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Batteries, Volume 8, Issue 9 (September 2022) – 27 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The temperature dependence of the performance of a hard carbon anode in a commonly used sodium-ion electrolyte is probed. The variations in electrolyte conductivity, capacity, cycling behaviour, sodium storage mechanism, and electrolyte breakdown are established. The electrolyte working range with good cell performance and no signs of degradation was shown to be 25 to 50 °C, with much better cell performance found at 40 °C than at 25 °C. View this paper
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14 pages, 5322 KiB  
Article
Comparison of the Activity of 3D Binary or Ternary Cobalt Coatings for Hydrogen and Oxygen Evolution Reactions
by Zita Sukackienė, Aldona Balčiūnaitė, Virginija Kepenienė, Jūratė Vaičiūnienė, Giedrius Stalnionis, Vidas Pakštas, Loreta Tamašauskaitė-Tamašiūnaitė and Eugenijus Norkus
Batteries 2022, 8(9), 129; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8090129 - 19 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1608
Abstract
In this study, cobalt-nickel (Co-Ni), cobalt-iron (Co-Fe), cobalt-iron-manganese (Co-Fe-Mn), cobalt-iron-molybdenum (Co-Fe-Mo), and cobalt-zinc (Co-Zn) coatings were studied as catalysts towards the evolution of hydrogen (HER) and oxygen (OER). The binary and ternary Co coatings were deposited on a copper surface using the electroless [...] Read more.
In this study, cobalt-nickel (Co-Ni), cobalt-iron (Co-Fe), cobalt-iron-manganese (Co-Fe-Mn), cobalt-iron-molybdenum (Co-Fe-Mo), and cobalt-zinc (Co-Zn) coatings were studied as catalysts towards the evolution of hydrogen (HER) and oxygen (OER). The binary and ternary Co coatings were deposited on a copper surface using the electroless metal plating technique and morpholine borane (MB) as a reducing agent. The as-deposited Co-Ni, Co-Fe, Co-Fe-Mn, Co-Fe-Mo, and Co-Zn coatings produce compact and crack-free layers with typical globular morphology. It was found that the Co-Fe-Mo coating gives the lowest overpotential of 128.0 mV for the HER and the lowest overpotential of 455 mV for the OER to achieve a current density of 10 mA cm−2. The HER and OER current density values increase 1.4–2.0 times with an increase in temperature from 25 °C to 55 °C using the prepared 3D binary or ternary cobalt coatings for HER and OER. The highest mass electrocatalytic activity of 1.55 mA µg−1 for HER and 2.72 mA µg−1 for OER was achieved on the Co-Fe coating with a metal loading of 28.11 µg cm−2 at 25 °C. Full article
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21 pages, 7377 KiB  
Article
Numerical Analysis of Novel Air-Based Li-Ion Battery Thermal Management
by Wei Chen, Shaobo Hou, Jialin Shi, Peng Han, Bin Liu, Baoping Wu and Xiaoxiao Lin
Batteries 2022, 8(9), 128; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8090128 - 17 Sep 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2662
Abstract
The lithium-ion battery is considered the primary power supply source for electric vehicles due to its high-energy density, long lifespan, and no memory effect. Its performance and safety highly depend on its operating temperature. Therefore, a battery thermal management system is necessary to [...] Read more.
The lithium-ion battery is considered the primary power supply source for electric vehicles due to its high-energy density, long lifespan, and no memory effect. Its performance and safety highly depend on its operating temperature. Therefore, a battery thermal management system is necessary to ensure an electric vehicle (EV)’s performance. Air as a cooling medium is still used in a wide range of thermal management system applications, owing to its low-cost and lightweight. However, the conventional air-based cooling strategy shows an insufficient heat dissipation capacity and usually fails to block the thermal runaway propagation between batteries. Thus, it is of great importance for improving the heat dissipation of an air-based thermal management system. In this paper, three novel schemes (schemes B, C, and D) are introduced successively based on enhancing the heat transfer capacity and safety of a battery pack under a thermal runaway condition. Schemes B and C introduce a hollow spoiler prism and a spoiler prism filled with phase-change material with fins, respectively. The cooling effects of the three schemes are compared using computational fluid dynamics technology. The models of all the schemes are 3D symmetrical structures. In the CFD model, the battery heat-generating sub-model is incorporated through a user-defined function. The results indicate that all three schemes reduce the maximum temperature and the maximum temperature difference in the pack effectively compared with the conventional air cooling system. Scheme D presents the best cooling performance and hinders the propagation of the TR between adjacent batteries under a TR condition. The paper may provide a feasible method for improving the performance of an air-cooled thermal battery management system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Battery Design and Management)
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13 pages, 3267 KiB  
Article
Sulfur Dioxide and Sulfolane as Additives in Organic Electrolytes to Develop Room-Temperature Sodium Batteries
by Débora Ruiz-Martínez and Roberto Gómez
Batteries 2022, 8(9), 127; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8090127 - 14 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2854
Abstract
Sodium metal anodes have attracted great attention for the development of a next generation of high-energy batteries because of their high theoretical capacity (1166 mAh·g−1), low redox potential (−2.71 V vs. SHE), and abundance. However, sodium reacts with most of the [...] Read more.
