Batteries and Supercapacitors Aging

A special issue of Batteries (ISSN 2313-0105).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2019) | Viewed by 145960

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Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of the Ampère Laboratory, Claude Bernard University Lyon 1, 69100 Villeurbanne, France
Interests: characterization; modeling; reliability; aging and diagnosis of electric energy storage system (batteries, supercapacitors, capacitors)
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Guest Editor
Department of Planning, Gustave Eiffel University, 69500 Bron, France
Interests: lithium-ion batteries; battery aging; battery characterization and modeling; electric vehicles; energy storage systems
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Electrochemical energy storage is a key element of systems in a wide range of sectors, such as electro-mobility, portable devices, or renewable energy. Energy storage systems (ESS) considered here are batteries, supercapacitors or hybrid components such lithium-ion capacitors. The durability of ESS determines the total cost of ownership and the global impacts (life cycle) on a large portion of these applications and thus their viability. Understanding of ESS aging is a key issue to optimize their design and usage towards their applications. Knowledge of the ESS aging is also essential to improve their dependability (reliability, availability, maintainability and safety).

In this Special Issue, we are looking for contributions helping to understand aging mechanisms, modes and factors, to perform ESS diagnosis and prognosis and innovative solutions to prolong their lifespans.

Topics of interest include, but are not limited to:

  • innovative measurement techniques of ESS aging
  • ESS aging modeling
  • ESS state-of-health (SOH) estimation
  • ESS prognostic and health management
  • balancing circuits with consideration of the lifetime of ESS
  • energy management laws taking into account aging
  • influence of aging on cost and environmental analyses of ESS
  • multi-objective optimization strategies of ESS including aging consideration
  • optimal sizing and design of ESS

Prof. Dr. Pascal Venet
Dr. Eduardo Redondo-Iglesias
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • Aging mechanisms
  • Aging modeling
  • Component reliability
  • Lifecycle assessment
  • Lifetime prediction
  • State of health
  • Battery
  • Supercapacitor
  • Hybrid Capacitor

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

2 pages, 175 KiB  
Editorial
Batteries and Supercapacitors Aging
by Pascal Venet and Eduardo Redondo-Iglesias
Batteries 2020, 6(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries6010018 - 12 Mar 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4342
Abstract
Electrochemical energy storage is a key element of systems in a wide range of sectors, such as electro-mobility, portable devices, or renewable energy [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Batteries and Supercapacitors Aging)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

