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Batteries, Volume 10, Issue 4 (April 2024) – 31 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): As batteries contain a number of potentially harmful components, and thermal-runaway-induced battery incidents involve complex and potentially multistage fume emissions (containing both gas and particles), the potential effects of fire run-off waters on the environment should be assessed carefully. The experiments presented in this paper focus on analyzing the composition of run-off waters used to spray NMC Li-ion modules under thermal runaway, while the article as a whole highlights that water used for firefighting is likely to contain many metals, including Ni, Mn, Co, Li, and Al, mixed with other carbonaceous species (e.g., soot and tarballs), and sometimes undecomposed solvents used in the electrolyte. The extrapolation of pollutant concentrations compared with PNEC values demonstrated that, for large-scale incidents, run-off water could be potentially hazardous to the environment. View this paper
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32 pages, 20012 KiB  
Article
A Novel Differentiated Control Strategy for an Energy Storage System That Minimizes Battery Aging Cost Based on Multiple Health Features
by Wei Xiao, Jun Jia, Weidong Zhong, Wenxue Liu, Zhuoyan Wu, Cheng Jiang and Binke Li
Batteries 2024, 10(4), 143; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries10040143 - 22 Apr 2024
Viewed by 871
Abstract
In large-capacity energy storage systems, instructions are decomposed typically using an equalized power distribution strategy, where clusters/modules operate at the same power and durations. When dispatching shifts from stable single conditions to intricate coupled conditions, this distribution strategy inevitably results in increased inconsistency [...] Read more.
In large-capacity energy storage systems, instructions are decomposed typically using an equalized power distribution strategy, where clusters/modules operate at the same power and durations. When dispatching shifts from stable single conditions to intricate coupled conditions, this distribution strategy inevitably results in increased inconsistency and hastened system aging. This paper presents a novel differentiated power distribution strategy comprising three control variables: the rotation status, and the operating boundaries for both depth of discharge (DOD) and C-rates (C) within a control period. The proposed strategy integrates an aging cost prediction model developed to express the mapping relationship between these control variables and aging costs. Additionally, it incorporates the multi-colony particle swarm optimization (Mc-PSO) algorithm into the optimization model to minimize aging costs. The aging cost prediction model consists of three functions: predicting health features (HFs) based on the cumulative charge/discharge throughput quantity and operating boundaries, characterizing HFs as comprehensive scores, and calculating aging costs using both comprehensive scores and residual equipment value. Further, we elaborated on the engineering application process for the proposed control strategy. In the simulation scenarios, this strategy prolonged the service life by 14.62%, reduced the overall aging cost by 6.61%, and improved module consistency by 21.98%, compared with the traditional equalized distribution strategy. In summary, the proposed strategy proves effective in elongating service life, reducing overall aging costs, and increasing the benefit of energy storage systems in particular application scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Control and Optimization of Battery Energy Storage Systems)
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20 pages, 2268 KiB  
Article
Mechanical Measurement Approach to Characterize Venting Behavior during Thermal Runaway of 18650 Format Lithium-Ion Batteries
by Elisabeth Irene Gillich, Marco Steinhardt, Yaroslava Fedoryshyna and Andreas Jossen
Batteries 2024, 10(4), 142; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries10040142 - 22 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1099
Abstract
The propagation of thermal runaway in a battery system is safety-critical in almost every application, such as electric vehicles or home storage. Abuse models can help to undestand propagation mechanisms and assist in designing safe battery systems, but need to be well-parametrized. Most [...] Read more.
The propagation of thermal runaway in a battery system is safety-critical in almost every application, such as electric vehicles or home storage. Abuse models can help to undestand propagation mechanisms and assist in designing safe battery systems, but need to be well-parametrized. Most of the heat during thermal runaway is released by venting that is why the characteristic of the vent flow plays an important part in the safety assessment. During venting, the cell generates a recoil force like a rocket, which depends on the flow speed and flow rate of the gas. This principle is used in this work to measure the velocity and mass flow rate of the vent gas. High-power and high-energy 18650 format lithium-ion batteries were overheated and the recoil and weight forces were measured to determine the venting parameter during thermal runaway. Our results show, that the linearized gas flow rate for the high-power and high-energy cell is 22.15gs1 and 27.92gs1, respectively. The progress of the gas velocity differs between the two cell types and in case of the high-energy cell, it follows a single peak asymmetrical pattern with a peak of 398.5ms1, while the high-power cell shows a bumpy pattern with a maximum gas velocity of 260.9ms1. The developed test bench and gained results can contribute insights in the venting behavior, characterize venting, support safety assessments, simulations and pack design studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Battery Performance, Ageing, Reliability and Safety)
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22 pages, 1213 KiB  
Review
Energy Storage Systems: Technologies and High-Power Applications
by Ahmed Aghmadi and Osama A. Mohammed
Batteries 2024, 10(4), 141; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries10040141 - 20 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1133
Abstract
Energy storage systems are essential in modern energy infrastructure, addressing efficiency, power quality, and reliability challenges in DC/AC power systems. Recognized for their indispensable role in ensuring grid stability and seamless integration with renewable energy sources. These storage systems prove crucial for aircraft, [...] Read more.
Energy storage systems are essential in modern energy infrastructure, addressing efficiency, power quality, and reliability challenges in DC/AC power systems. Recognized for their indispensable role in ensuring grid stability and seamless integration with renewable energy sources. These storage systems prove crucial for aircraft, shipboard systems, and electric vehicles, addressing peak load demands economically while enhancing overall system reliability and efficiency. Recent advancements and research have focused on high-power storage technologies, including supercapacitors, superconducting magnetic energy storage, and flywheels, characterized by high-power density and rapid response, ideally suited for applications requiring rapid charging and discharging. Hybrid energy storage systems and multiple energy storage devices represent enhanced flexibility and resilience, making them increasingly attractive for diverse applications, including critical loads. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of recent technological advancements in high-power storage devices, including lithium-ion batteries, recognized for their high energy density. In addition, a summary of hybrid energy storage system applications in microgrids and scenarios involving critical and pulse loads is provided. The research further discusses power, energy, cost, life, and performance technologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Charging Safety and Intelligence of Lithium-Ion Batteries)
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10 pages, 2133 KiB  
Article
Stabilization of the Interface between a PEO-Based Lithium Solid Polymer Electrolyte and a 4-Volt Class Cathode, LiCoO2, by the Addition of LiPF6 as a Lithium Salt
by Sou Taminato, Akino Tsuka, Kento Sobue, Daisuke Mori, Yasuo Takeda, Osamu Yamamoto and Nobuyuki Imanishi
Batteries 2024, 10(4), 140; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries10040140 - 19 Apr 2024
Viewed by 865
Abstract
Here, the time dependence of the interfacial resistance for Li/polyethylene oxide (PEO)-Li(CF3SO2)2N (LiTFSI)-LiPF6/LiCoO2 cells was measured to investigate the stabilization effect of LiPF6 on the interface between a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) and [...] Read more.
