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Appl. Syst. Innov., Volume 7, Issue 2 (April 2024) – 15 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): This paper investigates the integration of OpenAI’s ChatGPT into business-process management (BPM), particularly focusing on the automotive after-sales sector. The author assesses how ChatGPT, through process-mining techniques, enhances operational efficiency and customer satisfaction by reducing process execution times. The findings suggest significant improvements in service delivery stages, underlining ChatGPT’s potential to reshape conventional business processes. This study contributes to understanding AI’s role in optimizing complex service operations promoting a more efficient, customer-centric approach in the automotive industry. View this paper
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13 pages, 1512 KiB  
Article
Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs) in the Era of Co-Creation
by Sofia Yfanti and Nikos Sakkas
Appl. Syst. Innov. 2024, 7(2), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/asi7020032 - 16 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1089
Abstract
Technology readiness levels (TRLs) is a well-established and widely used approach for defining the readiness of new technology. It assesses technology maturity against specific benchmarks, ranging from level 1 (concept) to level 9 (market solution). Although this is a useful classification service that [...] Read more.
Technology readiness levels (TRLs) is a well-established and widely used approach for defining the readiness of new technology. It assesses technology maturity against specific benchmarks, ranging from level 1 (concept) to level 9 (market solution). Although this is a useful classification service that allows us to establish a common language, there are cases where we find that this conceptual approach cannot adequately highlight the maturity of certain innovative endeavors and effectively steer their development to higher TRLs. We will present an empirical case where the TRL approach presented a critical shortcoming in highlighting the true and effective readiness of a specific technological development and could not suggest the next natural step in ascending the maturity ladder. We will seek to generalize for the case of co-creation at large, analyze why co-creation may be poorly serviced by the current TRL model, and suggest an amendment that would allow the observed shortcomings of the traditional TRL approach to be overcome and its use extended into such co-creative settings, thus allowing stakeholders to enhance the effectiveness and impact of their collaborative innovation efforts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Artificial Intelligence)
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21 pages, 6321 KiB  
Article
Identifying Strengths and Weaknesses in Mobile Education: A Gender-Informed Self-Assessment of Teachers’ Use of Mobile Devices
by Judith Balanyà Rebollo and Janaina Minelli De Oliveira
Appl. Syst. Innov. 2024, 7(2), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/asi7020031 - 16 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1546
Abstract
Mobile devices have the potential to transform education and society. Promoting mobile learning and enhancing teachers’ digital and entrepreneurial skills are essential in achieving this goal. This study analyses the conditions under which the use of mobile technology can support teachers in the [...] Read more.
Mobile devices have the potential to transform education and society. Promoting mobile learning and enhancing teachers’ digital and entrepreneurial skills are essential in achieving this goal. This study analyses the conditions under which the use of mobile technology can support teachers in the design, implementation, and evaluation of teaching and learning processes. Data were collected using a quantitative method based on a self-assessment instrument (Cronbach’s alpha = 1.0046). A total of 327 educators filled out the survey, which included 67 items scored on a Likert scale. The self-assessment tool provided participants with feedback on their mobile device use for educational purposes and suggestions for improvement. The results indicate that the median score of the teachers was 7, which is regarded as satisfactory, with a gender gap of 3.5 points. In addition, three out of seven improvement dimensions were identified: technology learning spaces (54.74%), assessment (57.65%), and design activities (59.26%). In conclusion, the study enabled us to stratify and analyse teachers’ pedagogical perceptions of mobile learning and the significance of inference in certain training areas. Full article
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13 pages, 5379 KiB  
Article
A Comparative Analysis of Oak Wood Defect Detection Using Two Deep Learning (DL)-Based Software
by Branimir Jambreković, Filip Veselčić, Iva Ištok, Tomislav Sinković, Vjekoslav Živković and Tomislav Sedlar
Appl. Syst. Innov. 2024, 7(2), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/asi7020030 - 15 Apr 2024
Viewed by 956
Abstract
The world’s expanding population presents a challenge through its rising demand for wood products. This requirement contributes to increased production and, ultimately, the high-quality and efficient utilization of basic materials. Detecting defects in wood elements, which are inevitable when working with a natural [...] Read more.
