Technologies and Applications of Communications in Road Transport

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Electrical, Electronics and Communications Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 June 2021) | Viewed by 21867

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Instituto Universitario de Investigación del Automóvil (INSIA), Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain
Interests: intelligent transport systems; advanced driver assistance systems; vehicle positioning; inertial sensors; digital maps; vehicle dynamics; driver monitoring; perception; autonomous vehicles; cooperative services; connected and autonomous driving
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The use of communications for the transmission of information in the field of transport allows the introduction of services that increase safety and efficiency, both at the vehicle and mobility levels. At present, there are already several initiatives of cooperative services and cooperative corridors. In addition, various technologies coexist, where each one provides different and complementary properties, such as DSRC-based communication modules and cellular technology with 3-4-5G.

On the other hand, services that are in a state of greater maturity are designed as C-ITS Day-1 and Day-1.5. Demonstrations are presented in small-scale trials, concept tests, and Field Operational Tests. These tests allow one to obtain information on the main limitations and opportunities of these services, as well as the viability of the technologies and information flow architectures that are proposed.

On the other hand, aspects such as the standardization of communications and information transmitted, as well as solutions to guarantee security, are relevant.

This Special Issue aims to cover the most recent advances in connected vehicles, C-ITS, and the technologies involved. Reviews and surveys of the state-of-the-art are also welcomed. Authors are invited to contact the Guest Editor prior to submission if they are uncertain about whether their work falls within the Special Issue’s general scope.

Topics of interest include but are not limited to the following:

  • Connected vehicles;
  • Cooperative systems;
  • C-ITS;
  • V2X communications;
  • Communication technologies;
  • Communication standardization;
  • Use of 3G-4G in vehicular communications;
  • Use of 5G in vehicular communications;
  • DSRC technology;
  • IoT in mobility;
  • Trial and field operational tests.

Dr. Felipe Jimenez
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • V2X communications
  • connected vehicles
  • C-ITS
  • communication standardization
  • 5G technology
  • DSRC
  • IoT

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Editorial

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2 pages, 184 KiB  
Editorial
Technologies and Applications of Communications in Road Transport
by Felipe Jiménez
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(18), 8997; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12188997 - 07 Sep 2022
Viewed by 731
Abstract
The use of communications for the transmission of information in the field of transport allows the introduction of services that increase safety and efficiency, both at the vehicle and mobility levels [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technologies and Applications of Communications in Road Transport)