Here, the time dependence of the interfacial resistance for Li/polyethylene oxide (PEO)-Li(CF3SO2)2N (LiTFSI)-LiPF6/LiCoO2 cells was measured to investigate the stabilization effect of LiPF6 on the interface between a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) and a 4-volt class cathode, LiCoO2. Impedance measurements under the applied potentials between 4.1 V and 4.4 V vs. Li/Li+ indicated that the addition of LiPF6 to LiTFSI was effective in improving the stability at high potentials such as 4.4 V vs. Li/Li+. In contrast, the resistance of the non-doped PEO-LiTFSI/LiCoO2 interface increased with time under the lower potential of 4.1 V vs. Li/Li+. Fairly good cycle performance was obtained for the LiPF6-doped cell, even at a cut-off voltage of 4.5 V vs. Li/Li+. Full article
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16 pages, 3988 KiB  
Article
A Novel Feature Engineering-Based SOH Estimation Method for Lithium-Ion Battery with Downgraded Laboratory Data
by Jinyu Wang, Caiping Zhang, Xiangfeng Meng, Linjing Zhang, Xu Li and Weige Zhang
Batteries 2024, 10(4), 139; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries10040139 - 19 Apr 2024
Viewed by 910
Abstract
Accurate estimation of lithium-ion battery state of health (SOH) can effectively improve the operational safety of electric vehicles and optimize the battery operation strategy. However, previous SOH estimation algorithms developed based on high-precision laboratory data have ignored the discrepancies between field and laboratory [...] Read more.
Accurate estimation of lithium-ion battery state of health (SOH) can effectively improve the operational safety of electric vehicles and optimize the battery operation strategy. However, previous SOH estimation algorithms developed based on high-precision laboratory data have ignored the discrepancies between field and laboratory data, leading to difficulties in field application. Therefore, aiming to bridge the gap between the lab-developed models and the field operational data, this paper presents a feature engineering-based SOH estimation method with downgraded laboratory battery data, applicable to real vehicles under different operating conditions. Firstly, a data processing pipeline is proposed to downgrade laboratory data to operational fleet-level data. The six key features are extracted on the partial ranges to capture the battery’s aging state. Finally, three machine learning (ML) algorithms for easy online deployment are employed for SOH assessment. The results show that the hybrid feature set performs well and has high accuracy in SOH estimation for downgraded data, with a minimum root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.36%. Only three mechanism features derived from the incremental capacity curve can still provide a proper assessment, with a minimum RMSE of 0.44%. Voltage-based features can assist in evaluating battery state, improving accuracy by up to 20%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Battery Modelling, Simulation, Management and Application)
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30 pages, 6948 KiB  
Article
Integrating Life Cycle Principles in Home Energy Management Systems: Optimal Load PV–Battery–Electric Vehicle Scheduling
by Zaid A. Al Muala, Mohammad A. Bany Issa and Pastora M. Bello Bugallo
Batteries 2024, 10(4), 138; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries10040138 - 19 Apr 2024
Viewed by 930
Abstract
Energy management in the residential sector contributes to energy system dispatching and security with the optimal use of renewable energy systems (RES) and energy storage systems (ESSs) and by utilizing the main grid based on its state. This work focuses on optimal energy [...] Read more.
Energy management in the residential sector contributes to energy system dispatching and security with the optimal use of renewable energy systems (RES) and energy storage systems (ESSs) and by utilizing the main grid based on its state. This work focuses on optimal energy flow, ESS parameters, and energy consumption scheduling based on demand response (DR) programs. The primary goals of the work consist of minimizing electricity costs while simultaneously extending the lifetime of ESSs in conjunction with extracting maximum benefits throughout their operational lifespan and reducing CO2 emissions. Effective ESS and photovoltaic (PV) energy usage prices are modeled and an efficient energy flow management algorithm is presented, which considers the life cycle of the ESSs including batteries, electrical vehicles (EVs) and the efficient use of the PV system while reducing the cost of energy consumption. In addition, an optimization technique is employed to obtain the optimal ESS parameters including the size and depth of discharge (DOD), considering the installation cost, levelized cost of storage (LCOS), winter and summer conditions, energy consumption profile, and energy prices. Finally, an optimization technique is applied to obtain the optimal energy consumption scheduling. The proposed system provides all of the possibilities of exchanging energy between EV, battery, PV system, grid, and home. The optimization problem is solved using the particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO) in MATLAB with an interval time of one minute. The results show the effectiveness of the proposed system, presenting an actual cost reduction of 28.9% and 17.7% in summer and winter, respectively, compared to a base scenario. Similarly, the energy losses were reduced by 26.7% in winter and 22.3% in summer, and the EV battery lifetime was extended from 9.2 to 19.1 years in the winter scenario and from 10.4 to 17.7 years in the summer scenario. The integrated system provided a financial contribution during the operational lifetime of EUR 11,600 and 7900 in winter and summer scenarios, respectively. The CO2 was reduced by 59.7% and 46.2% in summer and winter scenarios, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Towards a Smarter Battery Management System)
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13 pages, 3173 KiB  
Article
Aging in First and Second Life of G/LFP 18650 Cells: Diagnosis and Evolution of the State of Health of the Cell and the Negative Electrode under Cycling
by William Wheeler, Pascal Venet, Yann Bultel, Ali Sari and Elie Riviere
Batteries 2024, 10(4), 137; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries10040137 - 18 Apr 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1046
Abstract
Second-life applications for lithium-ion batteries offer the industry opportunities to defer recycling costs, enhance economic value, and reduce environmental impacts. An accurate prognosis of the remaining useful life (RUL) is essential for ensuring effective second-life operation. Diagnosis is a necessary step for the [...] Read more.
