalies, with an accuracy of 0.99 and a higher area under the receiver operating characteristic curve than other methods providing a valuable tool for anomaly detection in EPS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Vehicular Sensing)
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16 pages, 4283 KiB  
Article
Forest Fire Detection Using New Routing Protocol
by Fahad Taha AL-Dhief, Ravie Chandren Muniyandi, Naseer Sabri, Mosab Hamdan, Nurul Mu’azzah Abdul Latiff, Musatafa Abbas Abbood Albadr, Mutaz Hamed Hussien Khairi, Muzaffar Hamzah and Suleman Khan
Sensors 2022, 22(20), 7745; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22207745 - 12 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1862
Abstract
The Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (MANET) has received significant interest from researchers for several applications. In spite of developing and proposing numerous routing protocols for MANET, there are still routing protocols that are too inefficient in terms of sending data and energy consumption, which [...] Read more.
The Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (MANET) has received significant interest from researchers for several applications. In spite of developing and proposing numerous routing protocols for MANET, there are still routing protocols that are too inefficient in terms of sending data and energy consumption, which limits the lifetime of the network for forest fire monitoring. Therefore, this paper presents the development of a Location Aided Routing (LAR) protocol in forest fire detection. The new routing protocol is named the LAR-Based Reliable Routing Protocol (LARRR), which is used to detect a forest fire based on three criteria: the route length between nodes, the temperature sensing, and the number of packets within node buffers (i.e., route busyness). The performance of the LARRR protocol is evaluated by using widely known evaluation measurements, which are the Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR), Energy Consumption (EC), End-to-End Delay (E2E Delay), and Routing Overhead (RO). The simulation results show that the proposed LARRR protocol achieves 70% PDR, 403 joules of EC, 2.733 s of E2E delay, and 43.04 RO. In addition, the performance of the proposed LARRR protocol outperforms its competitors and is able to detect forest fires efficiently. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Vehicular Sensing)
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23 pages, 11184 KiB  
Article
Virtual Traffic Light Implementation on a Roadside Unit over 802.11p Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments
by Robert Wong, Jack White, Sumanjit Gill and Shahab Tayeb
Sensors 2022, 22(20), 7699; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22207699 - 11 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1939
Abstract
Blind intersections have high accident rates due to the poor visibility of oncoming traffic, high traffic speeds, and lack of infrastructure (e.g., stoplights). These intersections are more commonplace in rural areas, where traffic infrastructure is less developed. The Internet of Vehicles (IoV) aims [...] Read more.
Blind intersections have high accident rates due to the poor visibility of oncoming traffic, high traffic speeds, and lack of infrastructure (e.g., stoplights). These intersections are more commonplace in rural areas, where traffic infrastructure is less developed. The Internet of Vehicles (IoV) aims to address such safety concerns through a network of connected and autonomous vehicles (CAVs) that intercommunicate. This paper proposes a Road-Side Unit-based Virtual Intersection Management (RSU-VIM) over 802.11p system consisting of a Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) lightweight RSU that is solar power-based and tailored to rural areas. The RSU utilizes the proposed RSU-VIM algorithm adapted from existing virtual traffic light methodologies to communicate with vehicles over IEEE 802.11p and facilitate intersection traffic, minimizing visibility issues. The implementation of the proposed system has a simulated cloud delay of 0.0841 s and an overall system delay of 0.4067 s with 98.611% reliability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Vehicular Sensing)
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17 pages, 3170 KiB  
Article
An Improved Deep Neural Network Model of Intelligent Vehicle Dynamics via Linear Decreasing Weight Particle Swarm and Invasive Weed Optimization Algorithms
by Xiaobo Nie, Chuan Min, Yongjun Pan, Zhixiong Li and Grzegorz Królczyk
Sensors 2022, 22(13), 4676; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22134676 - 21 Jun 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1638
Abstract
We propose an improved DNN modeling method based on two optimization algorithms, namely the linear decreasing weight particle swarm optimization (LDWPSO) algorithm and invasive weed optimization (IWO) algorithm, for predicting vehicle’s longitudinal-lateral responses. The proposed improved method can restrain the solutions of weight [...] Read more.