Sodium metal anodes have attracted great attention for the development of a next generation of high-energy batteries because of their high theoretical capacity (1166 mAh·g−1), low redox potential (−2.71 V vs. SHE), and abundance. However, sodium reacts with most of the liquid electrolytes described to date and it has the shortcoming of dendrite formation during sodium deposition. Several strategies have been proposed to overcome these issues, including the incorporation of electrolyte additives. This work reports on the use of SO2 and sulfolane as additives in organic electrolytes to modify the sodium–electrolyte interphase, making the sodium plating/stripping process more robust. Not only is the process more stable in the case of sodium metal anodes, but also the use of copper substrates is enabled. In fact, high-quality sodium films on copper have been attained by adding small mole fractions of the additives, which paves the way for the development of anode-free batteries. In a general vein, this work stresses the importance of researching on compatible and cost-effective additives that can be easily implemented in practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Advances in Battery Materials)
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12 pages, 3380 KiB  
Article
Design of Perovskite-Type Fluorides Cathodes for Na-ion Batteries: Correlation between Structure and Transport
by Michele Montalbano, Daniele Callegari, Umberto Anselmi Tamburini and Cristina Tealdi
Batteries 2022, 8(9), 126; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8090126 - 13 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1839
Abstract
Transition metal-based sodium fluoro-perovskite of general formula NaMF3 (M = Fe, Mn, and Co) were investigated as cathode materials for rechargeable Na-ion batteries. Preliminary results indicated Na-ion reversible intercalation but highlighted the need to find optimization strategies to improve conductivity and to [...] Read more.
Transition metal-based sodium fluoro-perovskite of general formula NaMF3 (M = Fe, Mn, and Co) were investigated as cathode materials for rechargeable Na-ion batteries. Preliminary results indicated Na-ion reversible intercalation but highlighted the need to find optimization strategies to improve conductivity and to modulate the operating voltages within experimentally accessible electrolytes’ stability windows, in order to fully exploit their potential as high-voltage cathodes. In this study, we combined experimental and computational techniques to investigate structures, defects, and intercalation properties of the NaFe1-xMnxF3 and NaCo1-xMnxF3 systems. Through the use of a simple solvothermal synthesis, we demonstrated the possibility to modulate the sample’s morphology in order to obtain fine and dispersed powder samples. The structural results indicated the formations of two solid solutions with a perovskite structure over the entire compositional range investigated. Atomistic simulations suggested that Na-ion diffusion in these systems was characterized by relatively high migration barriers and it was likely to follow three-dimensional paths, thus limiting the effect of anti-site defects. The correlation between structural and computational data highlighted the possibility to modulate both ionic and electronic conductivity as a function of the composition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Advances in Battery Materials)
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18 pages, 2468 KiB  
Article
A Novel Experimental Technique for Use in Fast Parameterisation of Equivalent Circuit Models for Lithium-Ion Batteries
by Mohammad Amin Samieian, Alastair Hales and Yatish Patel
Batteries 2022, 8(9), 125; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8090125 - 13 Sep 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2926
Abstract
Battery models are one of the most important tools for understanding the behaviour of batteries. This is particularly important for the fast-moving electrical vehicle industry, where new battery chemistries are continually being developed. The main limiting factor on how fast battery models can [...] Read more.
Battery models are one of the most important tools for understanding the behaviour of batteries. This is particularly important for the fast-moving electrical vehicle industry, where new battery chemistries are continually being developed. The main limiting factor on how fast battery models can be developed is the experimental technique used for collection of data required for model parametrisation. Currently, this is a very time-consuming process. In this paper, a fast novel parametrisation testing technique is presented. A model is then parametrised using this testing technique and compared to a model parametrised using current common testing techniques. This comparison is conducted using a WLTP (worldwide harmonised light vehicle test procedure) drive cycle. As part of the validation, the experiments were conducted at different temperatures and repeated using two different temperature control methods: climate chamber and a Peltier element temperature control method. The new technique introduced in this paper, named AMPP (accelerated model parametrisation procedure), is as good as GITT (galvanostatic intermittent titration technique) for parametrisation of ECMs (equivalent circuit models); however, it is 90% faster. When using experimental data from a climate chamber, a model parametrised using GITT was marginally better than AMPP; however, when using experimental data using conductive control, such as the ICP (isothermal control platform), a model parametrised using AMPP performed as well as GITT at 25 °C and better than GITT at 10 °C. Full article
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28 pages, 3245 KiB  
Review
A Comparative Review on Energy Storage Systems and Their Application in Deregulated Systems
by Mitul Ranjan Chakraborty, Subhojit Dawn, Pradip Kumar Saha, Jayanta Bhusan Basu and Taha Selim Ustun
Batteries 2022, 8(9), 124; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8090124 - 10 Sep 2022
Cited by 39 | Viewed by 9882
Abstract
Electrical energy is critical to the advancement of both social and economic growth. Because of its importance, the electricity industry has historically been controlled and operated by governmental entities. The power market is being deregulated, and it has been modified throughout time. Both [...] Read more.