The world’s expanding population presents a challenge through its rising demand for wood products. This requirement contributes to increased production and, ultimately, the high-quality and efficient utilization of basic materials. Detecting defects in wood elements, which are inevitable when working with a natural material such as wood, is one of the difficulties associated with the issue above. Even in modern times, people still identify wood defects by visually scrutinizing the sawn surface and marking the defects. Industrial scanners equipped with software based on convolutional neural networks (CNNs) allow for the rapid detection of defects and have the potential to accelerate production and eradicate human subjectivity. This paper evaluates the suitability of defect recognition software in industrial scanners against software specifically designed for this task within a research project conducted using Adaptive Vision Studio, focusing on feature detection techniques. The research revealed that the software installed as part of the industrial scanner is more effective for analyzing knots (77.78% vs. 70.37%), sapwood (100% vs. 80%), and ambrosia wood (60% vs. 20%), while the software derived from the project is more effective for analyzing cracks (70% vs. 65%), ingrown bark (42.86% vs. 28.57%), and wood rays (81.82% vs. 27.27%). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancements in Deep Learning and Its Applications)
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19 pages, 2283 KiB  
Article
The Role of ChatGPT in Elevating Customer Experience and Efficiency in Automotive After-Sales Business Processes
by Piotr Sliż
Appl. Syst. Innov. 2024, 7(2), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/asi7020029 - 28 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1426
Abstract
Purpose: The advancements in deep learning and AI technologies have led to the development of such language models, in 2022, as OpenAI’s ChatGPT. The primary objective of this paper is to thoroughly examine the capabilities of ChatGPT within the realm of business-process management [...] Read more.
Purpose: The advancements in deep learning and AI technologies have led to the development of such language models, in 2022, as OpenAI’s ChatGPT. The primary objective of this paper is to thoroughly examine the capabilities of ChatGPT within the realm of business-process management (BPM). This exploration entails analyzing its practical application, particularly through process-mining techniques, within the context of automotive after-sales processes. Originality: this article highlights the issue of possible ChatGPT application in selected stages of after-sales processes in the automotive sector. Methods: to achieve the main aim of this paper, methods such as a literature review, participant observation, unstructured interviews, CRISP-DM methodology, and process mining were used. Findings: This study emphasizes the promising impact of implementing the ChatGPT OpenAI tool to enhance processes in the automotive after-sales sector. Conducted in 2023, shortly after the tool’s introduction, the research highlights its potential to contribute to heightened customer satisfaction within the after-sales domain. The investigation focuses on the process-execution time. A key premise is that waiting time represents an additional cost for customers seeking these services. Employing process-mining methodologies, the study identifies stages characterized by unnecessary delays. Collaborative efforts with domain experts are employed to establish benchmark durations for researched processes’ stages. The study proposes the integration of ChatGPT to improve and expedite stages, including service reception, reception check-out, repair and maintenance, and claim repair. This holistic approach aligns with the current imperatives of business-process improvement and optimalization, aiming to enhance operational efficiency and customer-centric service delivery in the automotive after-sales sector. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Information Systems)
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31 pages, 8358 KiB  
Article
Advancements in Healthcare: Development of a Comprehensive Medical Information System with Automated Classification for Ocular and Skin Pathologies—Structure, Functionalities, and Innovative Development Methods
by Ana-Maria Ștefan, Nicu-Răzvan Rusu, Elena Ovreiu and Mihai Ciuc
Appl. Syst. Innov. 2024, 7(2), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/asi7020028 - 27 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1672
Abstract
This article introduces a groundbreaking medical information system developed in Salesforce, featuring an automated classification module for ocular and skin pathologies using Google Teachable Machine. Integrating cutting-edge technology with Salesforce’s robust capabilities, the system provides a comprehensive solution for medical practitioners. The article [...] Read more.
This article introduces a groundbreaking medical information system developed in Salesforce, featuring an automated classification module for ocular and skin pathologies using Google Teachable Machine. Integrating cutting-edge technology with Salesforce’s robust capabilities, the system provides a comprehensive solution for medical practitioners. The article explores the system’s structure, emphasizing innovative functionalities that enhance diagnostic precision and streamline medical workflows. Methods used in development are discussed, offering insights into the integration of Google Teachable Machine into the Salesforce framework. This collaborative approach is a significant stride in intelligent pathology classification, advancing the field of medical information systems and fostering efficient healthcare practices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Information Systems)
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21 pages, 4312 KiB  
Article
Secure Aviation Control through a Streamlined ADS-B Perception System
by Qasem Abu Al-Haija and Ahmed Al-Tamimi
Appl. Syst. Innov. 2024, 7(2), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/asi7020027 - 26 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1263
Abstract
Automatic dependent surveillance-broadcast (ADS-B) is the future of aviation surveillance and traffic control, allowing different aircraft types to exchange information periodically. Despite this protocol’s advantages, it is vulnerable to flooding, denial of service, and injection attacks. In this paper, we decided to join [...] Read more.