We propose an improved DNN modeling method based on two optimization algorithms, namely the linear decreasing weight particle swarm optimization (LDWPSO) algorithm and invasive weed optimization (IWO) algorithm, for predicting vehicle’s longitudinal-lateral responses. The proposed improved method can restrain the solutions of weight matrices and bias matrices from falling into a local optimum while training the DNN model. First, dynamic simulations for a vehicle are performed based on an efficient semirecursive multibody model for real-time data acquisition. Next, the vehicle data are processed and used to train and test the improved DNN model. The vehicle responses, which are obtained from the LDWPSO-DNN and IWO-DNN models, are compared with the DNN and multibody results. The comparative results show that the LDWPSO-DNN and IWO-DNN models predict accurate longitudinal-lateral responses in real-time without falling into a local optimum. The improved DNN model based on optimization algorithms can be employed for real-time simulation and preview control in intelligent vehicles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Vehicular Sensing)
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15 pages, 3536 KiB  
Article
Study on the Pressure Regulation Method of New Automatic Pressure Regulating Valve in the Electronically Controlled Pneumatic Brake Systems in Commercial Vehicles
by Gangyan Li, Xiaoxu Wei, Zaiyu Wang and Hanwei Bao
Sensors 2022, 22(12), 4599; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22124599 - 17 Jun 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1693
Abstract
In order to adapt the development of vehicle driving automation technology for driving conditions under different levels of automation and based on the independently invented LF automatic pressure regulating valve (LF-APRV) for electronically controlled pneumatic brake systems (ECPBS), the dynamic PWM coupling pressure [...] Read more.
In order to adapt the development of vehicle driving automation technology for driving conditions under different levels of automation and based on the independently invented LF automatic pressure regulating valve (LF-APRV) for electronically controlled pneumatic brake systems (ECPBS), the dynamic PWM coupling pressure regulation method is proposed. This method realizes pressure regulation by adjusting the duty cycle of the control signal of the LF-APRV at different stages in the pressure regulation cycle. A co-simulation model was established to verify the feasibility of the method, and a test system was built to verify the correctness of the co-simulation model. Through the test, the pressure regulation performance of dynamic PWM coupling pressure regulation method and conventional on/off pressure regulation method was compared. The results show that the new method can improve the stability of pressure regulation, although the response time increases; under the new method, the overshoot of the pressure rising from 0 to 0.5 MPa was reduced by 69%, and the overshoot of the pressure decreasing from 0.5 MPa to 0.2 MPa was basically 0. Finally, tests and simulations showed that the dynamic PWM coupling pressure regulation method can meet the continuous graded braking requirements of vehicles, and the pressure response has good tracking performance on the target pressure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Vehicular Sensing)
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12 pages, 2519 KiB  
Article
Identifying CO2 Seeps in a Long-Dormant Volcanic Area Using Uncrewed Aerial Vehicle-Based Infrared Thermometry: A Qualitative Study
by Dan Mircea Tămaș, Boglárka Mercédesz Kis, Alexandra Tămaș and Roland Szalay
Sensors 2022, 22(7), 2719; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22072719 - 01 Apr 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2559
Abstract
Ciomadul is a long-dormant volcanic area in the Eastern Carpathians of Romania. The study site, the Stinky Cave, and the surrounding areas are well-known for CO2, and H2S seeps. The gases from these seeps come with high flux and are [...] Read more.