Electrical energy is critical to the advancement of both social and economic growth. Because of its importance, the electricity industry has historically been controlled and operated by governmental entities. The power market is being deregulated, and it has been modified throughout time. Both regulated and deregulated electricity markets have benefits and pitfalls in terms of energy costs, efficiency, and environmental repercussions. In regulated markets, policy-based strategies are often used to deal with the costs of fossil fuel resources and increase the feasibility of renewable energy sources. Renewables may be incorporated into deregulated markets by a mix of regulatory and market-based approaches, as described in this paper, to increase the systems economic stability. As the demand for energy has increased substantially in recent decades, particularly in developing nations, the quantity of greenhouse gas emissions has increased fast, as have fuel prices, which are the primary motivators for programmers to use renewable energy sources more effectively. Despite its obvious benefits, renewable energy has considerable drawbacks, such as irregularity in generation, because most renewable energy supplies are climate-dependent, demanding complex design, planning, and control optimization approaches. Several optimization solutions have been used in the renewable-integrated deregulated power system. Energy storage technology has risen in relevance as the usage of renewable energy has expanded, since these devices may absorb electricity generated by renewables during off-peak demand hours and feed it back into the grid during peak demand hours. Using renewable energy and storing it for future use instead of expanding fossil fuel power can assist in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. There is a desire to maximize the societal benefit of a deregulated system by better using existing power system capacity through the implementation of an energy storage system (ESS). As a result, good ESS device placement offers innovative control capabilities in steady-state power flow regulation as well as dynamic stability management. This paper examines numerous elements of renewable integrated deregulated power systems and gives a comprehensive overview of the most current research breakthroughs in this field. The main objectives of the reviews are the maximization of system profit, maximization of social welfare and minimization of system generation cost and loss by optimal placement of energy storage devices and renewable energy systems. This study will be very helpful for the power production companies who want to build new renewable-based power plant by sighted the present status of renewable energy sources along with the details of several EES systems. The incorporation of storage devices in the renewable-incorporated deregulated system will provide maximum social benefit by supplying additional power to the thermal power plant with minimum cost. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Renewable Energy and Energy Storage)
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14 pages, 3958 KiB  
Review
Biomass Carbon Materials Contribute Better Alkali-Metal–Selenium Batteries: A Mini-Review
by Yixun Du, Shuang Ma, Jinhang Dai, Juan Lin, Xia Zhou, Tiezhu Chen and Xingxing Gu
Batteries 2022, 8(9), 123; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8090123 - 9 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2145
Abstract
Owing to the sustainability, environmental friendliness, and structural diversity of biomass-derived materials, extensive efforts have been devoted to using them in high-energy rechargeable batteries. Alkali-metal–selenium batteries, one of the high-energy rechargeable batteries with a reasonable cost compared to up-to-date lithium-ion batteries, have also [...] Read more.
Owing to the sustainability, environmental friendliness, and structural diversity of biomass-derived materials, extensive efforts have been devoted to using them in high-energy rechargeable batteries. Alkali-metal–selenium batteries, one of the high-energy rechargeable batteries with a reasonable cost compared to up-to-date lithium-ion batteries, have also attracted significant attention. Therefore, a timely and comprehensive review of the biomass carbon structures/components to the mechanisms for enhancing alkali-metal–selenium batteries has been systematically introduced. In the end, advantages, challenges, and outlooks are pointed out for the future development of biomass-derived carbon materials in alkali-metal–selenium batteries. This review could help researchers think about using biomass carbon materials to improve battery performance and what other problems should be solved, thereby promoting the application of biomass materials in battery design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lithium-Sulfur Batteries: Research Progress of Key Materials)
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19 pages, 4532 KiB  
Article
Procedure for Assessing the Suitability of Battery Second Life Applications after EV First Life
by Tomás Montes, Maite Etxandi-Santolaya, Josh Eichman, Victor José Ferreira, Lluís Trilla and Cristina Corchero
Batteries 2022, 8(9), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8090122 - 9 Sep 2022
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 5245
Abstract
Using batteries after their first life in an Electric Vehicle (EV) represents an opportunity to reduce the environmental impact and increase the economic benefits before recycling the battery. Many different second life applications have been proposed, each with multiple criteria that have to [...] Read more.
Using batteries after their first life in an Electric Vehicle (EV) represents an opportunity to reduce the environmental impact and increase the economic benefits before recycling the battery. Many different second life applications have been proposed, each with multiple criteria that have to be taken into consideration when deciding the most suitable course of action. In this article, a battery assessment procedure is proposed that consolidates and expands upon the approaches in the literature, and facilitates the decision-making process for a battery after it has reached the end of its first life. The procedure is composed of three stages, including an evaluation of the state of the battery, an evaluation of the technical viability and an economic evaluation. Options for battery configurations are explored (pack direct use, stack of battery packs, module direct use, pack refurbish with modules, pack refurbish with cells). By comparing these configurations with the technical requirements for second life applications, a reader can rapidly understand the tradeoffs and practical strategies for how best to implement second life batteries for their specific application. Lastly, an economic evaluation process is developed to determine the cost of implementing various second life battery configurations and the revenue for different end use applications. An example of the battery assessment procedure is included to demonstrate how it could be carried out. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Second-Life Batteries)
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46 pages, 975 KiB  
Review
Modelling and Estimation of Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries: A Review
by Thomas Puleston, Alejandro Clemente, Ramon Costa-Castelló and Maria Serra
Batteries 2022, 8(9), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8090121 - 8 Sep 2022
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 9773
Abstract
Redox flow batteries are one of the most promising technologies for large-scale energy storage, especially in applications based on renewable energies. In this context, considerable efforts have been made in the last few years to overcome the limitations and optimise the performance of [...] Read more.
Redox flow batteries are one of the most promising technologies for large-scale energy storage, especially in applications based on renewable energies. In this context, considerable efforts have been made in the last few years to overcome the limitations and optimise the performance of this technology, aiming to make it commercially competitive. From the monitoring point of view, one of the biggest challenges is the estimation of the system internal states, such as the state of charge and the state of health, given the complexity of obtaining such information directly from experimental measures. Therefore, many proposals have been recently developed to get rid of such inconvenient measurements and, instead, utilise an algorithm that makes use of a mathematical model in order to rely only on easily measurable variables such as the system’s voltage and current. This review provides a comprehensive study of the different types of dynamic models available in the literature, together with an analysis of the existing model-based estimation strategies. Finally, a discussion about the remaining challenges and possible future research lines on this field is presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers to Celebrate the First Impact Factor of Batteries)
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12 pages, 4669 KiB  
Article
Ways to Ensure Parallel Operation of Vanadium Flow Batteries to Create High Power Energy Storage Systems
by Alexey Loskutov, Andrey Kurkin, Ivan Kuzmin and Ivan Lipuzhin
Batteries 2022, 8(9), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8090120 - 7 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2884
Abstract
Vanadium redox flow batteries are a highly efficient solution for long-term energy storage. They have a long service life, low self-discharge, are fire safe and can be used to create a large-scale storage system. The characteristics of the flow battery are determined by [...] Read more.