13 pages, 4589 KiB  
Article
State-of-Charge Monitoring and Battery Diagnosis of NiCd Cells Using Impedance Spectroscopy
by Peter Kurzweil and Wolfgang Scheuerpflug
Batteries 2020, 6(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries6010004 - 9 Jan 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 10525
Abstract
With respect to aeronautical applications, the state-of-charge (SOC) and state-of-health (SOH) of rechargeable nickel–cadmium batteries was investigated with the help of the frequency-dependent reactance Im Z(ω) and the pseudo-capacitance C(ω) in the frequency range between 1 kHz [...] Read more.
With respect to aeronautical applications, the state-of-charge (SOC) and state-of-health (SOH) of rechargeable nickel–cadmium batteries was investigated with the help of the frequency-dependent reactance Im Z(ω) and the pseudo-capacitance C(ω) in the frequency range between 1 kHz and 0.1 Hz. The method of SOC monitoring using impedance spectroscopy is evaluated with the example of 1.5-year long-term measurements of commercial devices. A linear correlation between voltage and capacitance is observed as long as overcharge and deep discharge are avoided. Pseudo-charge Q(ω) = C(ω)⋅U at 1 Hz with respect to the rated capacity is proposed as a reliable SOH indicator for rapid measurements. The benefit of different evaluation methods and diagram types for impedance data is outlined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Batteries and Supercapacitors Aging)
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13 pages, 3934 KiB  
Article
Lithium-Ion Capacitor Safety Testing for Commercial Application
by Omonayo Bolufawi, Annadanesh Shellikeri and Jim P. Zheng
Batteries 2019, 5(4), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries5040074 - 7 Dec 2019
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 8053
Abstract
The lithium-ion capacitor (LIC) is a recent innovation in the area of electrochemical energy storage that hybridizes lithium-ion battery anode material and an electrochemical double layer capacitor cathode material as its electrodes. The high power compared to batteries and higher energy compared to [...] Read more.
The lithium-ion capacitor (LIC) is a recent innovation in the area of electrochemical energy storage that hybridizes lithium-ion battery anode material and an electrochemical double layer capacitor cathode material as its electrodes. The high power compared to batteries and higher energy compared to capacitors has made it a promising energy-storage device for powering hand-held and portable electronic systems/consumer electronics, hybrid electric vehicles, and electric vehicles. The swelling and gassing of the LIC when subjected to abuse conditions is still a critical issue concerning the safe application in power electronics and commercial devices. However, it is imperative to carry out a thorough investigation that characterizes the safe operation of LICs. We investigated and studied the safety of LIC for commercial applications, by conducting a comprehensive abuse tests on LIC 200 F pouch cells with voltage range from 3.8 V to 2.2 V manufactured by General Capacitors LLC. The abuse tests include overcharge, external short circuit, crush (flat metal plate and blunt indentation), nail penetration test, and external heat test. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Batteries and Supercapacitors Aging)
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12 pages, 2715 KiB  
Article
EIS Study on the Electrode-Separator Interface Lamination
by Martin Frankenberger, Madhav Singh, Alexander Dinter and Karl-Heinz Pettinger
Batteries 2019, 5(4), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries5040071 - 17 Nov 2019
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 14710
Abstract
This paper presents a comprehensive study of the influences of lamination at both electrode-separator interfaces of lithium-ion batteries consisting of LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 cathodes and graphite anodes. Typically, electrode-separator lamination shows a reduced capacity fade at fast-charging cycles. [...] Read more.
This paper presents a comprehensive study of the influences of lamination at both electrode-separator interfaces of lithium-ion batteries consisting of LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 cathodes and graphite anodes. Typically, electrode-separator lamination shows a reduced capacity fade at fast-charging cycles. To study this behavior in detail, the anode and cathode were laminated separately to the separator and compared to the fully laminated and non-laminated state in single-cell format. The impedance of the cells was measured at different states of charge and during the cycling test up to 1500 fast-charging cycles. Lamination on the cathode interface clearly shows an initial decrease in the surface resistance with no correlation to aging effects along cycling, while lamination on both electrode-separator interfaces reduces the growth of the surface resistance along cycling. Lamination only on the anode-separator interface shows up to be sufficient to maintain the enhanced fast-charging capability for 1500 cycles, what we prove to arise from a significant reduction in growth of the solid electrolyte interface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Batteries and Supercapacitors Aging)
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16 pages, 5033 KiB  
Article
A Post-Mortem Study of Stacked 16 Ah Graphite//LiFePO4 Pouch Cells Cycled at 5 °C
by Arianna Moretti, Diogo Vieira Carvalho, Niloofar Ehteshami, Elie Paillard, Willy Porcher, David Brun-Buisson, Jean-Baptiste Ducros, Iratxe de Meatza, Aitor Eguia-Barrio, Khiem Trad and Stefano Passerini
Batteries 2019, 5(2), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries5020045 - 7 May 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 10846
Abstract
Herein, the post-mortem study on 16 Ah graphite//LiFePO4 pouch cells is reported. Aiming to understand their failure mechanism, taking place when cycling at low temperature, the analysis of the cell components taken from different portions of the stacks and from different positions [...] Read more.
Herein, the post-mortem study on 16 Ah graphite//LiFePO4 pouch cells is reported. Aiming to understand their failure mechanism, taking place when cycling at low temperature, the analysis of the cell components taken from different portions of the stacks and from different positions in the electrodes, is performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS). Also, the recovered electrodes are used to reassemble half-cells for further cycle tests. The combination of the several techniques detects an inhomogeneous ageing of the electrodes along the stack and from the center to the edge of the electrode, most probably due to differences in the pressure experienced by the electrodes. Interestingly, XPS reveals that more electrolyte decomposition took place at the edge of the electrodes and at the outer part of the cell stack independently of the ageing conditions. Finally, the use of high cycling currents buffers the low temperature detrimental effects, resulting in longer cycle life and less inhomogeneities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Batteries and Supercapacitors Aging)
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15 pages, 4500 KiB  
Article
Synthetic vs. Real Driving Cycles: A Comparison of Electric Vehicle Battery Degradation
by George Baure and Matthieu Dubarry
Batteries 2019, 5(2), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries5020042 - 1 May 2019
Cited by 63 | Viewed by 13223
Abstract