Ciomadul is a long-dormant volcanic area in the Eastern Carpathians of Romania. The study site, the Stinky Cave, and the surrounding areas are well-known for CO2, and H2S seeps. The gases from these seeps come with high flux and are of magmatic origin, associated with the volcanic activity of Ciomadul. In this study, an Uncrewed Aerial Vehicle coupled with a thermal infrared sensor is used to identify new seeps. In order to achieve this, we carried out several field campaigns, coupling image acquisition with the creation of digital outcrop models and orthomosaics. The study was carried out at low ambient temperatures to identify strong thermal anomalies from the gasses. Using this qualitative study method, we identified several new seeps. The total emission of the greenhouse gas CO2 in the Ciomadul area and other similar sites is highly underestimated. The practical application of this method will serve as a guide for a future regional rollout of the thermal infrared mapping and identification of CO2 seeps in the area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Vehicular Sensing)
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14 pages, 12600 KiB  
Article
Underwater Image Enhancement Based on Histogram-Equalization Approximation Using Physics-Based Dichromatic Modeling
by Yan-Tsung Peng, Yen-Rong Chen, Zihao Chen, Jung-Hua Wang and Shih-Chia Huang
Sensors 2022, 22(6), 2168; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22062168 - 10 Mar 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2996
Abstract
This work proposes to develop an underwater image enhancement method based on histogram-equalization (HE) approximation using physics-based dichromatic modeling (PDM). Images captured underwater usually suffer from low contrast and color distortions due to light scattering and attenuation. The PDM describes the image formation [...] Read more.
This work proposes to develop an underwater image enhancement method based on histogram-equalization (HE) approximation using physics-based dichromatic modeling (PDM). Images captured underwater usually suffer from low contrast and color distortions due to light scattering and attenuation. The PDM describes the image formation process, which can be used to restore nature-degraded images, such as underwater images. However, it does not assure that the restored images have good contrast. Thus, we propose approximating the conventional HE based on the PDM to recover the color distortions of underwater images and enhance their contrast through convex optimization. Experimental results demonstrate the proposed method performs favorably against state-of-the-art underwater image restoration approaches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Vehicular Sensing)
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15 pages, 2141 KiB  
Article
Complex Electromagnetic Issues Associated with the Use of Electric Vehicles in Urban Transportation
by Krzysztof Gryz, Jolanta Karpowicz and Patryk Zradziński
Sensors 2022, 22(5), 1719; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22051719 - 22 Feb 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 5884
Abstract
The electromagnetic field (EMF) in electric vehicles (EVs) affects not only drivers, but also passengers (using EVs daily) and electronic devices inside. This article summarizes the measurement methods applicable in studies of complex EMF in EVs focused on the evaluation of characteristics of [...] Read more.
The electromagnetic field (EMF) in electric vehicles (EVs) affects not only drivers, but also passengers (using EVs daily) and electronic devices inside. This article summarizes the measurement methods applicable in studies of complex EMF in EVs focused on the evaluation of characteristics of such exposure to EVs users and drivers, together with the results of investigations into the static magnetic field (SMF), the extremely low-frequency magnetic field (ELF) and radiofrequency (RF) EMF related to the use of the EVs in urban transportation. The investigated EMF components comply separately with limits provided by international labor law and guidelines regarding the evaluation of human short-term exposure; however other issues need attention—electromagnetic immunity of electronic devices and long-term human exposure. The strongest EMF was found in the vicinity of direct current (DC) charging installations—SMF up to 0.2 mT and ELF magnetic field up to 100 µT—and inside the EVs—up to 30 µT close to its internal electrical equipment. Exposure to RF EMF inside the EVs (up to a few V/m) was found and recognized to be emitted from outdoor radiocommunications systems, together with emissions from sources used inside vehicles, such as passenger mobile communication handsets and antennas of Wi-Fi routers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Vehicular Sensing)
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26 pages, 17500 KiB  
Article
Autonomous Quadcopter Landing on a Moving Target
by Alvika Gautam, Mandeep Singh, Pedda Baliyarasimhuni Sujit and Srikanth Saripalli
Sensors 2022, 22(3), 1116; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22031116 - 01 Feb 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 4401
Abstract
Autonomous landing on a moving target is challenging because of external disturbances and localization errors. In this paper, we present a vision-based guidance technique with a log polynomial closing velocity controller to achieve faster and more accurate landing as compared to that of [...] Read more.