Vanadium redox flow batteries are a highly efficient solution for long-term energy storage. They have a long service life, low self-discharge, are fire safe and can be used to create a large-scale storage system. The characteristics of the flow battery are determined by the parameters of its main components: a stack determines the battery power and its efficiency, and an electrolyte determines the battery’s capacity and service life. Several stacks must be combined into one system to create a powerful energy storage system; however, the discharge characteristics differ even for two identical stacks connected in parallel. This article proposes hydrodynamic and electrotechnical methods for ensuring the parallel operation of several flow stacks under the same conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Redox Flow Batteries: Recent Advances and Perspectives)
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60 pages, 10694 KiB  
Review
Battery Management, Key Technologies, Methods, Issues, and Future Trends of Electric Vehicles: A Pathway toward Achieving Sustainable Development Goals
by Molla Shahadat Hossain Lipu, Abdullah Al Mamun, Shaheer Ansari, Md. Sazal Miah, Kamrul Hasan, Sheikh T. Meraj, Maher G. M. Abdolrasol, Tuhibur Rahman, Md. Hasan Maruf, Mahidur R. Sarker, A. Aljanad and Nadia M. L. Tan
Batteries 2022, 8(9), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8090119 - 7 Sep 2022
Cited by 41 | Viewed by 15170
Abstract
Recently, electric vehicle (EV) technology has received massive attention worldwide due to its improved performance efficiency and significant contributions to addressing carbon emission problems. In line with that, EVs could play a vital role in achieving sustainable development goals (SDGs). However, EVs face [...] Read more.
Recently, electric vehicle (EV) technology has received massive attention worldwide due to its improved performance efficiency and significant contributions to addressing carbon emission problems. In line with that, EVs could play a vital role in achieving sustainable development goals (SDGs). However, EVs face some challenges such as battery health degradation, battery management complexities, power electronics integration, and appropriate charging strategies. Therefore, further investigation is essential to select appropriate battery storage and management system, technologies, algorithms, controllers, and optimization schemes. Although numerous studies have been carried out on EV technology, the state-of-the-art technology, progress, limitations, and their impacts on achieving SDGs have not yet been examined. Hence, this review paper comprehensively and critically describes the various technological advancements of EVs, focusing on key aspects such as storage technology, battery management system, power electronics technology, charging strategies, methods, algorithms, and optimizations. Moreover, numerous open issues, challenges, and concerns are discussed to identify the existing research gaps. Furthermore, this paper develops the relationship between EVs benefits and SDGs concerning social, economic, and environmental impacts. The analysis reveals that EVs have a substantial influence on various goals of sustainable development, such as affordable and clean energy, sustainable cities and communities, industry, economic growth, and climate actions. Lastly, this review delivers fruitful and effective suggestions for future enhancement of EV technology that would be beneficial to the EV engineers and industrialists to develop efficient battery storage, charging approaches, converters, controllers, and optimizations toward targeting SDGs. Full article
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12 pages, 1450 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Peukert Generalized Equations Use for Estimation of Remaining Capacity of Automotive-Grade Lithium-Ion Batteries
by Nataliya N. Yazvinskaya, Mikhail S. Lipkin, Nikolay E. Galushkin and Dmitriy N. Galushkin
Batteries 2022, 8(9), 118; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8090118 - 7 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2004
Abstract
In this paper, it is shown that the Peukert generalized equations C = Cm/(1 + (i/i0)n), C = 0.522Cmtanh((i/i0)n/0.522)/(i/i0) [...] Read more.
In this paper, it is shown that the Peukert generalized equations C = Cm/(1 + (i/i0)n), C = 0.522Cmtanh((i/i0)n/0.522)/(i/i0)n and C = Cmerfc((i/ik − 1)/(1/n))/erfc(−n) are applicable for capacity estimation of the automotive-grade lithium-ion batteries within the discharge current range, from 0 to 10 Cn. Additionally, it is shown here that all the parameters (Cm, n, i0 and ik) in the Peukert generalized equations under study have a clear physical meaning, unlike in the classical Peukert equation, in which all the parameters are just empirical constants. In addition, it is shown that, in the case of lithium-ion batteries, the dependence of their released capacity on the discharge current reflects the phase transition statistical pattern in the electrodes’ active substance, which follows the normal distribution law. As the Peukert equation is used in many analytical models, the better electrochemical and physical meaning and understanding of this equation and its clarification are of great practical importance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers to Celebrate the First Impact Factor of Batteries)
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23 pages, 32545 KiB  
Review
Toward Dendrite-Free Deposition in Zinc-Based Flow Batteries: Status and Prospects
by Zeyu Xu and Maochun Wu
Batteries 2022, 8(9), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8090117 - 6 Sep 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 6160
Abstract
Safe and low-cost zinc-based flow batteries offer great promise for grid-scale energy storage, which is the key to the widespread adoption of renewable energies. However, advancement in this technology is considerably hindered by the notorious zinc dendrite formation that results in low Coulombic [...] Read more.
Safe and low-cost zinc-based flow batteries offer great promise for grid-scale energy storage, which is the key to the widespread adoption of renewable energies. However, advancement in this technology is considerably hindered by the notorious zinc dendrite formation that results in low Coulombic efficiencies, fast capacity decay, and even short circuits. In this review, we first discuss the fundamental mechanisms of zinc dendrite formation and identify the key factors affecting zinc deposition. Then, strategies to regulate zinc deposition are clarified and discussed based on electrode, electrolyte, and membrane. The underlying mechanisms, advantages, and shortcomings of each strategy are elaborated. Finally, the remaining challenges and perspectives of zinc-based flow batteries are presented. The review may provide promising directions for the development of dendrite-free zinc-based flow batteries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Redox Flow Batteries: Recent Advances and Perspectives)
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16 pages, 3813 KiB  
Article
Rechargeable Magnesium Ion Batteries Based on Nanostructured Tungsten Disulfide Cathodes
by Wuqi Guo, Dorian A. H. Hanaor, Delf Kober, Jun Wang, Maged F. Bekheet and Aleksander Gurlo
Batteries 2022, 8(9), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8090116 - 6 Sep 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3445
Abstract
Finding effective cathode materials is currently one of the key barriers to the development of magnesium batteries, which offer enticing prospects of larger capacities alongside improved safety relative to Li-ion batteries. Here, we report the hydrothermal synthesis of several types of WS2 [...] Read more.