Automobile dependency and the inexorable proliferation of electric vehicles (EVs) compels accurate predictions of cycle life across multiple usage conditions and for multiple lithium-ion battery systems. Synthetic driving cycles have been essential in accumulating data on EV battery lifetimes. However, since battery deterioration [...] Read more.
Automobile dependency and the inexorable proliferation of electric vehicles (EVs) compels accurate predictions of cycle life across multiple usage conditions and for multiple lithium-ion battery systems. Synthetic driving cycles have been essential in accumulating data on EV battery lifetimes. However, since battery deterioration is path-dependent, the representability of synthetic cycles must be questioned. Hence, this work compared three different synthetic driving cycles to real driving data in terms of mimicking actual EV battery degradation. It was found that the average current and charge capacity during discharge were important parameters in determining the appropriate synthetic profile, and traffic conditions have a significant impact on cell lifetimes. In addition, a stage of accelerated capacity fade was observed and shown to be induced by an increased loss of lithium inventory (LLI) resulting from irreversible Li plating. New metrics, the ratio of the loss of active material at the negative electrode (LAMNE) to the LLI and the plating threshold, were proposed as possible predictors for a stage of accelerated degradation. The results presented here demonstrated tracking properties, such as capacity loss and resistance increase, were insufficient in predicting cell lifetimes, supporting the adoption of metrics based on the analysis of degradation modes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Batteries and Supercapacitors Aging)
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13 pages, 3771 KiB  
Article
Innovative Incremental Capacity Analysis Implementation for C/LiFePO4 Cell State-of-Health Estimation in Electrical Vehicles
by Elie Riviere, Ali Sari, Pascal Venet, Frédéric Meniere and Yann Bultel
Batteries 2019, 5(2), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries5020037 - 1 Apr 2019
Cited by 53 | Viewed by 8930
Abstract
This paper presents a fully embedded state of health (SoH) estimator for widely used C/LiFePO4 batteries. The SoH estimation study was intended for applications in electric vehicles (EV). C/LiFePO4 cells were aged using pure electric vehicle cycles and were monitored with [...] Read more.
This paper presents a fully embedded state of health (SoH) estimator for widely used C/LiFePO4 batteries. The SoH estimation study was intended for applications in electric vehicles (EV). C/LiFePO4 cells were aged using pure electric vehicle cycles and were monitored with an automotive battery management system (BMS). An online capacity estimator based on incremental capacity analysis (ICA) is developed. The proposed estimator is robust to depth of discharge (DoD), charging current and temperature variations to satisfy real vehicle requirements. Finally, the SoH estimator tuned on C/LiFePO4 cells from one manufacturer was tested on C/LiFePO4 cells from another LFP (lithium iron phosphate) manufacturer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Batteries and Supercapacitors Aging)
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16 pages, 4928 KiB  
Article
Combining a Fatigue Model and an Incremental Capacity Analysis on a Commercial NMC/Graphite Cell under Constant Current Cycling with and without Calendar Aging
by Tiphaine Plattard, Nathalie Barnel, Loïc Assaud, Sylvain Franger and Jean-Marc Duffault
Batteries 2019, 5(1), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries5010036 - 21 Mar 2019
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 8843
Abstract
Reliable development of LIBs requires that they be correlated with accurate aging studies. The present project focuses on the implementation of a weighted ampere-hour throughput model, taking into account the operating parameters, and modulating the impact of an exchanged ampere-hour by the well-established [...] Read more.
Reliable development of LIBs requires that they be correlated with accurate aging studies. The present project focuses on the implementation of a weighted ampere-hour throughput model, taking into account the operating parameters, and modulating the impact of an exchanged ampere-hour by the well-established three major stress factors: temperature, current intensity (rated), and state of charge (SoC). This model can drift with time due to repeated solicitation, so its parameters need to be updated by on-field measurements, in order to remain accurate. These on-field measurements are submitted to the so-called Incremental Capacity Analysis method (ICA), consisting in the analysis of dQ/dV as a function of V. It is a direct indicator of the state of health of the cell, as the experimental peaks are related to the active material chemical/structural evolution, such as phase transitions and recorded potential plateaus during charging/discharging. It is here applied to NMC/graphite based commercial cells. These peaks’ evolution can be correlated with the here-defined Ah-kinetic and t -kinetic aging, which are chemistry-dependent, and therefore, has to be adjusted to the different types of cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Batteries and Supercapacitors Aging)
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18 pages, 3401 KiB  
Article
Fast Electrical Characterizations of High-Energy Second Life Lithium-Ion Batteries for Embedded and Stationary Applications
by Honorat Quinard, Eduardo Redondo-Iglesias, Serge Pelissier and Pascal Venet
Batteries 2019, 5(1), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries5010033 - 14 Mar 2019
Cited by 33 | Viewed by 10975
Abstract
This paper focuses on the fast characterization of automotive second life lithium-ion batteries that have been recently re-used in many projects to create battery storages for stationary applications and sporadically for embedded applications. Specific criteria dedicated to the second life are first discussed. [...] Read more.
This paper focuses on the fast characterization of automotive second life lithium-ion batteries that have been recently re-used in many projects to create battery storages for stationary applications and sporadically for embedded applications. Specific criteria dedicated to the second life are first discussed. After a short review of the available state of health indicators and their associated determination techniques, some electrical characterization tests are explored through an experimental campaign. This offline identification aims to estimate the remaining ability of the battery to store energy. Twenty-four modules from six different commercial electric vehicles are analyzed. Well-known methodologies like incremental capacity analysis (ICA) and constant voltage phase analysis during CC-CV charge highlight the difficulty—and sometimes the impossibility—to apply traditional tools on a battery pack or on individual modules, in the context of real second life applications. Indeed, the diversity of the available second life batteries induces a combination of aging mechanisms that leads to a complete heterogeneity from a cell to another. Moreover, due to the unknown first life of the battery, typical state of health determination methodologies are difficult to use. A new generic technique based on a partial coulometric counter is proposed and compared to other techniques. In the present case study, the partial coulometric counter allows a fast determination of the capacity aging. In conclusion, future improvements and working tracks are addressed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Batteries and Supercapacitors Aging)
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17 pages, 2127 KiB  