Autonomous landing on a moving target is challenging because of external disturbances and localization errors. In this paper, we present a vision-based guidance technique with a log polynomial closing velocity controller to achieve faster and more accurate landing as compared to that of the traditional vertical landing approaches. The vision system uses a combination of color segmentation and AprilTags to detect the landing pad. No prior information about the landing target is needed. The guidance is based on pure pursuit guidance law. The convergence of the closing velocity controller is shown, and we test the efficacy of the proposed approach through simulations and field experiments. The landing target during the field experiments was manually dragged with a maximum speed of 0.6 m/s. In the simulations, the maximum target speed of the ground vehicle was 3 m/s. We conducted a total of 27 field experiment runs for landing on a moving target and achieved a successful landing in 22 cases. The maximum error magnitude for successful landing was recorded to be 35 cm from the landing target center. For the failure cases, the maximum distance of vehicle landing position from target boundary was 60 cm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Vehicular Sensing)
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21 pages, 10901 KiB  
Article
Experimental Validation of LiDAR Sensors Used in Vehicular Applications by Using a Mobile Platform for Distance and Speed Measurements
by Ionuț Vasile, Emil Tudor, Ion-Cătălin Sburlan, Marius-Alin Gheți and Gabriel Popa
Sensors 2021, 21(23), 8147; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21238147 - 06 Dec 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2915
Abstract
LiDAR sensors are needed for use in vehicular applications, particularly due to their good behavior in low-light environments, as they represent a possible solution for the safety systems of vehicles that have a long braking distance, such as trams. The testing of long-range [...] Read more.
LiDAR sensors are needed for use in vehicular applications, particularly due to their good behavior in low-light environments, as they represent a possible solution for the safety systems of vehicles that have a long braking distance, such as trams. The testing of long-range LiDAR dynamic responses is very important for vehicle applications because of the presence of difficult operation conditions, such as different weather conditions or fake targets between the sensor and the tracked vehicle. The goal of the authors in this paper was to develop an experimental model for indoor testing, using a scaled vehicle that can measure the distances and the speeds relative to a fixed or a moving obstacle. This model, containing a LiDAR sensor, was developed to operate at variable speeds, at which the software functions were validated by repeated tests. Once the software procedures are validated, they can be applied on the full-scale model. The findings of this research include the validation of the frontal distance and relative speed measurement methodology, in addition to the validation of the independence of the measurements to the color of the obstacle and to the ambient light. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Vehicular Sensing)
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16 pages, 5741 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Ride Comfort in a Railway Passenger Car Depending on a Change of Suspension Parameters
by Ján Dižo, Miroslav Blatnický, Juraj Gerlici, Bohuš Leitner, Rafał Melnik, Stanislav Semenov, Evgeny Mikhailov and Mariusz Kostrzewski
Sensors 2021, 21(23), 8138; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21238138 - 06 Dec 2021
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2927
Abstract
Ride comfort for passengers remains a pressing topic. The level of comfort in a vehicle can influences passengers’ preferences for a particular means of transport. The article aims to evaluate the influence of changes in suspension parameters on the ride comfort for passengers. [...] Read more.
Ride comfort for passengers remains a pressing topic. The level of comfort in a vehicle can influences passengers’ preferences for a particular means of transport. The article aims to evaluate the influence of changes in suspension parameters on the ride comfort for passengers. The theoretical background includes a description of the applied method for a creating the virtual model of an investigated vehicle as well as the method of evaluating the ride comfort. The ride comfort of the vehicle is assessed based on the standard method, which involves calculating the mean comfort method, i.e., ride comfort index NMV in chosen points on a body floor. The NMV ride comfort index (Mean Comfort Standard Method) requires the input of acceleration signals in three directions. The rest of the article offers the results of simulation computations. The stiffness–damping parameters of the primary and secondary suspension systems were changed at three levels and the vehicle was run on the real track section. The ride index NMV was calculated for all three modifications of the suspension system in the chosen fifteen points of the body floor. It was found that lower values in the stiffness of the secondary suspension system lead to lower levels of ride comfort in the investigated railway passenger car; however, lower values in the stiffness–damping parameters of the primary suspension system did not decrease the levels of ride comfort as significantly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Vehicular Sensing)
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31 pages, 482 KiB  
Article
Connected Vehicles: Technology Review, State of the Art, Challenges and Opportunities
by Ghadeer Abdelkader, Khalid Elgazzar and Alaa Khamis
Sensors 2021, 21(22), 7712; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21227712 - 19 Nov 2021
Cited by 32 | Viewed by 10504
Abstract
In an effort to reach accident-free milestones or drastically reduce/eliminate road fatalities rates and traffic congestion and to create disruptive, transformational mobility systems and services, different parties (e.g., automakers, universities, governments, and road traffic regulators) have collaborated to research, develop, and test connected [...] Read more.