Finding effective cathode materials is currently one of the key barriers to the development of magnesium batteries, which offer enticing prospects of larger capacities alongside improved safety relative to Li-ion batteries. Here, we report the hydrothermal synthesis of several types of WS2 nanostructures and their performance as magnesium battery cathodes. The morphology of WS2 materials was controlled through the use of sodium oxalate as a complexing agent and different templating agents, including polyethylene glycol (PEG), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), and hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB). A high capacity of 142.7 mAh/g was achieved after 100 cycles at a high current density of 500 mA/g for cathodes based on a nanostructured flower-like WS2. A solution consisting of magnesium (II) bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (MgTFSI2) and magnesium (II) chloride (MgCl2) in dimethoxyethane (DME) was used as an effective electrolyte, which contributes to favorable Mg2+ mobility. Weaker ionic bonds and van der Waals forces of WS2 compared with other transition metal oxides/sulfides lay the foundation for fast discharge/charge rate. The enhanced surface area of the nanostructured materials plays a key role in enhancing both the capacity and discharge/charge rate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers to Celebrate the First Impact Factor of Batteries)
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14 pages, 2043 KiB  
Article
Constructing Robust Solid Electrolyte Interface via ZrO2 Coating Layer for Hard Carbon Anode in Sodium-Ion Batteries
by Yuteng Gong, Chengxin Yu, Yu Li, Ji Qian, Chuan Wu and Ying Bai
Batteries 2022, 8(9), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8090115 - 6 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2482
Abstract
Hard carbon (HC) has attracted extensive attention due to its rich material source, environmental non-toxicity, superior sodium storage capacity, and lower sodium storage potential, and is considered most likely to be a commercial anode material for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs). Nevertheless, the limited initial [...] Read more.
Hard carbon (HC) has attracted extensive attention due to its rich material source, environmental non-toxicity, superior sodium storage capacity, and lower sodium storage potential, and is considered most likely to be a commercial anode material for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs). Nevertheless, the limited initial Coulombic efficiency (ICE) of HC is the main bottleneck hindering its practical application. To alleviate this issue, herein, a ZrO2 coating was skillfully constructed by using a facile liquid phase coating method. The ZrO2 coating can act as a physical barrier to prevent direct contact between the HC surface and the electrolyte, thus effectively reducing irreversible sodium adsorption and inhibiting the continuous decomposition of the electrolyte. Meanwhile, this fresh interface can contribute to the generation of a thinner solid electrolyte interface (SEI) with high ionic conductivity. As a result, the ICE of the ZrO2-coated HC electrode can be optimized up to 79.2% (64.4% for pristine HC). Furthermore, the ZrO2-coated HC electrode delivers outstanding cyclic stability so that the capacity retention rate can reach 82.6% after 2000 cycles at 1 A g−1 (55.8% for pristine HC). This work provides a flexible and versatile surface modification method to improve the electrochemical property of HC, and hopefully accelerate the practical application of HC anodes for SIBs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anode Materials for Sodium-Ion Batteries)
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14 pages, 3936 KiB  
Article
Brominated Porous Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Materials for Sodium-Ion Storage
by Yuliya V. Fedoseeva, Elena V. Shlyakhova, Svetlana G. Stolyarova, Anna A. Vorfolomeeva, Mariya A. Grebenkina, Anna A. Makarova, Yuriy V. Shubin, Alexander V. Okotrub and Lyubov G. Bulusheva
Batteries 2022, 8(9), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8090114 - 5 Sep 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2191
Abstract
Chemical modification improves the performance of the carbon anode in sodium-ion batteries (SIBs). In this work, porous nitrogen-doped carbon (PNC) was obtained by removing template nanoparticles from the thermal decomposition products of calcium glutarate and acetonitrile vapor. The treatment of PNC with a [...] Read more.
Chemical modification improves the performance of the carbon anode in sodium-ion batteries (SIBs). In this work, porous nitrogen-doped carbon (PNC) was obtained by removing template nanoparticles from the thermal decomposition products of calcium glutarate and acetonitrile vapor. The treatment of PNC with a KOH melt led to the etching of the carbon shells at the nitrogen sites, which caused the replacement of some nitrogen species by hydroxyl groups and the opening of pores. The attached hydroxyl groups interacted with Br2 molecules, resulting in a higher bromine content in the brominated pre-activated sample (5 at%) than in the brominated PNC (3 at%). Tests of the obtained materials in SIBs showed that KOH activation has little effect on the specific capacity of PNC, while bromination significantly improves the performance. The largest gain was achieved for brominated KOH-activated PNC, which was able to deliver 234 and 151 mAh g−1 at 0.05 and 1 A g−1, respectively, and demonstrated stable long-term operation at 0.25 and 0.5 A g−1. The improvement was related to the separation of graphitic layers due to Br2 intercalation and polarization of the carbon surface by covalently attached functional groups. Our results suggest a new two-stage modification strategy to improve the storage and high-rate capability of carbon materials in SIBs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-Performance Sodium-Ion Batteries)
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9 pages, 2364 KiB  
Article
Zinc as a Promising Anodic Material for All-Solid-State Lithium-Ion Batteries
by Kishore Singh, Yuchen Yao, Takayuki Ichikawa, Ankur Jain and Rini Singh
Batteries 2022, 8(9), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8090113 - 5 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2604
Abstract
Electrochemical energy storage is considered a remarkable way to bridge the gap between demand and supply due to intermittent renewable energy production. All-solid-state batteries are an excellent alternative and are known to be the safest class of batteries. In the present scenario to [...] Read more.