Automatic dependent surveillance-broadcast (ADS-B) is the future of aviation surveillance and traffic control, allowing different aircraft types to exchange information periodically. Despite this protocol’s advantages, it is vulnerable to flooding, denial of service, and injection attacks. In this paper, we decided to join the initiative of securing this protocol and propose an efficient detection method to help detect any exploitation attempts by injecting these messages with the wrong information. This paper focused mainly on three attacks: path modification, ghost aircraft injection, and velocity drift attacks. This paper aims to provide a revolutionary methodology that, even in the face of new attacks (zero-day attacks), can successfully detect injected messages. The main advantage was utilizing a recent dataset to create more reliable and adaptive training and testing materials, which were then preprocessed before using different machine learning algorithms to feasibly create the most accurate and time-efficient model. The best outcomes of the binary classification were obtained with 99.14% accuracy, an F1-score of 99.14%, and a Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC) of 0.982. At the same time, the best outcomes of the multiclass classification were obtained with 99.41% accuracy, an F1-score of 99.37%, and a Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC) of 0.988. Eventually, our best outcomes outdo existing models, but we believe the model would benefit from more testing of other types of attacks and a bigger dataset. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial Cybersecurity)
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16 pages, 4683 KiB  
Article
Analysing and Computing the Impact of Geometric Asymmetric Coils on Transformer Stray Losses
by Ivan A. Hernandez-Robles, Xiomara Gonzalez-Ramirez, Juan C. Olivares-Galvan, Rafael Escarela-Perez and Rodrigo Ocon-Valdez
Appl. Syst. Innov. 2024, 7(2), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/asi7020026 - 25 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1142
Abstract
Designing and manufacturing transformers often involves variations in heights and thicknesses of windings. However, such geometric asymmetry introduces a significant impact on the magnitude of stray transformer losses. This study examines the effects of asymmetric coils on the generation of stray losses within [...] Read more.
Designing and manufacturing transformers often involves variations in heights and thicknesses of windings. However, such geometric asymmetry introduces a significant impact on the magnitude of stray transformer losses. This study examines the effects of asymmetric coils on the generation of stray losses within core clamps and transformer tank walls. A model has been introduced to ascertain the dispersion magnetic field’s value at a specific distance from the coil. The analysis extends to characterising the dispersion magnetic field reaching the tank walls by using electromagnetic simulation by a finite element method. It explores strategies to diminish stray losses, including the placement of magnetic shunts as protective shields for the tank walls. It delves into the efficacy of employing a transformer shell-type configuration to mitigate the magnetic dispersion field. The findings revealed that achieving greater symmetry in transformer coils can minimise stray losses. Specifically, the incorporation of magnetic shunts has the potential to reduce additional losses by 40%, while the adoption of a shell-type configuration alone can lead to a 14% reduction. This work provides valuable insights into optimising transformer designs, contributes a user-friendly tool for estimating additional tank losses, thereby enhancing the knowledge base for transformer manufacturers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering)
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17 pages, 3679 KiB  
Article
Predicting Road Traffic Collisions Using a Two-Layer Ensemble Machine Learning Algorithm
by James Oduor Oyoo, Jael Sanyanda Wekesa and Kennedy Odhiambo Ogada
Appl. Syst. Innov. 2024, 7(2), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/asi7020025 - 18 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1424
Abstract
Road traffic collisions are among the world’s critical issues, causing many casualties, deaths, and economic losses, with a disproportionate burden falling on developing countries. Existing research has been conducted to analyze this situation using different approaches and techniques at different stretches and intersections. [...] Read more.