Research

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11 pages, 10993 KiB  
Article
Flexible Data Rate V2X Communication System beyond 1.84 Gb/s Based on MIMO VLC and Radar Integration
by Junlian Jia, Peng Zou, Fangchen Hu, Yiheng Zhao and Nan Chi
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(19), 6636; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10196636 - 23 Sep 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1994
Abstract
Vehicle-to-everything (V2X) communication has been widely studied in recent years for the rapid development of the vehicular traffic. In this paper, a V2X communication system integrating the probabilistic shaping (PS) bitloading multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) visible light communication (VLC) and the millimeter wave radar is [...] Read more.
Vehicle-to-everything (V2X) communication has been widely studied in recent years for the rapid development of the vehicular traffic. In this paper, a V2X communication system integrating the probabilistic shaping (PS) bitloading multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) visible light communication (VLC) and the millimeter wave radar is proposed. The PS bitloading algorithm utilizes the full spectrum resource of the LED headlights, and the MIMO configuration enhances the performance of the VLC system. Furthermore, the linear and nonlinear interpolation method makes it possible to calculate the SNR at every point from the SNR measured at several discrete calibration points. The SNR table enables the radar to guide the VLC according to the distance, achieving the highest achievable information rate (AIR) at every point. The system supports the V2X communication beyond 1.1 Gb/s up to 5 m. This is the first VLC based V2X sensing and communication system, and the AIR in the system is 1.8484 Gb/s. As far as we know, it is the highest data rate reported in the LED headlight based VLC system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technologies and Applications of Communications in Road Transport)
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18 pages, 7346 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Low Cost Communication Technologies for V2I Applications
by Alejandro Martínez, Esteban Cañibano and Javier Romo
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(4), 1249; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10041249 - 13 Feb 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3554
Abstract
The automated and connected vehicle will be a great technology development and it will change mobility habits. The two main positive effects of its integration are the improvement of road safety and the reduction of pollutant emissions of the vehicles. But first, the [...] Read more.
The automated and connected vehicle will be a great technology development and it will change mobility habits. The two main positive effects of its integration are the improvement of road safety and the reduction of pollutant emissions of the vehicles. But first, the technology must be available. With the arrival of 5G (Fifth Generation), it will be a reality. However, the 5G could have some operation failures which could isolate the vehicle from the rest of the infrastructure. So, a solution is required which can improve communication reliability such that, if the 5G would fail, the short/middle range technology integrated will lead the vehicle with V2I communication. This integration would provide a reliable and strong solution. In this work, an analysis of different available communication technologies was carried out with a short/middle range, the selection criteria being lower cost and easy integration with 5G. To contrast the technologies, a validation methodology was developed, which enabled us to evaluate the performance ofV2I applications. We observed a comparatively higher performance of the module nRF24L01+ for V2I communication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technologies and Applications of Communications in Road Transport)
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21 pages, 1088 KiB  
Article
Distributed Triggered Access for BSM Dissemination in 802.11bd V2V Networks
by Woojin Ahn and Ronny Yongho Kim
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 311; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10010311 - 31 Dec 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3122
Abstract
In this paper, a novel channel access scheme, Distributed Triggered Access (DTA), is proposed for distributed V2V Basic Safety Message (BSM) dissemination in future platooning environment. To meet the stringent delay requirements of platooning communications, the proposed scheme is designed to use Wireless [...] Read more.
In this paper, a novel channel access scheme, Distributed Triggered Access (DTA), is proposed for distributed V2V Basic Safety Message (BSM) dissemination in future platooning environment. To meet the stringent delay requirements of platooning communications, the proposed scheme is designed to use Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) multi-user channel access in a distributed manner. The proposed scheme leverages advanced Medium Access Control (MAC) layer features, such as Triggered Uplink Access and Multi-user Request-To-Send (RTS), introduced in the 6th generation mainstream WLAN standard, IEEE 802.11ax, based upon a conceptual Physical (PHY) layer frame structure for IEEE 802.11bd, the successor of IEEE 802.11p. The proposed scheme is analyzed by mathematical model and simulations from transmission delay and successful transmission rate perspective. The mathematical model includes a Markov chain analysis that models the Enhanced Distributed Channel Access (EDCA) backoff procedure of DTA considering the effect of resumed backoff procedure with empty buffer caused by triggered access. Also, a Markov arrival/General service distribution/1 service channel (M/G/1) queuing model is provided to analyze the transmission delay of a BSM under unsaturated traffic condition. The extensive simulation results corroborate that DTA effectively improves the transmission success rate and reduces the average BSM collecting delay in a highly congested environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technologies and Applications of Communications in Road Transport)
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16 pages, 2487 KiB  
Article
Negotiation-Free Encryption for Securing Vehicular Unicasting Communication
by Fang Mei, Shengjie Liu, Jian Wang, Yuming Ge and Tie Feng
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(6), 1121; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9061121 - 17 Mar 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2432
Abstract
Thanks to the rapid development of vehicle-to-everything (V2X) and sensor technology, states of vehicles can be accurately measured and stored jointly in the cloud. These states can be viewed as a set of infinite attributes, such as the density around the motor vehicle, [...] Read more.
Thanks to the rapid development of vehicle-to-everything (V2X) and sensor technology, states of vehicles can be accurately measured and stored jointly in the cloud. These states can be viewed as a set of infinite attributes, such as the density around the motor vehicle, signal strength and so on. As such, the vehicle can be viewed as a moving object. The vehicle state can be measured, and its entropy is large. In vehicle networking, unicast communications between vehicles must be encrypted. The previous approach was to negotiate a session key through the Diffie-Hellman algorithm and then use the session key to encrypt the communications. This method not only needs to know in advance the peer IP of the communication, but it also needs a long time to establish a session key. Therefore, it is not suitable for vehicle networking. For the fast-changing vehicle networking, the session key establishment process should be shortened or even canceled. In this paper, we propose a method of Negotiation-free encryption for securing vehicular unicasting communications to improve the efficiency of vehicle ad hoc network transmissions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technologies and Applications of Communications in Road Transport)
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Review

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23 pages, 440 KiB  
Review
Review of V2X–IoT Standards and Frameworks for ITS Applications
by Karolis Kiela, Vaidotas Barzdenas, Marijan Jurgo, Vytautas Macaitis, Justas Rafanavicius, Aleksandr Vasjanov, Leonid Kladovscikov and Romualdas Navickas
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(12), 4314; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10124314 - 23 Jun 2020
Cited by 72 | Viewed by 9145
Abstract
The intelligent transport system (ITS) has become one of the most globally researched topics with a lot of investment and development resources being dedicated into it due to its foreseen impact on the economic growth of the transport sector. Currently there are two [...] Read more.
The intelligent transport system (ITS) has become one of the most globally researched topics with a lot of investment and development resources being dedicated into it due to its foreseen impact on the economic growth of the transport sector. Currently there are two main vehicle-to-everything (V2X) technologies, whose primary application is focused on ITS, backed up by the key players of various automotive, telecommunication and transport industries: dedicated short-range communications (DSRC) and cellular vehicle-to-everything (C-V2X), respectively based on IEEE 802.11p and 3GPP LTE/5G NR. While DSRC already has deployments, C-V2X is expected to see larger scale trails and deployments in 2020. In this work, the authors provide insight and review into two main V2X technologies, DSRC and C-V2X, their core parameters, shortcomings and limitations, and explore the need for integration of IoT-based technologies into modern ITS solutions. A comprehensive overview and analysis of currently commercially available V2X products, their sub-blocks and features is provided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technologies and Applications of Communications in Road Transport)
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