Electrochemical energy storage is considered a remarkable way to bridge the gap between demand and supply due to intermittent renewable energy production. All-solid-state batteries are an excellent alternative and are known to be the safest class of batteries. In the present scenario to accomplish the energy demands, high-capacity and stable anodes are warranted and can play a vital role in technology upgradation. Among the variety of anodes, alloying-type anodes are superior due to their high gravimetric capacity and stability. In the present work, zinc metal was implemented as electrode material in an all-solid-state lithium-ion battery. This anode material was tested with two different solid-state electrolytes, i.e., lithium borohydride (LiBH4) and halide-stabilized LiBH4 (i.e., LiBH4.LiI). In a coin cell, Li foil was placed as a counter electrode. The establishment of a reaction mechanism during the charging and discharging was obtained through X-ray diffraction (XRD) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). Systematic studies using the temperature dependence performance were also conducted. The volumetric density with both electrolytes was found at more than 3000 mAh/cm3. The coulombic efficiency for the electrode material was also observed at ~94%. These impressive numbers present zinc electrodes as a promising material for future electrode material for all-solid-state Li-ion batteries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers to Celebrate the First Impact Factor of Batteries)
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16 pages, 2424 KiB  
Article
Development of a Fusion Framework for Lithium-Ion Battery Capacity Estimation in Electric Vehicles
by Bo Jiang, Xuezhe Wei and Haifeng Dai
Batteries 2022, 8(9), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8090112 - 5 Sep 2022
Viewed by 2205
Abstract
The performance of a battery system is critical to the development of electric vehicles (EVs). Battery capacity decays with the use of EVs and an advanced onboard battery management system is required to estimate battery capacity accurately. However, the acquired capacity suffers from [...] Read more.
The performance of a battery system is critical to the development of electric vehicles (EVs). Battery capacity decays with the use of EVs and an advanced onboard battery management system is required to estimate battery capacity accurately. However, the acquired capacity suffers from poor accuracy caused by the inadequate utilization of battery information and the limitation of a single estimation method. This paper investigates an innovative fusion method based on the information fusion technique for battery capacity estimation, considering the actual working conditions of EVs. Firstly, a general framework for battery capacity estimation and fusion is proposed and two conventional capacity estimation methods running in different EV operating conditions are revisited. The error covariance of different estimations is deduced to evaluate the estimation uncertainties. Then, a fusion state–space function is constructed and realized through the Kalman filter to achieve the adaptive fusion of multi-dimensional capacity estimation. Several experiments simulating the actual battery operations in EVs are designed and performed to validate the proposed method. Experimental results show that the proposed method performs better than conventional methods, obtaining more accurate and stable capacity estimation under different aging statuses. Finally, a practical judgment criterion for the current deviation fault is proposed based on fusion capacity. Full article
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13 pages, 2964 KiB  
Article
Electrochemical Properties of LiFePO4 Cathodes: The Effect of Carbon Additives
by Irina Stenina, Polina Minakova, Tatiana Kulova and Andrey Yaroslavtsev
Batteries 2022, 8(9), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8090111 - 5 Sep 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3638
Abstract
The influence of different conductive additives (carbon nanofibers (CNFs), carbon nanoplatelets, and pyrolytic carbon from sucrose (Sucr) or polyvinylidene fluoride) on the morphology, electron conductivity, and electrochemical performance of LiFePO4-based cathodes was investigated to develop the most efficient strategy for the [...] Read more.
The influence of different conductive additives (carbon nanofibers (CNFs), carbon nanoplatelets, and pyrolytic carbon from sucrose (Sucr) or polyvinylidene fluoride) on the morphology, electron conductivity, and electrochemical performance of LiFePO4-based cathodes was investigated to develop the most efficient strategy for the fabrication of high-rate cathodes. Pyrolytic carbon effectively prevents the growth of LiFePO4 grains and provides contact between them, CNFs provide fast long-range conductive pathways, while carbon nanoplatelets can be embedded in carbon coatings as high-conductive “points” which enhance the rate capability and decrease the capacity fading of LFP. The LiFePO4/CSucr/CNF showed better performance than the other cathodes due to the synergy of the high-conductive CNF network (the electronic conductivity was 1.3 × 10−2 S/cm) and the shorter Li+ ion path (the lithium-ion diffusion coefficient was 2.1 × 10−11 cm2/s). It is shown that the formation of composites based on LFP and carbon nanomaterials via mortar grinding is a more promising strategy for electrode material manufacturing than ball milling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Battery Modelling, Simulation, Management and Application)
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14 pages, 723 KiB  
Review
A Review on the Degradation Implementation for the Operation of Battery Energy Storage Systems
by Pedro Luis Camuñas García-Miguel, Jaime Alonso-Martínez, Santiago Arnaltes Gómez, Manuel García Plaza and Andrés Peña Asensio
Batteries 2022, 8(9), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8090110 - 3 Sep 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3968
Abstract
A naive battery operation optimization attempts to maximize short-term profits. However, it has been shown that this approach does not optimize long-term profitability, as it neglects battery degradation. Since a battery can perform a limited number of cycles during its lifetime, it may [...] Read more.