Road traffic collisions are among the world’s critical issues, causing many casualties, deaths, and economic losses, with a disproportionate burden falling on developing countries. Existing research has been conducted to analyze this situation using different approaches and techniques at different stretches and intersections. In this paper, we propose a two-layer ensemble machine learning (ML) technique to assess and predict road traffic collisions using data from a driving simulator. The first (base) layer integrates supervised learning techniques, namely k- Nearest Neighbors (k-NN), AdaBoost, Naive Bayes (NB), and Decision Trees (DT). The second layer predicts road collisions by combining the base layer outputs by employing the stacking ensemble method, using logistic regression as a meta-classifier. In addition, the synthetic minority oversampling technique (SMOTE) was performed to handle the data imbalance before training the model. To simplify the model, the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm was used to select the most important features in our dataset. The proposed two-layer ensemble model had the best outcomes with an accuracy of 88%, an F1 score of 83%, and an AUC of 86% as compared with k-NN, DT, NB, and AdaBoost. The proposed two-layer ensemble model can be used in the future for theoretical as well as practical applications, such as road safety management for improving existing conditions of the road network and formulating traffic safety policies based on evidence. Full article
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17 pages, 2686 KiB  
Article
Industry 4.0 and Smart Systems in Manufacturing: Guidelines for the Implementation of a Smart Statistical Process Control
by Lucas Schmidt Goecks, Anderson Felipe Habekost, Antonio Maria Coruzzolo and Miguel Afonso Sellitto
Appl. Syst. Innov. 2024, 7(2), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/asi7020024 - 16 Mar 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1774
Abstract
Digital transformations in manufacturing systems confer advantages for enhancing competitiveness and ensuring the survival of companies by reducing operating costs, improving quality, and fostering innovation, falling within the overarching umbrella of Industry 4.0. This study aims to provide a framework for the integration [...] Read more.
Digital transformations in manufacturing systems confer advantages for enhancing competitiveness and ensuring the survival of companies by reducing operating costs, improving quality, and fostering innovation, falling within the overarching umbrella of Industry 4.0. This study aims to provide a framework for the integration of smart statistical digital systems into existing manufacturing control systems, exemplified with guidelines to transform an existent statistical process control into a smart statistical process control. Employing the design science research method, the research techniques include a literature review and interviews with experts who critically evaluated the proposed framework. The primary contribution lies in a set of general-purpose guidelines tailored to assist practitioners in manufacturing systems with the implementation of digital, smart technologies aligned with the principles of Industry 4.0. The resulting guidelines specifically target existing manufacturing plants seeking to adopt new technologies to maintain competitiveness. The main implication of the study is that practitioners can utilize the guidelines as a roadmap for the ongoing development and implementation of project management. Furthermore, the study paves the way for open innovation initiatives by breaking down the project into defined steps and encouraging individual or collective open contributions, which consolidates the practice of open innovation in manufacturing systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Challenges of Innovation, Sustainability, Resilience in X.0 Era)
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18 pages, 3720 KiB  
Article
Aerial Surveillance Leveraging Delaunay Triangulation and Multiple-UAV Imaging Systems
by Ahad Alotaibi, Chris Chatwin and Phil Birch
Appl. Syst. Innov. 2024, 7(2), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/asi7020023 - 11 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1335
Abstract
In aerial surveillance systems, achieving optimal object detection precision is of paramount importance for effective monitoring and reconnaissance. This article presents a novel approach to enhance object detection accuracy through the integration of Delaunay triangulation with multi-unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) systems. The methodology [...] Read more.
In aerial surveillance systems, achieving optimal object detection precision is of paramount importance for effective monitoring and reconnaissance. This article presents a novel approach to enhance object detection accuracy through the integration of Delaunay triangulation with multi-unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) systems. The methodology involves positioning multiple UAVs at pre-specified locations using the Delaunay triangulation algorithm with performance of O (n log n). This is compared with the conventional single UAV approach at a near distance. Our findings reveal that the collaborative efforts of multiple UAVs, guided by Delaunay triangulation, significantly improves object detection accuracy, especially when compared to a single UAV operating in close proximity. This research employs advanced image processing techniques to identify objects in the area under surveillance. Results indicate a substantial enhancement in the collective surveillance capabilities of the multi-UAV system, demonstrating its efficacy in unconstrained scenarios. This research not only contributes to the optimization of aerial surveillance operations but also underscores the potential of spatially informed UAV networks for applications demanding heightened object detection accuracy. The integration of Delaunay triangulation with multi-UAV systems emerges as a promising strategy for advancing the capabilities of aerial surveillance in scenarios ranging from security and emergency response to environmental monitoring. Full article
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22 pages, 1527 KiB  
Article
Adaptive Active Disturbance Rejection Control for Vehicle Steer-by-Wire under Communication Time Delays
by Kamal Rsetam, Yusai Zheng, Zhenwei Cao and Zhihong Man
Appl. Syst. Innov. 2024, 7(2), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/asi7020022 - 8 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1252
Abstract
In this paper, an adaptive active disturbance rejection control is newly designed for precise angular steering position tracking of the uncertain and nonlinear SBW system with time delay communications. The proposed adaptive active disturbance rejection control comprises the following two elements: (1) An [...] Read more.
