Second-Life Batteries

A special issue of Batteries (ISSN 2313-0105). This special issue belongs to the section "Battery Processing, Manufacturing and Recycling".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 September 2024 | Viewed by 10984

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of the Ampère Laboratory, Claude Bernard University Lyon 1, 69100 Villeurbanne, France
Interests: characterization; modeling; reliability; aging and diagnosis of electric energy storage system (batteries, supercapacitors, capacitors)
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Guest Editor
LICIT-ECO7, Gustave Eiffel University, 69500 Bron, France
Interests: lithium-ion batteries; battery aging; battery characterization and modeling; electric vehicles; energy storage systems
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Electrochemical energy storage is a key element of systems in a wide range of sectors such as electro-mobility, portable devices and renewable energy. Lithium-ion batteries are presently the dominant technology in applications such as portable electronic devices, hand-held power tools and electric and hybrid vehicles. Performance improvement and manufacturing cost reduction over the past years have allowed a large deployment of this technology.

For this reason, a huge quantity of lithium-ion batteries have reached or will reach the end of their (first) life. To minimize the environmental impact, there are two options: to recycle or reuse. A second life prior to recycling the batteries may improve their environmental balance. Second-life batteries are suitable for a number of applications despite their degraded performance.

Second-life batteries are either used batteries or a combination of their modules or cells. Due to characteristics dispersion, the elements must be selected and sorted. Performance evolution and battery behavior during second life must be observed. Specific energy management may be needed in second-life applications.

Topics of interest include but are not limited to the following:

  • Characterization techniques and performance dispersion;
  • Aging characterization during first and second lives;
  • Post-mortem analysis;
  • Aging, thermal and electric modeling from first to second life and beyond;
  • Battery diagnosis and prognosis;
  • SoX estimation: State of Charge, State of Function and State of Health;
  • Battery management, electro-thermal management and balancing techniques;
  • Optimal design of second-life energy storage systems with respect to their lifetime;
  • Electrical and thermal safety issues;
  • Application of second-life batteries;
  • Life-cycle and techno-economic assessment;
  • Statistical approaches: machine learning, deep learning.

Prof. Dr. Pascal Venet
Dr. Eduardo Redondo-Iglesias
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Batteries is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • second-life batteries
  • lithium-ion batteries
  • battery characterization and modeling
  • aging mechanisms
  • aging modeling
  • component reliability
  • lifetime prediction
  • battery diagnosis and prognosis
  • life-cycle assessment

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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13 pages, 3173 KiB  
Article
Aging in First and Second Life of G/LFP 18650 Cells: Diagnosis and Evolution of the State of Health of the Cell and the Negative Electrode under Cycling
by William Wheeler, Pascal Venet, Yann Bultel, Ali Sari and Elie Riviere
Batteries 2024, 10(4), 137; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries10040137 - 18 Apr 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 926
Abstract
Second-life applications for lithium-ion batteries offer the industry opportunities to defer recycling costs, enhance economic value, and reduce environmental impacts. An accurate prognosis of the remaining useful life (RUL) is essential for ensuring effective second-life operation. Diagnosis is a necessary step for the [...] Read more.
Second-life applications for lithium-ion batteries offer the industry opportunities to defer recycling costs, enhance economic value, and reduce environmental impacts. An accurate prognosis of the remaining useful life (RUL) is essential for ensuring effective second-life operation. Diagnosis is a necessary step for the establishment of a reliable prognosis, based on the aging modes involved in a cell. This paper introduces a method for characterizing specific aging phenomenon in Graphite/Lithium Iron Phosphate (G/LFP) cells. This method aims to identify aging related to the loss of active material at the negative electrode (LAMNE). The identification and tracking of the state of health (SoH) are based on Incremental Capacity Analysis (ICA) and Differential Voltage Analysis (DVA) peak-tracking techniques. The remaining capacity of the electrode is thus evaluated based on these diagnostic results, using a model derived from half-cell electrode characterization. The method is used on a G/LFP cell in the format 18650, with a nominal capacity of 1.1 Ah, aged from its pristine state to 40% of state of health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Second-Life Batteries)
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19 pages, 4532 KiB  
Article
Procedure for Assessing the Suitability of Battery Second Life Applications after EV First Life
by Tomás Montes, Maite Etxandi-Santolaya, Josh Eichman, Victor José Ferreira, Lluís Trilla and Cristina Corchero
Batteries 2022, 8(9), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8090122 - 9 Sep 2022
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 5262
Abstract
Using batteries after their first life in an Electric Vehicle (EV) represents an opportunity to reduce the environmental impact and increase the economic benefits before recycling the battery. Many different second life applications have been proposed, each with multiple criteria that have to [...] Read more.
Using batteries after their first life in an Electric Vehicle (EV) represents an opportunity to reduce the environmental impact and increase the economic benefits before recycling the battery. Many different second life applications have been proposed, each with multiple criteria that have to be taken into consideration when deciding the most suitable course of action. In this article, a battery assessment procedure is proposed that consolidates and expands upon the approaches in the literature, and facilitates the decision-making process for a battery after it has reached the end of its first life. The procedure is composed of three stages, including an evaluation of the state of the battery, an evaluation of the technical viability and an economic evaluation. Options for battery configurations are explored (pack direct use, stack of battery packs, module direct use, pack refurbish with modules, pack refurbish with cells). By comparing these configurations with the technical requirements for second life applications, a reader can rapidly understand the tradeoffs and practical strategies for how best to implement second life batteries for their specific application. Lastly, an economic evaluation process is developed to determine the cost of implementing various second life battery configurations and the revenue for different end use applications. An example of the battery assessment procedure is included to demonstrate how it could be carried out. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Second-Life Batteries)
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Review

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22 pages, 4151 KiB  
Review
Second-Life Batteries: A Review on Power Grid Applications, Degradation Mechanisms, and Power Electronics Interface Architectures
by Ali Hassan, Shahid Aziz Khan, Rongheng Li, Wencong Su, Xuan Zhou, Mengqi Wang and Bin Wang
Batteries 2023, 9(12), 571; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries9120571 - 27 Nov 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3358
Abstract
The adoption of electric vehicles (EVs) is increasing due to governmental policies focused on curbing climate change. EV batteries are retired when they are no longer suitable for energy-intensive EV operations. A large number of EV batteries are expected to be retired in [...] Read more.
The adoption of electric vehicles (EVs) is increasing due to governmental policies focused on curbing climate change. EV batteries are retired when they are no longer suitable for energy-intensive EV operations. A large number of EV batteries are expected to be retired in the next 5–10 years. These retired batteries have 70–80% average capacity left. Second-life use of these battery packs has the potential to address the increasing energy storage system (ESS) demand for the grid and also to create a circular economy for EV batteries. The needs of modern grids for frequency regulation, power smoothing, and peak shaving can be met using retired batteries. Moreover, these batteries can also be employed for revenue generation for energy arbitrage (EA). While there are articles reviewing the general applications of retired batteries, this paper presents a comprehensive review of the research work on applications of the second-life batteries (SLBs) specific to the power grid and SLB degradation. The power electronics interface and battery management systems for the SLB are also thoroughly reviewed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Second-Life Batteries)
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