A naive battery operation optimization attempts to maximize short-term profits. However, it has been shown that this approach does not optimize long-term profitability, as it neglects battery degradation. Since a battery can perform a limited number of cycles during its lifetime, it may be better to operate the battery only when profits are on the high side. Researchers have dealt with this issue using various strategies to restrain battery usage, reducing short-term benefits in exchange for an increase in long-term profits. Determining this operation restraint is a topic scarcely developed in the literature. It is common to arbitrarily quantify degradation impact into short-term operation, which has proven to have an extensive impact on long-term results. This paper carries out a critical review of different methods of degradation control for short-time operation. A classification of different practices found in the literature is presented. Strengths and weaknesses of each approach are pointed out, and future possible contributions to this topic are remarked upon. The most common methodology is implemented in a simulation for demonstration purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers to Celebrate the First Impact Factor of Batteries)
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9 pages, 3005 KiB  
Article
Effect of Vinylene Carbonate Electrolyte Additive on the Process of Insertion/Extraction of Na into Ge Microrods Formed by Electrodeposition
by Egor A. Lebedev, Ilya M. Gavrilin, Yulia O. Kudryashova, Irina K. Martynova, Roman L. Volkov, Tatiana L. Kulova, Alexander M. Skundin, Nikolay I. Borgardt and Sergey A. Gavrilov
Batteries 2022, 8(9), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8090109 - 2 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1993
Abstract
Layers of germanium (Ge) microrods with a core–shell structure on titanium foils were grown by a metal-assisted electrochemical reduction of germanium oxide in aqueous electrolytes. The structural properties and composition of the germanium microrods were studied by means of scanning and transmission electron [...] Read more.
Layers of germanium (Ge) microrods with a core–shell structure on titanium foils were grown by a metal-assisted electrochemical reduction of germanium oxide in aqueous electrolytes. The structural properties and composition of the germanium microrods were studied by means of scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Electrochemical studies of germanium nanowires were carried out by impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The results showed that the addition of vinylene carbonate (VC) in the electrolyte significantly reduced the irreversible capacity during the first charge/discharge cycles and increased the long-term cycling stability of the Ge microrods. The obtained results will benefit the further design of Ge microrods-based anodes that are formed by simple electrochemical deposition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Battery Modelling, Simulation, Management and Application)
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16 pages, 5644 KiB  
Article
Temperature Dependence of Hard Carbon Performance in Sodium Half-Cells with 1 M NaClO4 in EC/DEC Electrolyte
by Bowen Liu, Andrew L. Hector, Weronika O. Razmus and Richard G. A. Wills
Batteries 2022, 8(9), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8090108 - 1 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3292
Abstract
In recent years, sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) have attracted much attention as an alternative to lithium-ion batteries. Hard carbon (HC) is a well-studied anode material for SIBs; however, the performance as a function of temperature is less established. To investigate temperature dependence of the [...] Read more.
In recent years, sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) have attracted much attention as an alternative to lithium-ion batteries. Hard carbon (HC) is a well-studied anode material for SIBs; however, the performance as a function of temperature is less established. To investigate temperature dependence of the performance of HC, sodium half-cells with a common NaClO4-based electrolyte were tested at temperatures from 10 to 80 °C. Capacity after 20 cycles at 100 mA g−1 current varied from 90 mA h g−1 at 10 °C to 270 mA h g−1 at 60 °C. Increased temperature significantly improves the HC rate capability, with 120 mA h g−1 capacity found at 60 °C with 500 mA g−1 current. Stability was high at moderate temperature with 220 mA h g−1 capacity remaining after 200 cycles at 40 °C with a current of 100 mA g−1. Full article
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23 pages, 19826 KiB  
Article
Li-ion Electrode Microstructure Evolution during Drying and Calendering
by Mojdeh Nikpour, Baichuan Liu, Paul Minson, Zachary Hillman, Brian A. Mazzeo and Dean R. Wheeler
Batteries 2022, 8(9), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8090107 - 1 Sep 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 6300
Abstract
The drying process of electrodes might seem to be a simple operation, but it has profound effects on the microstructure. Some unexpected changes can happen depending on the drying conditions. In prior work, we developed the multiphase-smoothed-particle (MPSP) model, which predicted a relative [...] Read more.
The drying process of electrodes might seem to be a simple operation, but it has profound effects on the microstructure. Some unexpected changes can happen depending on the drying conditions. In prior work, we developed the multiphase-smoothed-particle (MPSP) model, which predicted a relative increase in the carbon additive and binder adjacent to the current collector during drying. This motivated us to undertake the present experimental investigation of the relationship between the drying rate and microstructure and transport properties for a typical anode and cathode. Specifically, the drying rate was controlled by means of temperature for both an NMC532 cathode and graphite anode. The material distribution was analyzed using a combination of cross-section SEM images and the energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy elemental maps. The binder concentration gradients were developed in both the in- and through-plane directions. The through-plane gradient is evident at a temperature higher than 150 °C, whereas the in-plane variations resulted at all drying temperatures. The measurements identified an optimum temperature (80 °C) that results in high electronic conductivity and low ionic resistivity due to a more uniform binder distribution. Trends in transport properties are not significantly altered by calendering, which highlights the importance of the drying rate itself on the assembled cell properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Battery Modelling, Simulation, Management and Application)
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17 pages, 5904 KiB  
Article
Study of Quaternary Ammonium Additives towards High-Rate Zinc Deposition and Dissolution Cycling for Application in Zinc-Based Rechargeable Batteries
by Kaipei Qiu, David Trudgeon, Xiaohong Li, Vladimir Yufit, Barun Chakrabarti, Nigel Brandon and Akeel Shah
Batteries 2022, 8(9), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8090106 - 30 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2387
Abstract
Aqueous zinc-based rechargeable batteries, such as Zn-Ni and Zn-Air, have been increasingly re-investigated over the last decade due to the abundant and inexpensive nature of zinc, the high solubility of zinc ions, and rapid kinetics and most negative standard potential of the Zn(II)/Zn [...] Read more.