In an effort to reach accident-free milestones or drastically reduce/eliminate road fatalities rates and traffic congestion and to create disruptive, transformational mobility systems and services, different parties (e.g., automakers, universities, governments, and road traffic regulators) have collaborated to research, develop, and test connected vehicle (CV) technologies. CVs create new data-rich environments and are considered key enablers for many applications and services that will make our roads safer, less congested, and more eco-friendly. A deeper understanding of the CV technologies will pave the way to avoid setbacks and will help in developing more innovative applications and breakthroughs. In the CV paradigm, vehicles become smarter by communicating with nearby vehicles, connected infrastructure, and the surroundings. This connectivity will be substantial to support different features and systems, such as adaptive routing, real-time navigation, and slow and near real-time infrastructure. Further examples include environmental sensing, advanced driver-assistance systems, automated driving systems, mobility on demand, and mobility as a service. This article provides a comprehensive review on CV technologies including fundamental challenges, state-of-the-art enabling technologies, innovative applications, and potential opportunities that can benefit automakers, customers, and businesses. The current standardization efforts of the forefront enabling technologies, such as Wi-Fi 6 and 5G-cellular technologies are also reviewed. Different challenges in terms of cooperative computation, privacy/security, and over-the-air updates are discussed. Safety and non-safety applications are described and possible future opportunities that CV technology brings to our life are also highlighted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Vehicular Sensing)
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34 pages, 20645 KiB  
Review
Case-Study-Based Overview of Methods and Technical Solutions of Analog and Digital Transmission in Measurement and Control Ship Systems
by Mostafa Abotaleb, Janusz Mindykowski, Boleslaw Dudojc and Romuald Masnicki
Sensors 2022, 22(18), 6931; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22186931 - 13 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1870
Abstract
The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of possible solutions to improve the performance of measurement and control processes in maritime engineering applications. This improvement can be basically provided by adopting techniques to enhance the reliability of measurement/control systems based [...] Read more.
The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of possible solutions to improve the performance of measurement and control processes in maritime engineering applications. This improvement can be basically provided by adopting techniques to enhance the reliability of measurement/control systems based on the 4–20 mA analogue standard. This aspect will be discussed through a Simscape Simulink model illustrating methods of noise and ground loops elimination for pressure measurement of a 4–20 mA current loop in the tank level measurement system on a bulk carrier commercial ship. Alternatively, improved measurement and control processes can be rendered by utilizing smart transmitters based on wired hybrid analogue–digital (Highway Addressable Remote Transducer (HART)), wired digital (Foundation Fieldbus (FF)) or wireless (wireless HART) communication protocols. A brief theoretical description of these protocols will be presented in this article. As an example of using smart transmitters, a simulation-based case study will analyze the possible options to implement non-intrinsically safe as well as intrinsically safe FF models for the tank level measurement system on a bulk carrier commercial ship. Conclusions obtained through analysis of the simulation results will characterize the behavior of FF segments in safe as well as explosive hazardous areas, highlighting the characteristics of field barriers and segment protectors used in conjunction with the HPTC (High-Power Trunk Concept) intrinsically safe model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Vehicular Sensing)
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