Article
A Suggested Improvement for Small Autonomous Energy System Reliability by Reducing Heat and Excess Charges
by Christophe Savard and Emiliia V. Iakovleva
Batteries 2019, 5(1), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries5010029 - 11 Mar 2019
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 6705
Abstract
Devices operating in complete energy autonomy are multiplying: small fixed signaling applications or sensors often operating in a network. To ensure operation for a substantial period, for applications with difficult physical access, a means of storing electrical energy must be included in the [...] Read more.
Devices operating in complete energy autonomy are multiplying: small fixed signaling applications or sensors often operating in a network. To ensure operation for a substantial period, for applications with difficult physical access, a means of storing electrical energy must be included in the system. The battery remains the most deployed solution. Lead-acid batteries still have a significant share of this market due to the maturity of their technology. However, even by sizing all the system elements according to the needs and the available renewable energy, some failure occurs. The battery is the weak element. It can be quickly discharged when the renewable energy source is no longer present for a while. It can also be overloaded or subjected to high temperatures, which affects its longevity. This paper presents a suggested improvement for these systems, systematically adding extra devices to reduce excess charges and heat and allowing the battery use at lower charges. The interest of this strategy is presented by comparing the number of days of system failure and the consequences for battery aging. To demonstrate the interest of the proposed improvement track, a colored Petri net is deployed to model the battery degradation parameters evolution, in order to compare them. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Batteries and Supercapacitors Aging)
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11 pages, 4348 KiB  
Article
Lifetime Prediction of Lithium-Ion Capacitors Based on Accelerated Aging Tests
by Nagham El Ghossein, Ali Sari and Pascal Venet
Batteries 2019, 5(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries5010028 - 5 Mar 2019
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 7990
Abstract
Lithium-ion Capacitors (LiCs) that have intermediate properties between lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors are still considered as a new technology whose aging is not well studied in the literature. This paper presents the results of accelerated aging tests applied on 12 samples of LiCs. [...] Read more.
Lithium-ion Capacitors (LiCs) that have intermediate properties between lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors are still considered as a new technology whose aging is not well studied in the literature. This paper presents the results of accelerated aging tests applied on 12 samples of LiCs. Two high temperatures (60 °C and 70 °C) and two voltage values were used for aging acceleration for 20 months. The maximum and the minimum voltages (3.8 V and 2.2 V respectively) had different effects on capacitance fade. Cells aging at 2.2 V encountered extreme decrease of the capacitance. After storing them for only one month at 60 °C, they lost around 22% of their initial capacitance. For this reason, an aging model was developed for cells aging at the lowest voltage value to emphasize the huge decrease of the lifetime at this voltage condition. Moreover, two measurement tools of the capacitance were compared to find the optimal method for following the evolution of the aging process. It was proved that electrochemical impedance spectroscopy is the most accurate measurement technique that can reveal the actual level of degradation inside a LiC cell. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Batteries and Supercapacitors Aging)
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13 pages, 2761 KiB  
Article
State-of-Charge Monitoring by Impedance Spectroscopy during Long-Term Self-Discharge of Supercapacitors and Lithium-Ion Batteries
by Peter Kurzweil and Mikhail Shamonin
Batteries 2018, 4(3), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries4030035 - 1 Aug 2018
Cited by 38 | Viewed by 10230
Abstract
Frequency-dependent capacitance C(ω) is a rapid and reliable method for the determination of the state-of-charge (SoC) of electrochemical storage devices. The state-of-the-art of SoC monitoring using impedance spectroscopy is reviewed, and complemented by original 1.5-year long-term electrical impedance measurements of [...] Read more.
Frequency-dependent capacitance C(ω) is a rapid and reliable method for the determination of the state-of-charge (SoC) of electrochemical storage devices. The state-of-the-art of SoC monitoring using impedance spectroscopy is reviewed, and complemented by original 1.5-year long-term electrical impedance measurements of several commercially available supercapacitors. It is found that the kinetics of the self-discharge of supercapacitors comprises at least two characteristic time constants in the range of days and months. The curvature of the Nyquist curve at frequencies above 10 Hz (charge transfer resistance) depends on the available electric charge as well, but it is of little use for applications. Lithium-ion batteries demonstrate a linear correlation between voltage and capacitance as long as overcharge and deep discharge are avoided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Batteries and Supercapacitors Aging)
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12 pages, 8299 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Battery Architecture Dependability
by Christophe Savard, Pascal Venet, Éric Niel, Laurent Piétrac and Ali Sari
Batteries 2018, 4(3), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries4030031 - 3 Jul 2018
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 5882
Abstract
This paper presents various solutions for organizing an accumulator battery. It examines three different architectures: series-parallel, parallel-series and C3C architecture, which spread the cell output current flux to three other cells. Alternatively, to improve a several cell system reliability, it is possible to [...] Read more.
This paper presents various solutions for organizing an accumulator battery. It examines three different architectures: series-parallel, parallel-series and C3C architecture, which spread the cell output current flux to three other cells. Alternatively, to improve a several cell system reliability, it is possible to insert more cells than necessary and soliciting them less. Classical RAMS (Reliability, Availability, Maintainability, Safety) solutions can be deployed by adding redundant cells or by tolerating some cell failures. With more cells than necessary, it is also possible to choose active cells by a selection algorithm and place the others at rest. Each variant is simulated for the three architectures in order to determine the impact on battery-operative dependability, that is to say the duration of how long the battery complies specifications. To justify that the conventional RAMS solutions are not deployed to date, this article examines the influence on operative dependability. If the conventional variants allow to extend the moment before the battery stops to be operational, using an algorithm with a suitable optimization criterion further extend the battery mission time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Batteries and Supercapacitors Aging)
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Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