Aqueous zinc-based rechargeable batteries, such as Zn-Ni and Zn-Air, have been increasingly re-investigated over the last decade due to the abundant and inexpensive nature of zinc, the high solubility of zinc ions, and rapid kinetics and most negative standard potential of the Zn(II)/Zn redox couple in aqueous media. However, the overwhelming challenge that has prevented the implementation of next-generation Zn batteries lies in their poor rechargeability—flowing electrolytes have proven to be of benefit to zinc deposition and dissolution cycling, but the rapid zinc deposition–dissolution at practical current densities of 100 mA cm2 or over is still questionable. Herein, we demonstrated that applying an optimal concentration of quaternary ammonium electrolyte additives with carefully selected cations’ alkyl groups can effectively improve the high-rate zinc cycling performance at 100 mA cm2/20 mAh cm2. The resultant additives significantly reduced the initial coulombic efficiency loss to only 1.11% with coulombic efficiency decay rate of 0.79% per cycle, which is less than a quarter of the benchmark of 6.25% and 3.75% per cycle for no additives. Full article
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70 pages, 5257 KiB  
Review
Tug-of-War in the Selection of Materials for Battery Technologies
by Wendy Pantoja, Jaime Andres Perez-Taborda and Alba Avila
Batteries 2022, 8(9), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8090105 - 24 Aug 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 7029
Abstract
Batteries are the heart and the bottleneck of portable electronic systems. They power electronics and determine the system run time, with the size and volume determining factors in their design and implementation. Understanding the material properties of the battery components—anode, cathode, electrolyte, and [...] Read more.
Batteries are the heart and the bottleneck of portable electronic systems. They power electronics and determine the system run time, with the size and volume determining factors in their design and implementation. Understanding the material properties of the battery components—anode, cathode, electrolyte, and separator—and their interaction is necessary to establish selection criteria based on their correlations with the battery metrics: capacity, current density, and cycle life. This review studies material used in the four battery components from the perspective and the impact of seven ions (Li+, Na+, K+, Zn2+, Ca2+, Mg2+, and Al3+), employed in commercial and research batteries. In addition, critical factors of sustainability of the supply chains—geographical raw materials origins vs. battery manufacturing companies and material properties (Young’s modulus vs. electric conductivity)—are mapped. These are key aspects toward identifying the supply chain vulnerabilities and gaps for batteries. In addition, two battery applications, smartphones and electric vehicles, in light of challenges in the current research, commercial fronts, and technical prospects, are discussed. Bringing the next generation of batteries necessitates a transition from advances in material to addressing the technical challenges, which the review has powered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Materials for Energy Harvesting and Storage)
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16 pages, 7374 KiB  
Article
Kalman Filter Tuning Using Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm for State and Parameter Estimation of Lithium-Ion Cells
by Michael Theiler, Dominik Schneider and Christian Endisch
Batteries 2022, 8(9), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8090104 - 23 Aug 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3330
Abstract
To ensure a reliable and safe operation of battery systems in various applications, the system’s internal states must be observed with high accuracy. Hereby, the Kalman filter is a frequently used and well-known tool to estimate the states and model parameters of a [...] Read more.
To ensure a reliable and safe operation of battery systems in various applications, the system’s internal states must be observed with high accuracy. Hereby, the Kalman filter is a frequently used and well-known tool to estimate the states and model parameters of a lithium-ion cell. A strong requirement is the selection of a suitable model and a reasonable initialization, otherwise the algorithm’s estimation might be insufficient. Especially the process noise parametrization poses a difficult task, since it is an abstract parameter and often optimized by an arbitrary trial-and-error principle. In this work, a traceable procedure based on the genetic algorithm is introduced to determine the process noise offline considering the estimation error and filter consistency. Hereby, the parameters found are independent of the researcher’s experience. Results are validated with a simulative and experimental study, using an NCA/graphite lithium-ion cell. After the transient phase, the estimation error of the state-of-charge is lower than 0.6% and for internal resistance smaller than 4mΩ while the corresponding estimated covariances fit the error well. Full article
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22 pages, 8571 KiB  
Article
Humidity-Induced Degradation of Lithium-Stabilized Sodium-Beta Alumina Solid Electrolytes
by Micha P. Fertig, Cornelius Dirksen, Matthias Schulz and Michael Stelter
Batteries 2022, 8(9), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8090103 - 23 Aug 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2888
Abstract
Sodium-beta alumina is a solid-state electrolyte with outstanding chemical, electrochemical, and mechanical properties. Sodium polyaluminate is successfully employed in established Na–S and Na–NiCl2 cell systems. It is a promising candidate for all-solid-state sodium batteries. However, humidity affects the performance of this solid [...] Read more.
Sodium-beta alumina is a solid-state electrolyte with outstanding chemical, electrochemical, and mechanical properties. Sodium polyaluminate is successfully employed in established Na–S and Na–NiCl2 cell systems. It is a promising candidate for all-solid-state sodium batteries. However, humidity affects the performance of this solid electrolyte. In this work, the effect of humidity on disk-shaped samples of Li-stabilized sodium-beta alumina stored in three different environments is quantified. We used impedance analysis and additional characterizations to investigate the consequences of the occurring degradation, namely ion exchange and subsequent buildup of surface layers. Sodium-beta alumina’s ionic conductivity gradually deteriorates up to two orders of magnitude. This is due to layers developed superficially during storage, while its fracture strength of 240 MPa remains unaffected. Changes in microstructure, composition, and cycle life of Na|BASE|Na cells highlight the importance of proper storage conditions: In just one week of improper storage, the critical current density collapsed from the maximum of 9.1 mA cm−2, one of the highest values reported for sodium-beta alumina, to 1.7 mA cm−2 at 25 °C. The results validate former observations regarding sodium-beta alumina’s moisture sensitivity and suggest how to handle sodium-beta alumina used in electrochemical cell systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenges of Batteries in the Post Li-Ion Era)
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