Second-life applications for lithium-ion batteries offer the industry opportunities to defer recycling costs, enhance economic value, and reduce environmental impacts. An accurate prognosis of the remaining useful life (RUL) is essential for ensuring effective second-life operation. Diagnosis is a necessary step for the establishment of a reliable prognosis, based on the aging modes involved in a cell. This paper introduces a method for characterizing specific aging phenomenon in Graphite/Lithium Iron Phosphate (G/LFP) cells. This method aims to identify aging related to the loss of active material at the negative electrode (LAMNE). The identification and tracking of the state of health (SoH) are based on Incremental Capacity Analysis (ICA) and Differential Voltage Analysis (DVA) peak-tracking techniques. The remaining capacity of the electrode is thus evaluated based on these diagnostic results, using a model derived from half-cell electrode characterization. The method is used on a G/LFP cell in the format 18650, with a nominal capacity of 1.1 Ah, aged from its pristine state to 40% of state of health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Second-Life Batteries)
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12 pages, 2116 KiB  
Article
Li-Ion Battery Thermal Characterization for Thermal Management Design
by Aron Saxon, Chuanbo Yang, Shriram Santhanagopalan, Matthew Keyser and Andrew Colclasure
Batteries 2024, 10(4), 136; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries10040136 - 18 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1109
Abstract
Battery design efforts often prioritize enhancing the energy density of the active materials and their utilization. However, optimizing thermal management systems at both the cell and pack levels is also key to achieving mission-relevant battery design. Battery thermal management systems, responsible for managing [...] Read more.
Battery design efforts often prioritize enhancing the energy density of the active materials and their utilization. However, optimizing thermal management systems at both the cell and pack levels is also key to achieving mission-relevant battery design. Battery thermal management systems, responsible for managing the thermal profile of battery cells, are crucial for balancing the trade-offs between battery performance and lifetime. Designing such systems requires accounting for the multitude of heat sources within battery cells and packs. This paper provides a summary of heat generation characterizations observed in several commercial Li-ion battery cells using isothermal battery calorimetry. The primary focus is on assessing the impact of temperatures, C-rates, and formation cycles. Moreover, a module-level characterization demonstrated the significant additional heat generated by module interconnects. Characterizing heat signatures at each level helps inform manufacturing at the design, production, and characterization phases that might otherwise go unaccounted for at the full pack level. Further testing of a 5 kWh battery pack revealed that a considerable temperature non-uniformity may arise due to inefficient cooling arrangements. To mitigate this type of challenge, a combined thermal characterization and multi-domain modeling approach is proposed, offering a solution without the need for constructing a costly module prototype. Full article
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24 pages, 15499 KiB  
Review
Behavior of NO3-Based Electrolyte Additive in Lithium Metal Batteries
by Jeongmin Kim, Taeho Yoon and Oh B. Chae
Batteries 2024, 10(4), 135; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries10040135 - 17 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1127
Abstract
While lithium metal is highly desired as a next-generation battery material due to its theoretically highest capacity and lowest electrode potential, its practical application has been impeded by stability issues such as dendrite formation and short cycle life. Ongoing research aims to enhance [...] Read more.
While lithium metal is highly desired as a next-generation battery material due to its theoretically highest capacity and lowest electrode potential, its practical application has been impeded by stability issues such as dendrite formation and short cycle life. Ongoing research aims to enhance the stability of lithium metal batteries for commercialization. Among the studies, research on N-based electrolyte additives, which can stabilize the solid electrolyte interface (SEI) layer and provide stability to the lithium metal surface, holds great promise. The NO3 anion in the N-based electrolyte additive causes the SEI layer on the lithium metal surface to contain compounds such as Li3N and Li2O, which not only facilitates the conduction of Li+ ions in the SEI layer but also increases its mechanical strength. However, due to challenges with the solubility of N-based electrolyte additives in carbonate-based electrolytes, extensive research has been conducted on electrolytes based on ethers. Nonetheless, the low oxidative stability of ether-based electrolytes hinders their practical application. Hence, a strategy is needed to incorporate N-based electrolyte additives into carbonate-based electrolytes. In this review, we address the challenges of lithium metal batteries and propose practical approaches for the application and development of N-based electrolyte additives. Full article
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15 pages, 3063 KiB  
Article
Pure and (Sn or Mg) Doped GeFe2O4 as Anodes for Sodium-Ion Batteries
by Marco Ambrosetti, Irene Quinzeni, Alessandro Girella, Vittorio Berbenni, Benedetta Albini, Pietro Galinetto, Michela Sturini and Marcella Bini
Batteries 2024, 10(4), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries10040134 - 17 Apr 2024
Viewed by 950
Abstract
GeFe2O4 (GFO) is a germanium mineral whose spinel crystal structure determines its interesting functional properties. Recently, it was proposed for application as an anode for Sodium and Lithium-Ion Batteries (SIBs and LIBs) thanks to its combined conversion and alloying electrochemical [...] Read more.
GeFe2O4 (GFO) is a germanium mineral whose spinel crystal structure determines its interesting functional properties. Recently, it was proposed for application as an anode for Sodium and Lithium-Ion Batteries (SIBs and LIBs) thanks to its combined conversion and alloying electrochemical mechanism. However, its entire potential is limited by the poor electronic conductivity and volumetric expansion during cycling. In the present paper, pure and Sn or Mg doped GFO samples obtained from mechano-chemical solid-state synthesis and properly carbon coated were structurally and electrochemically characterized and proposed, for the first time, as anodes for SIBs. The spinel cubic structure of pure GFO is maintained in doped samples. The expected redox processes, involving Fe and Ge ions, are evidenced in the electrochemical tests. The Sn doping demonstrated a beneficial effect on the long-term cycling (providing 150 mAh/g at 0.2 C after 120 cycles) and on the capacity values (346 mAh/g at 0.2 C with respect to 300 mAh/g of the pure one), while the Mg substitution was less effective. Full article
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13 pages, 1954 KiB  
Article
Early Investigations on Electrolyte Mixing Issues in Large Flow Battery Tanks
by Andrea Trovò, Pablo A. Prieto-Díaz, Nicolò Zatta, Francesco Picano and Massimo Guarnieri
Batteries 2024, 10(4), 133; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries10040133 - 17 Apr 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 998
Abstract
Most investigations on flow batteries (FBs) make the assumption of perfectly mixed electrolytes inside the tanks without estimating their likelihood, while specific analyses are missing in the literature. This paper presents a pioneering investigation of the electrolyte flow dynamics inside FB tanks. This [...] Read more.
Most investigations on flow batteries (FBs) make the assumption of perfectly mixed electrolytes inside the tanks without estimating their likelihood, while specific analyses are missing in the literature. This paper presents a pioneering investigation of the electrolyte flow dynamics inside FB tanks. This study considers the Open Circuit Voltage (OCV) measured at the stack of a 9 kW/27 kWh Vanadium FB with 500 L tanks. Order-of-magnitude estimates of the measured dynamics suggest that differences in densities and viscosities of the active species drive gradients of concentrations with different patterns in the positive and negative tanks and in charge and discharge, affected by current and flow rate, which result in significant deviation from homogeneity, affecting the State of Charge (SoC) of the electrolytes flowed into the stack and thus the FB performance. In particular, stratifications of the inlet electrolytes may appear which are responsible for delays in reaching the outlets, with initial plateau and following step (s) in the SoC at the stack. These events can have a major impact in the performance of industrial FBs with large tanks and suggest that specific tank designs may improve the overall dynamics, calling for further analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Battery Modelling, Simulation, Management and Application)
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9 pages, 2505 KiB  
Article
Influence of Solid Fraction on Particle Size during Wet-Chemical Synthesis of β-Li3PS4 in Tetrahydrofuran
by Aurelia Gries, Frederieke Langer, Julian Schwenzel and Matthias Busse
Batteries 2024, 10(4), 132; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries10040132 - 16 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1198
Abstract
For all-solid-state batteries, the particle size distribution of the solid electrolyte is a critical factor. Small particles are preferred to obtain a high active mass loading of cathode active material and a small porosity in composite cathodes. In this work, the influence of [...] Read more.