In this paper, an adaptive active disturbance rejection control is newly designed for precise angular steering position tracking of the uncertain and nonlinear SBW system with time delay communications. The proposed adaptive active disturbance rejection control comprises the following two elements: (1) An adaptive extended state observer and (2) an adaptive state error feedback controller. The adaptive extended state observer with adaptive gains is employed for estimating the unmeasured velocity, acceleration, and compound disturbance which consists of system parameter uncertainties, nonlinearities, exterior disturbances, and time delay in which the observer gains are dynamically adjusted based on the estimation error to enhance estimation performances. Based on the accurate estimations of the adaptive extended state observer, the proposed adaptive full state error feedback controller is equipped with variable gains driven by the tracking error to develop control precision. The integration of the advantages of the adaptive extended state observer and the adaptive full state error feedback controller can improve the dynamic transient and static steady-state effectiveness, respectively. To assess the superior performance of the proposed adaptive active disturbance rejection control, a comparative analysis is conducted between the proposed control scheme and the classical active disturbance rejection control in two different cases. It is worth noting that the active disturbance rejection control serves as a benchmark for evaluating the performance of the proposed control approach. The results from the comparison studies executing two simulated cases validate the superiority of the suggested control, in which estimation, tracking response rate, and steering angle precision are greatly improved by the scheme proposed in this article. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Control and Systems Engineering)
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34 pages, 4202 KiB  
Review
How Can the Circular Economy Contribute to Resolving Social Housing Challenges?
by Fernanda Paes de Barros Gomide, Luís Bragança and Eloy Fassi Casagrande Junior
Appl. Syst. Innov. 2024, 7(2), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/asi7020021 - 7 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1848
Abstract
The construction sector stands as the predominant consumer of cement, steel, and plastic and is accountable for a substantial 55% of industrial carbon emissions. Greenhouse gases and other forms of pollution linked to the housing sector significantly contribute to the adverse environmental impact [...] Read more.
The construction sector stands as the predominant consumer of cement, steel, and plastic and is accountable for a substantial 55% of industrial carbon emissions. Greenhouse gases and other forms of pollution linked to the housing sector significantly contribute to the adverse environmental impact of the construction industry. This study underscores the need to incorporate pertinent issues into the Circular Economy (CE) agenda for a lasting and effective mitigation strategy. Through a Systematic Literature Review (SLR), this article explores answers to the research question: “How can the Circular Economy contribute to resolving social housing challenges?” The findings from this comprehensive review highlight that refurbishing the social housing (SH) built environment and formulating public policies targeted at the SH sector emerge as pivotal themes for effective solutions. The principles of the Circular Economy present a sustainable model that can play a crucial role in addressing the social housing challenge. In conclusion, this SLR demonstrates that Circular Economy principles offer a viable approach to tackling the social housing crisis. By embracing these principles, a sustainable model can be established to address the challenges posed by social housing, thereby contributing to the broader goal of environmental conservation in the construction sector. Full article
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23 pages, 6509 KiB  
Article
Redispatch Model for Real-Time Operation with High Solar-Wind Penetration and Its Adaptation to the Ancillary Services Market
by Kristian Balzer and David Watts
Appl. Syst. Innov. 2024, 7(2), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/asi7020020 - 29 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1333
Abstract
Modern electrical power systems integrate renewable generation, with solar generation being one of the pioneers worldwide. In Latin America, the greatest potential and development of solar generation is found in Chile through the National Electric System. However, its energy matrix faces a crisis [...] Read more.