26 pages, 5912 KiB  
Review
Degradation and Aging Routes of Ni-Rich Cathode Based Li-Ion Batteries
by Philipp Teichert, Gebrekidan Gebresilassie Eshetu, Hannes Jahnke and Egbert Figgemeier
Batteries 2020, 6(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries6010008 - 22 Jan 2020
Cited by 76 | Viewed by 22611
Abstract
Driven by the increasing plea for greener transportation and efficient integration of renewable energy sources, Ni-rich metal layered oxides, namely NMC, Li [Ni1−xyCoyMnz] O2 (x + y ≤ 0.4), and NCA, Li [...] Read more.
Driven by the increasing plea for greener transportation and efficient integration of renewable energy sources, Ni-rich metal layered oxides, namely NMC, Li [Ni1−xyCoyMnz] O2 (x + y ≤ 0.4), and NCA, Li [Ni1−xyCoxAly] O2, cathode materials have garnered huge attention for the development of Next-Generation lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The impetus behind such huge celebrity includes their higher capacity and cost effectiveness when compared to the-state-of-the-art LiCoO2 (LCO) and other low Ni content NMC versions. However, despite all the beneficial attributes, the large-scale deployment of Ni-rich NMC based LIBs poses a technical challenge due to less stability of the cathode/electrolyte interphase (CEI) and diverse degradation processes that are associated with electrolyte decomposition, transition metal cation dissolution, cation–mixing, oxygen release reaction etc. Here, the potential degradation routes, recent efforts and enabling strategies for mitigating the core challenges of Ni-rich NMC cathode materials are presented and assessed. In the end, the review shed light on the perspectives for the future research directions of Ni-rich cathode materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Batteries and Supercapacitors Aging)
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