For all-solid-state batteries, the particle size distribution of the solid electrolyte is a critical factor. Small particles are preferred to obtain a high active mass loading of cathode active material and a small porosity in composite cathodes. In this work, the influence of the solid fraction in the wet-chemical synthesis of β-Li3PS4 in tetrahydrofuran (THF) is investigated. The solid fraction is varied between 50 and 200 mg/mL, and the obtained samples are evaluated using X-ray diffraction, SEM and electrochemical impedance measurements. The sizes of the resulting particles show a significant dependency on the solid fraction, while a good ionic conductivity is maintained. For the highest concentration, the particle sizes do not exceed 10 µm, but for the lowest concentration, particles up to ~73 µm can be found. The ionic conductivities at room temperature are determined to be 0.63 ± 0.01 × 10−4 S/cm and 0.78 ± 0.01 × 10−4 S/cm for the highest and lowest concentrations, respectively. These findings lead to an improvement towards the production of tailored sulfide solid electrolytes. Full article
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13 pages, 8198 KiB  
Article
Controlling Algorithm of Reconfigurable Battery for State of Charge Balancing Using Amortized Q-Learning
by Dominic Karnehm, Wolfgang Bliemetsrieder, Sebastian Pohlmann and Antje Neve
Batteries 2024, 10(4), 131; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries10040131 - 15 Apr 2024
Viewed by 961
Abstract
In the context of the electrification of the mobility sector, smart algorithms have to be developed to control battery packs. Smart and reconfigurable batteries are a promising alternative to conventional battery packs and offer new possibilities for operation and condition monitoring. This work [...] Read more.
In the context of the electrification of the mobility sector, smart algorithms have to be developed to control battery packs. Smart and reconfigurable batteries are a promising alternative to conventional battery packs and offer new possibilities for operation and condition monitoring. This work proposes a reinforcement learning (RL) algorithm to balance the State of Charge (SoC) of reconfigurable batteries based on the topologies half-bridge and battery modular multilevel management (BM3). As an RL algorithm, Amortized Q-learning (AQL) is implemented, which enables the control of enormous numbers of possible configurations of the reconfigurable battery as well as the combination of classical controlling approaches and machine learning methods. This enhances the safety mechanisms during control. As a neural network of the AQL, a Feedforward Neuronal Network (FNN) is implemented consisting of three hidden layers. The experimental evaluation using a 12-cell hybrid cascaded multilevel converter illustrates the applicability of the method to balance the SoC and maintain the balanced state during discharge. The evaluation shows a 20.3% slower balancing process compared to a conventional approach. Nevertheless, AQL shows great potential for multiobjective optimizations and can be applied as an RL algorithm for control in power electronics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligent Battery Systems: Monitoring, Management, and Control)
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22 pages, 1492 KiB  
Article
The Future of Energy Storage in Vietnam: A Fuzzy Multi-Criteria Decision-Making Approach to Metal-Ion Battery Assessments
by Chia-Nan Wang, Nhat-Luong Nhieu and Yen-Hui Wang
Batteries 2024, 10(4), 130; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries10040130 - 14 Apr 2024
Viewed by 898
Abstract
Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries, despite their prevalence, face issues of resource scarcity and environmental concerns, prompting the search for alternative technologies. This study addresses the need to assess and identify viable metal-ion battery alternatives to Li-ion batteries, focusing on the rapidly industrializing context of [...] Read more.
Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries, despite their prevalence, face issues of resource scarcity and environmental concerns, prompting the search for alternative technologies. This study addresses the need to assess and identify viable metal-ion battery alternatives to Li-ion batteries, focusing on the rapidly industrializing context of Vietnam. It acknowledges the criticality of developing a sustainable, cost-effective, and resource-efficient energy storage solution that aligns with the country’s growth trajectory. The primary objective is to evaluate the suitability of emerging metal-ion batteries—specifically sodium-ion (SIB), sodium-ion saltwater (SIB-S), magnesium-ion (MIB), and zinc-ion (ZIB)—for Vietnam’s energy storage needs, guiding future investment and policy decisions. A Fuzzy Multiple-Criteria Decision-Making (MCDM) approach is employed, incorporating both quantitative and qualitative criteria. This study utilizes the Fuzzy Best-Worst Method (BWM) to determine the relative importance of various performance indicators and then applies the Bonferroni Fuzzy Combined Compromise Solution (Bonferroni FCoCoSo) method to rank the battery alternatives. The SIBs emerged as the most promising alternative, scoring the highest in the overall evaluation. The MIBs and SIB-saltwater batteries displayed competitive potential, while the ZIBs ranked the lowest among the considered options. This research provides a strategic framework for energy policy formulation and investment prioritization. It contributes to the field by applying a fuzzy-based MCDM approach in a novel context and offers a structured comparative analysis of metal-ion batteries, enhancing the body of knowledge on sustainable energy storage technologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Battery Processing, Manufacturing and Recycling)
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21 pages, 5341 KiB  
Article
A Lithium Battery Health Evaluation Method Based on Considering Disturbance Belief Rule Base
by Xin Zhang, Aosen Gong, Wei He, You Cao and Huafeng He
Batteries 2024, 10(4), 129; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries10040129 - 13 Apr 2024
Viewed by 806
Abstract
Lithium-ion batteries are widely used in modern society as important energy storage devices due to their high energy density, rechargeable performance, and light weight. However, the capacity and performance of lithium-ion batteries gradually degrade with the number of charge or discharge cycles and [...] Read more.