Modern electrical power systems integrate renewable generation, with solar generation being one of the pioneers worldwide. In Latin America, the greatest potential and development of solar generation is found in Chile through the National Electric System. However, its energy matrix faces a crisis of drought and reduction of emissions that limits hydroelectric generation and involves the definitive withdrawal of coal generation. The dispatch of these plants is carried out by the system operator, who uses a simplified mechanism, called “economic merit list” and which does not reflect the real costs of the plants to the damage of the operating and marginal cost of the system. This inefficient dispatch scheme fails to optimize the availability of stored gas and its use over time. Therefore, a real-time redispatch model is proposed that minimizes the operation cost function of the power plants, integrating the variable generation cost as a polynomial function of the net specific fuel consumption, adding gas volume stock restrictions and water reservoirs. In addition, the redispatch model uses an innovative “maximum dispatch power” restriction, which depends on the demand associated with the automatic load disconnection scheme due to low frequency. Finally, by testing real simulation cases, the redispatch model manages to optimize the operation and dispatch costs of power plants, allowing the technical barriers of the market to be broken down with the aim of integrating ancillary services in the short term, using the power reserves in primary (PFC), secondary (SCF), and tertiary (TCF) frequency control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Applied Mathematics)
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14 pages, 11394 KiB  
Article
Propulsion and Suspension Concept of the Technical University of Munich Hyperloop Full-Scale Demonstrator
by Domenik Radeck, Felix He-Mao Hsu, Florian Janke, Gabriele Semino, Tim Hofmann, Sebastian Rink and Agnes Jocher
Appl. Syst. Innov. 2024, 7(2), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/asi7020019 - 22 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1498
Abstract
The hyperloop concept envisions a low pressure tube and capsules, called pods, traveling at the speed of commercial aircraft as a sustainable, future-proof mass transportation system between cities. However, in contrast to the use case of such a system, the detailed technical concept [...] Read more.
The hyperloop concept envisions a low pressure tube and capsules, called pods, traveling at the speed of commercial aircraft as a sustainable, future-proof mass transportation system between cities. However, in contrast to the use case of such a system, the detailed technical concept is still under development. One challenging difference in comparison to other modes of transportation lies in the technical concept of the infrastructure, which is hard to change in the long term and therefore allows a few iterations only. This study’s key contribution is to showcase the conceptual design decisions of the 24 m full-scale Hyperloop Demonstrator at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) for the propulsion and suspension system, featuring the design decision tree (DDT) method as a framework to visualize and explain the technical design decisions and dependencies of complex hardware systems. The construction of the full-scale demonstrator not only proved the feasibility of the concept but also provided valuable concept-level experiences, which are shared within this work. Compared to existing maglev and hyperloop concepts, the presented concept features a separated air-cored long stator propulsion system and a homopolar electromagnetic suspension at the bottom with the track wrapping around the vehicle, revealing promising advantages like the structural simplification of the infrastructure and the independence of the guideway and tube. Full article
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16 pages, 5007 KiB  
Article
Unsupervised Learning Approach for Anomaly Detection in Industrial Control Systems
by Woo-Hyun Choi and Jongwon Kim
Appl. Syst. Innov. 2024, 7(2), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/asi7020018 - 21 Feb 2024
Viewed by 2367
Abstract
Industrial control systems (ICSs) play a crucial role in managing and monitoring critical processes across various industries, such as manufacturing, energy, and water treatment. The connection of equipment from various manufacturers, complex communication methods, and the need for the continuity of operations in [...] Read more.
Industrial control systems (ICSs) play a crucial role in managing and monitoring critical processes across various industries, such as manufacturing, energy, and water treatment. The connection of equipment from various manufacturers, complex communication methods, and the need for the continuity of operations in a limited environment make it difficult to detect system anomalies. Traditional approaches that rely on supervised machine learning require time and expertise due to the need for labeled datasets. This study suggests an alternative approach to identifying anomalous behavior within ICSs by means of unsupervised machine learning. The approach employs unsupervised machine learning to identify anomalous behavior within ICSs. This study shows that unsupervised learning algorithms can effectively detect and classify anomalous behavior without the need for pre-labeled data using a composite autoencoder model. Based on a dataset that utilizes HIL-augmented ICSs (HAIs), this study shows that the model is capable of accurately identifying important data characteristics and detecting anomalous patterns related to both value and time. Intentional error data injection experiments could potentially be used to validate the model’s robustness in real-time monitoring and industrial process performance optimization. As a result, this approach can improve system reliability and operational efficiency, which can establish a foundation for safe and sustainable ICS operations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial Cybersecurity)
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