Lithium-ion batteries are widely used in modern society as important energy storage devices due to their high energy density, rechargeable performance, and light weight. However, the capacity and performance of lithium-ion batteries gradually degrade with the number of charge or discharge cycles and environmental conditions, which can affect the reliability and lifetime of the batteries, so it is necessary to accurately evaluate their health. The belief rule base (BRB) model is an evaluation model constructed based on rules that can handle uncertainties in the operation of lithium-ion batteries. However, lithium-ion batteries may be affected by disturbances from internal or external sources during operation, which may affect the evaluation results. To prevent this problem, this paper proposes a disturbance-considering BRB modeling approach that considers the possible effects of disturbances on the battery in the operating environment and quantifies the disturbance-considering capability of the assessment model in combination with expert knowledge. Second, robustness and interpretability constraints are added in this paper, and an improved optimization algorithm is constructed that maintains or possibly improves the resistance of the model to disturbance. Finally, using the lithium-ion batteries provided by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Prediction Centre of Excellence and the University of Maryland as a case study, this paper verifies that the proposed modeling approach is capable of constructing robust models and demonstrates the effectiveness of the improved optimization algorithm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Battery Performance, Ageing, Reliability and Safety)
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24 pages, 7778 KiB  
Article
Thermal Analysis of a Fast Charger for Public Service Electric Vehicles Based on Supercapacitors
by Joaquín F. Pedrayes, María F. Quintana, Gonzalo A. Orcajo, Enrique E. Valdés Zaldivar, Manuel G. Melero and Manés F. Cabanas
Batteries 2024, 10(4), 128; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries10040128 - 10 Apr 2024
Viewed by 873
Abstract
The aging of supercapacitors (SCs) depends on several factors, with temperature being one of the most important. When this is high, degradation of the electrolyte occurs. The impurities generated in its decomposition reduce the accessibility of the ions to the porous structure on [...] Read more.
The aging of supercapacitors (SCs) depends on several factors, with temperature being one of the most important. When this is high, degradation of the electrolyte occurs. The impurities generated in its decomposition reduce the accessibility of the ions to the porous structure on the surface of the electrode, which reduces its capacity and increases its internal resistance. In some applications, such as electric vehicles whose storage system consists of SCs, fast chargers, which supply very high power, are used. This can lead to an increase in temperature and accelerated aging of the cells. Therefore, it is important to know how the temperature of the SCs evolves in these cases and what parameters it depends on, both electrical and thermal. In this contribution, mathematical formulae have been developed to determine the evolution of the temperature in time and its maximum value during the transient state. The formulae for obtaining the mean and maximum temperature, once the thermal steady state (TSS) has been reached, are also shown, considering that the charger cells are recharged from the grid at a constant current. Based on this formulation, the thermal analysis of a specific case is determined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-Performance Supercapacitors: Advancements & Challenges)
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19 pages, 7178 KiB  
Article
Experimental and Model Analysis of the Thermal and Electrical Phenomenon of Arc Faults on the Electrode Pole of Lithium-Ion Batteries
by Chuanyou Dong, Bin Gao, Yalun Li and Xiaogang Wu
Batteries 2024, 10(4), 127; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries10040127 - 9 Apr 2024
Viewed by 947
Abstract
Aiming at the electrical safety problem of a high-voltage lithium-ion battery system caused by an arc, and based on the establishment of a battery arc fault experimental platform, the evolution law of safety caused by an arc in the negative terminal of a [...] Read more.
Aiming at the electrical safety problem of a high-voltage lithium-ion battery system caused by an arc, and based on the establishment of a battery arc fault experimental platform, the evolution law of safety caused by an arc in the negative terminal of a battery system under different working conditions is discussed. On this basis, a battery arc evolution model based on magnetohydrodynamics is established to analyze the arc’s electro-thermal coupling characteristics to further obtain the distribution of the arc’s multi-physical field. The results show that the arc generated by the high-voltage grade battery pack will break down the cell’s shell and form a hole, resulting in electrolyte leakage. When the loop current is 10 A, the evolution law of arc voltage and current is basically the same under different supply voltages, charges, and discharges. The accuracy of the battery arc simulation model is verified by comparing the simulation with the experimental results. The research in this paper provides a theoretical basis for the electrical safety design of lithium-ion batteries caused by the arc, fills the gaps in the field of battery system arc simulation, and is of great significance for improving the safety performance of arc protection. Full article
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32 pages, 1859 KiB  
Article
A Novel Solver for an Electrochemical–Thermal Ageing Model of a Lithium-Ion Battery
by Toshan Wickramanayake, Mehrnaz Javadipour and Kamyar Mehran
Batteries 2024, 10(4), 126; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries10040126 - 9 Apr 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1161
Abstract
To estimate the state of health, charge, power, and safety (SoX) of lithium-ion batteries (LiBs) in real time, battery management systems (BMSs) need accurate and efficient battery models. The full-order partial two-dimensional (P2D) model is a common physics-based cell-level LiB model that faces [...] Read more.
To estimate the state of health, charge, power, and safety (SoX) of lithium-ion batteries (LiBs) in real time, battery management systems (BMSs) need accurate and efficient battery models. The full-order partial two-dimensional (P2D) model is a common physics-based cell-level LiB model that faces challenges for real-time BMS implementation due to the complexity of its numerical solver. In this paper, we propose a method to discretise the P2D model equations using the Finite Volume and Verlet Integration Methods to significantly reduce the computational complexity of the solver. Our proposed iterative solver uses novel convergence criteria and physics-based initial guesses to provide high fidelity for discretised P2D equations. We also include both the kinetic-limited and diffusion-limited models for Solid Electrolyte Interface (SEI) growth into an iterative P2D solver. With these SEI models, we can estimate the capacity fade in real time once the model is tuned to the cell–voltage curve. The results are validated using three different operation scenarios, including the 1C discharge/charge cycle, multiple-C-rate discharges, and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory dynamic stress test. The proposed solver shows at least a 4.5 times improvement in performance with less than 1% error when compared to commercial solvers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Battery Modelling, Simulation, Management and Application)
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15 pages, 2385 KiB  
Article
Poly(vinyl benzoate)-b-poly(diallyldimethyl ammonium TFSI)-b-poly(vinyl benzoate) Triblock Copolymer Electrolytes for Sodium Batteries
by Pierre L. Stigliano, Antonela Gallastegui, Carlos Villacis-Segovia, Marco Amores, Ajit Kumar, Luke A. O’Dell, Jian Fang, David Mecerreyes, Cristina Pozo-Gonzalo and Maria Forsyth
Batteries 2024, 10(4), 125; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries10040125 - 8 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1203
Abstract
Block copolymers (BCPs) as solid electrolytes for batteries are usually designed to have an ion-solvating block for ion conduction and an ionophobic block for providing mechanical strength. Here, we show a novel solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) for sodium batteries based on a poly(vinyl [...] Read more.
Block copolymers (BCPs) as solid electrolytes for batteries are usually designed to have an ion-solvating block for ion conduction and an ionophobic block for providing mechanical strength. Here, we show a novel solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) for sodium batteries based on a poly(vinyl benzoate)-b-poly(diallyldimethyl ammonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide) PVBx-b-PDADMATFSIy-b-PVBx ABA triblock copolymer. The SPE triblock copolymer comprises a polymerized ionic liquid (PIL) ion-solvating block combined with NaFSI salt as an internal block and an ionophilic PVB as an external block. Four distinct compositions with varying chain lengths of the blocks were synthesized by reversible addition−fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) polymerization. The neat copolymers were subsequently mixed with NaFSI in a 2:1 mol ratio of Na to ionic monomer units. Through comprehensive analysis using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), it was revealed that the ion coordination within the polymer–salt mixtures undergoes changes based on the composition of the starting neat polymer. Electrochemical evaluations identified the optimal composition for practical application as PVB11.5K-b-PDADMATFSI33K-b-PVB11.5K, showing an ionic conductivity at 70 °C of 4.2 × 10−5 S cm−1. This polymer electrolyte formulation was investigated for sodium in Na|Na symmetrical cells, showing an overpotential of 200 mV at 70 °C at 0.1 mA cm−2. When applied in a sodium–air battery, the polymer electrolyte membrane achieved a discharge capacity of 1.59 mAh cm−2 at 50 °C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Polymer Electrolytes for Batteries)
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15 pages, 4083 KiB  
Article
DFT Simulations Investigating the Trapping of Sulfides by 1T-LixMoS2 and 1T-LixMoS2/Graphene Hybrid Cathodes in Li-S Batteries
by Shumaila Babar, Elaheh Hojaji, Qiong Cai and Constantina Lekakou
Batteries 2024, 10(4), 124; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries10040124 - 5 Apr 2024
Viewed by 977
Abstract
The aim of this study is to investigate new materials that can be employed as cathode hosts in Li-S batteries, which would be able to overcome the effect of the shuttling of soluble polysulfides and maximize the battery capacity and energy density. Density [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to investigate new materials that can be employed as cathode hosts in Li-S batteries, which would be able to overcome the effect of the shuttling of soluble polysulfides and maximize the battery capacity and energy density. Density functional theory (DFT) simulations are used to determine the adsorption energy of lithium sulfides in two types of cathode hosts: lithiated 1T-MoS2 (1T-LixMoS2) and hybrid 1T-LixMoS2/graphene. Initial simulations of lithiated 1T-MoS2 structures led to the selection of an optimized 1T-Li0.75MoS2 structure, which was utilized for the formation of an optimized 1T-Li0.75MoS2 bilayer and a hybrid 1T-Li0.75MoS2/graphene bilayer structure. It was found that all sulfides exhibited super-high adsorption energies in the interlayer inside the 1T-Li0.75MoS2 bilayer and very good adsorption energy values in the interlayer inside the hybrid 1T-Li0.75MoS2/graphene bilayer. The placement of sulfides outside each type of bilayer, over the 1T-Li0.75MoS2 surface, yielded good adsorption energies in the range of −2 to −3.8 eV, which are higher than those over a 1T-MoS2 substrate. Full article
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15 pages, 4934 KiB  
Article
Aging Mechanism of Mn-Based Prussian Blue Cathode Material by Synchrotron 2D X-ray Fluorescence
by Mariam Maisuradze, Min Li, Ilaria Carlomagno, Mattia Gaboardi, Giuliana Aquilanti, Jasper Rikkert Plaisier and Marco Giorgetti
Batteries 2024, 10(4), 123; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries10040123 - 5 Apr 2024
Viewed by 833
Abstract
The aging mechanism of 10% and 30% nickel-substituted manganese hexacyanoferrate cathode material in aqueous zinc-ion batteries has been explored through the advanced synchrotron-based two-dimensional X-ray fluorescence technique. Thanks to the two-dimension modality, not only were the metal concentration dynamics throughout the entire electrodes [...] Read more.
The aging mechanism of 10% and 30% nickel-substituted manganese hexacyanoferrate cathode material in aqueous zinc-ion batteries has been explored through the advanced synchrotron-based two-dimensional X-ray fluorescence technique. Thanks to the two-dimension modality, not only were the metal concentration dynamics throughout the entire electrodes followed during the aging process, but their spatial distribution was also revealed, suggesting the route of the material transformation. The dissolution of Mn and Ni, as well as the penetration of Zn inside the framework were detected, while the Mn aggregations were found outside the hexacyanoferrate framework. Additionally, the possibility of conducting X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements on the regions of interest made it possible to explore the chemical state of each metal, and furthermore, synchrotron-based powder X-ray diffraction demonstrated the gradual structural modification in 30% Ni-containing sample series in terms of the different phase formation. Full article
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14 pages, 6133 KiB  
Article
MnO2/AgNPs Composite as Flexible Electrode Material for Solid-State Hybrid Supercapacitor
by Borislava Mladenova, Mariela Dimitrova and Antonia Stoyanova
Batteries 2024, 10(4), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries10040122 - 5 Apr 2024
Viewed by 887
Abstract
A MnO2/AgNP nanocomposite was synthesized using a sonochemical method and investigated as an electrode material in a solid-state hybrid supercapacitor. Aquivion’s sodium and lithium electrolyte membrane serves as an electrolyte and separator. For comparison, MnO2 was used as the active [...] Read more.
A MnO2/AgNP nanocomposite was synthesized using a sonochemical method and investigated as an electrode material in a solid-state hybrid supercapacitor. Aquivion’s sodium and lithium electrolyte membrane serves as an electrolyte and separator. For comparison, MnO2 was used as the active material. The developed supercapacitor containing a carbon xerogel as a negative electrode, the MnO2/AgNP composite as a positive electrode and a Na+-exchange membrane demonstrated the highest performance characteristics. These results indicate that the incorporation of silver nanoparticles into the MnO2 structure is a prospect for obtaining an active composite electrode material for solid-state supercapacitors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-Performance Super-capacitors: Preparation and Application)
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12 pages, 3504 KiB  
Article
Na4Fe3(PO4)2(P2O7)@C/Ti3C2Tx Hybrid Cathode Materials with Enhanced Performances for Sodium-Ion Batteries
by Ao Xiang, Deyou Shi, Peng Chen, Zhongjun Li, Quan Tu, Dahui Liu, Xiangguang Zhang, Jun Lu, Yan Jiang, Ze Yang and Pei Hu
Batteries 2024, 10(4), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries10040121 - 3 Apr 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1212
Abstract
Developing cost-effective cathode materials is conducive to accelerating the commercialization of sodium-ion batteries. Na4Fe3(PO4)2P2O7 (NFPP) has attracted extensive attention owning to its high theoretical capacity, stable structure, and low cost of raw [...] Read more.
Developing cost-effective cathode materials is conducive to accelerating the commercialization of sodium-ion batteries. Na4Fe3(PO4)2P2O7 (NFPP) has attracted extensive attention owning to its high theoretical capacity, stable structure, and low cost of raw materials. However, its inherent low conductivity hinders its further application. Herein, carbon-coated NFPP nanospheres are anchored to crumpled MXene nanosheets by an electrostatic self-assembly; this cross-linked structure induced by CTAB not only significantly expands the contact area between particles and improves the electronic conductivity, but also effectively reduces the aggregation of NFPP nanoparticles. The as-designed Na4Fe3(PO4)2(P2O7)@C/Ti3C2Tx (NFPP@MX) cathode exhibits a high discharge capacity (106.1 mAh g−1 g at 0.2 C), good rate capability (60.4 mAh g−1 at 10 C), and a long-life cyclic stability (85.2% capacity retention after 1000 cycles at 1 C). This study provides an effective strategy for the massive production of high-performance NFPP cathodes and broadens the application of MXene in the modification of other cathode materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High Performance Sodium Rechargeable Batteries and Beyond)
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14 pages, 1367 KiB  
Article
Recovery of Cobalt, Nickel, and Lithium from Spent Lithium-Ion Batteries with Gluconic Acid Leaching Process: Kinetics Study
by Eva Gerold, Reinhard Lerchbammer and Helmut Antrekowitsch
Batteries 2024, 10(4), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries10040120 - 2 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1054
Abstract
The demand for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) is driven by environmental concerns and market growth, particularly in the transportation sector. The EU’s push for net-zero emissions and the European Green Deal accentuates the role of battery technologies in sustainable energy supply. Organic acids, like [...] Read more.
The demand for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) is driven by environmental concerns and market growth, particularly in the transportation sector. The EU’s push for net-zero emissions and the European Green Deal accentuates the role of battery technologies in sustainable energy supply. Organic acids, like gluconic acid, are explored for the eco-friendly leaching of valuable metals from spent batteries. This study investigates leaching kinetics using gluconic acid (hydrolyzed glucono-1.5-lacton), analyzing factors such as temperature, acid concentration, particle size, and reaction time. Results reveal the temperature’s influence on leaching efficiency for cobalt, nickel, and lithium. The mechanism for Co follows a surface chemical reaction model with an activation energy of 28.2 kJ·mol−1. Nickel, on the contrary, shows a diffusion-controlled regime and an activation energy of 70.1 kJ·mol−1. The reaction of leaching Ni and Co using gluconic acid was determined to be first-order. The process within this environmentally friendly alternative leaching agent shows great potential for sustainable metal recovery. Full article
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15 pages, 9500 KiB  
Article
Postmortem Analysis of 18650 Graphite/LFP Cells in a Long-Term Aging Study for Second-Life Applications
by William Wheeler, Yann Bultel, Pascal Venet, Ali Sari and Elie Riviere
Batteries 2024, 10(4), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries10040119 - 2 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1350
Abstract
Second-life applications for lithium-ion batteries offer industry opportunities to defer recycling costs, enhance economic value, and reduce environmental impacts. However, cells are affected by numerous aging phenomena which can lead to an acceleration in capacity loss. This paper uses postmortem techniques to compare [...] Read more.
Second-life applications for lithium-ion batteries offer industry opportunities to defer recycling costs, enhance economic value, and reduce environmental impacts. However, cells are affected by numerous aging phenomena which can lead to an acceleration in capacity loss. This paper uses postmortem techniques to compare aging phenomenon in 1.1 Ah 18650 graphite/LFP cells, examining the differences between a pristine cell and three cells aged to 40~30% of state of health (SoH). Macroscopic and microscopic techniques are used to identify aging phenomenon occurring in the cell on both positive and negative electrodes. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS) and scanning electron microscopes (SEMs) with back-scattered electron (BSE) detector are used to analyze each electrode. These methods are used to analyze the morphology and the material on each electrode. The results show a stable positive LFP electrode whereas numerous deposits and cracking occurred on the negative electrode. A discussion of the appearance of those aging phenomenon is presented. Impacts for industrial cells in second-life applications are finally discussed. Full article
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14 pages, 3080 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Run-Off Waters Resulting from Lithium-Ion Battery Fire-Fighting Operations
by Arnaud Bordes, Arnaud Papin, Guy Marlair, Théo Claude, Ahmad El-Masri, Thierry Durussel, Jean-Pierre Bertrand, Benjamin Truchot and Amandine Lecocq
Batteries 2024, 10(4), 118; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries10040118 - 31 Mar 2024
Viewed by 3318
Abstract
As the use of Li-ion batteries is spreading, incidents in large energy storage systems (stationary storage containers, etc.) or in large-scale cell and battery storages (warehouses, recyclers, etc.), often leading to fire, are occurring on a regular basis. Water remains one of the [...] Read more.
As the use of Li-ion batteries is spreading, incidents in large energy storage systems (stationary storage containers, etc.) or in large-scale cell and battery storages (warehouses, recyclers, etc.), often leading to fire, are occurring on a regular basis. Water remains one of the most efficient fire extinguishing agents for tackling such battery incidents, and large quantities are usually necessary. Since batteries contain various potentially harmful components (metals and their oxides or salts, solvents, etc.) and thermal-runaway-induced battery incidents are accompanied by complex and potentially multistage fume emissions (containing both gas and particles), the potential impact of fire run-off waters on the environment should be considered and assessed carefully. The tests presented in this paper focus on analyzing the composition of run-off waters used to spray NMC Li-ion modules under thermal runaway. It highlights that waters used for firefighting are susceptible to containing many metals, including Ni, Mn, Co, Li and Al, mixed with other carbonaceous species (soot, tarballs) and sometimes undecomposed solvents used in the electrolyte. Extrapolation of pollutant concentrations compared with PNEC values showed that, for large-scale incidents, run-off water could be potentially hazardous to the environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal Safety of Lithium Ion Batteries)
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15 pages, 4255 KiB  
Article
Diphenylphosphoryl Azide as a Multifunctional Flame Retardant Electrolyte Additive for Lithium-Ion Batteries
by Zhirui Li, Longfei Han, Yongchun Kan, Can Liao and Yuan Hu
Batteries 2024, 10(4), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries10040117 - 30 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1000
Abstract
Graphite anode materials and carbonate electrolyte have been the top choices for commercial lithium-ion batteries (LIBS) for a long time. However, the uneven deposition and stripping of lithium cause irreversible damage to the graphite structure, and the low flash point and high flammability [...] Read more.
Graphite anode materials and carbonate electrolyte have been the top choices for commercial lithium-ion batteries (LIBS) for a long time. However, the uneven deposition and stripping of lithium cause irreversible damage to the graphite structure, and the low flash point and high flammability of the carbonate electrolyte pose a significant fire safety risk. Here, we proposed a multifunctional electrolyte additive diphenylphosphoryl azide (DPPA), which can construct a solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) with high ionic conductivity lithium nitride (Li3N) to ensure efficient transport of Li+. This not only protects the artificial graphite (AG) electrode but also inhibits lithium dendrites to achieve excellent electrochemical performance. Meanwhile, the LIBS with DPPA offers satisfactory flame retardancy performance. The AG//Li half cells with DPPA-0.5M can still maintain a specific capacity of about 350 mAh/g after 200 cycles at 0.2 C. Its cycle performance and rate performance were better than commercial electrolyte (EC/DMC). After cycling, the microstructure surface of the AG electrode was complete and flat, and the surface of the lithium metal electrode had fewer lithium dendrites. Importantly, we found that the pouch cell with DPPA-0.5M had low peak heat release rate. When exposed to external conditions of continuous heating, DPPA significantly improved the fire safety of the LIBS. The research of DPPA in lithium electrolyte is a step towards the development of safe and efficient lithium batteries. Full article
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16 pages, 3310 KiB  
Article
A Study of Thermal Runaway Mechanisms in Lithium-Ion Batteries and Predictive Numerical Modeling Techniques
by Alexander Sorensen, Vivek Utgikar and Jeffrey Belt
Batteries 2024, 10(4), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries10040116 - 29 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1438
Abstract
While thermal runaway characterization and prediction is an important aspect of lithium-ion battery engineering and development, it is a requirement to ensure that a battery system can be safe under normal operations and during failure events. This study investigated the current existing literature [...] Read more.
While thermal runaway characterization and prediction is an important aspect of lithium-ion battery engineering and development, it is a requirement to ensure that a battery system can be safe under normal operations and during failure events. This study investigated the current existing literature regarding lithium-ion battery thermal runaway characterization and predictive modeling methods. A thermal model for thermal runaway prediction was adapted from the literature and is presented in this paper along with a comparison of empirical data and predicted data using the model. Empirical data were collected from a Samsung 30Q 18650 cylindrical cell and from a large 20 Ah pouch cell format using accelerated rate calorimetry. The predictive model was executed in a macro-enabled Microsoft Excel workbook for simplicity and accessibility for the public. The primary purpose of using more primitive modeling software was to provide an accurate model that was generally accessible without the purchase of or training in a specific modeling software package. The modes of heat transfer during the thermal runaway event were studied and are reported in this work, along with insights on thermal management during a thermal runaway failure event. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Recent Advances in Battery Management Systems)
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53 pages, 1804 KiB  
Review
Towards to Battery Digital Passport: Reviewing Regulations and Standards for Second-Life Batteries
by Carlos Antônio Rufino Júnior, Eleonora Riva Sanseverino, Pierluigi Gallo, Daniel Koch, Sergej Diel, Gero Walter, Lluís Trilla, Víctor J. Ferreira, Gabriela Benveniste Pérez, Yash Kotak, Josh Eichman, Hans-Georg Schweiger and Hudson Zanin
Batteries 2024, 10(4), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries10040115 - 26 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1816
Abstract
Greenhouse gas emissions from transportation harm the environment. In response to these environmental concerns, numerous countries encourage the adoption of electric vehicles (EVs) as a more environmentally friendly option than traditional gasoline-powered vehicles. Advances in battery technology have made batteries an alternative solution [...] Read more.
Greenhouse gas emissions from transportation harm the environment. In response to these environmental concerns, numerous countries encourage the adoption of electric vehicles (EVs) as a more environmentally friendly option than traditional gasoline-powered vehicles. Advances in battery technology have made batteries an alternative solution for energy storage in stationary applications and for electric mobility. Reduced lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) production costs due to economies of scale, electrode material and cell design developments, and manufacturing process improvements have driven this success. This trend is expected to increase the number of LIBs on the market that may be discarded in the environment at the end of their useful life if more sustainable alternatives are not technologically mature. This coming environmental concern can be mitigated by collecting wasted EV batteries, reconfiguring them, and reusing them for applications with less stringent weight, performance, and size requirements. This method would extend battery life and reduce environmental effects. The present work investigates the main regulatory structures of the second-life battery industry that require rules, technical standards, and laws. To achieve this objective, a systematic review was carried out following a strict protocol that includes identifying relevant studies, extracting data and information, evaluating, and summarizing information. This paper explains the primary rules and technical standards governing the second-life battery business. The findings highlight the need for universities, research institutions, and government agencies to evaluate the second-life battery industry objectively. This would enable the creation of new technological regulations and laws for this burgeoning industry. Full article
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12 pages, 3772 KiB  
Article
Freeze-Drying-Assisted Preparation of High-Compaction-Density LiMn0.69Co0.01Fe0.3PO4 Cathode Materials with High-Capacity and Long Life-Cycle for Lithium Ion Batteries
by Shaojun Liu, Jingang Zheng, Hao Huang, Hongyang Li, Han Zhang, Lixiang Li, Baigang An, Yuanhua Xiao and Chengguo Sun
Batteries 2024, 10(4), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries10040114 - 25 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1296
Abstract
As a successor to LiFePO4, the research interest in LiMn1−yFeyPO4 has been sustained due to its higher working voltage and safety features. However, its further application is limited by the low compaction density caused by uncontrolled [...] Read more.
As a successor to LiFePO4, the research interest in LiMn1−yFeyPO4 has been sustained due to its higher working voltage and safety features. However, its further application is limited by the low compaction density caused by uncontrolled particle size. In this study, the high-quality LiMn0.69Co0.01Fe0.3PO4 (LMFP) materials were prepared using the freeze-drying method to process the LMFP precursor synthesized through a solvothermal crystallization method followed by a calcination process at different temperatures (400–550 °C). The results demonstrate that the obtained particles exhibit a spheroidal shape with a low specific surface area after secondary crystallization calcination at 700 °C. The compaction density increased from 1.96 g/cm3 for LMFP precursor (LMFP-M1) to 2.18, 2.27, 2.34, and 2.43 g/cm3 for samples calcined at 400, 450, 500 and 550 °C, respectively, achieving a maximum increase of 24%. The full cell constructed with the high-compaction-density material calcined at 500 °C displayed discharge capacities of 144.1, 143.8, and 142.6 mAh/g at 0.5, 1, and 3 C rates, respectively, with a retention rate of 99% at 3 C rate. After undergoing charging and discharging cycles at a rate of 1 C for up to 800 cycles, the capacity retention rate was found to be 90%, indicating an expected full cell life span exceeding 2500 cycles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials and Interface Designs for Batteries)
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