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Batteries, Volume 8, Issue 7 (July 2022) – 15 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The temperature of lithium-ion batteries is crucial in terms of their performance, aging, and safety. The internal temperature, which is complicated to measure with conventional temperature sensors, plays an important role here. This study presents a method in the time domain, based on the pulse resistance, for determining the internal cell temperature by examining the temperature behavior for the cylindrical formats 18650, 21700, and 26650 in isothermal as well as transient temperature states for different states of charge (SOCs). The model comparison shows that the differences between surface temperature and TR depend on the SOC and cell format, and range from 2.14K to 2.70K (18650), 3.07K to 3.85K (21700), and 4.74K to 5.45K (26650). The difference decreases for each cell format with an increasing SOC, and is linear depending on the cell diameter. View this paper
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13 pages, 3334 KiB  
Article
Highly Flexible Stencil Printed Alkaline Ag2O-Zn Battery for Wearable Electronics
by Akash Kota, Lenin W. Kum, Kavya Vallurupalli, Ashish Gogia, Amy T. Neidhard-Doll and Vamsy P. Chodavarapu
Batteries 2022, 8(7), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8070074 - 16 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2674
Abstract
Flexible power sources such as batteries are essential to realize wearable and conformable electronic devices. The mechanical stability of the electrodes plays an important role in determining the overall flexibility of the battery. Styrene block copolymers-based elastomers have the potential to be used [...] Read more.
Flexible power sources such as batteries are essential to realize wearable and conformable electronic devices. The mechanical stability of the electrodes plays an important role in determining the overall flexibility of the battery. Styrene block copolymers-based elastomers have the potential to be used as binder materials in the electrodes for retaining their structural integrity under flexing during regular use. In this work, we demonstrate a stencil-printed flexible primary Ag2O-Zn battery on a nonconductive nylon mesh substrate that uses styrene-butadiene rubber as the anodic binder. A polyacrylic acid-based alkaline polymer gel is used as an electrolyte. The flexible alkaline battery achieved discharge capacities of 2.5 mAh and 1.6 mAh without and with a bend radius of 0.8 cm, respectively, under a constant current load condition of 0.1 mA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zn-Based Batteries: Recent Progresses and Challenges)
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12 pages, 3265 KiB  
Communication
The Application of Fuel-Cell and Battery Technologies in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs): A Dynamic Study
by Hossein Pourrahmani, Claire Marie Isabelle Bernier and Jan Van herle
Batteries 2022, 8(7), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8070073 - 15 Jul 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3488
Abstract
The harmful impacts of fossil-fuel-based engines on the environment have resulted in the development of other alternatives for different types of vehicles. Currently, batteries and fuel cells are being used in the automotive industry, while promising progress in the maritime and aerospace sectors [...] Read more.
The harmful impacts of fossil-fuel-based engines on the environment have resulted in the development of other alternatives for different types of vehicles. Currently, batteries and fuel cells are being used in the automotive industry, while promising progress in the maritime and aerospace sectors is foreseen. As a case study in the aerospace sector, an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) was considered. The goal and the novelty of this study are in its analysis of the possibility of providing 960 W of power for a UAV with a weight of 14 kg using a hybrid system of a lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery and proton-exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The dynamic performance of the system was analyzed considering three different load profiles over time in an optimized condition. PEMFC was the main supplier of power, while the battery intervened when the power load was high for the PEMFC and the system demanded an immediate response to the changes in power load. Additionally, the impacts of the operating temperature and the C-rate of the battery were characterized by the state of the charge of the battery to better indicate the overall performance of the system. Full article
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23 pages, 7713 KiB  
Review
Recent Health Diagnosis Methods for Lithium-Ion Batteries
by Yaqi Li, Jia Guo, Kjeld Pedersen, Leonid Gurevich and Daniel-Ioan Stroe
Batteries 2022, 8(7), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8070072 - 15 Jul 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 4240
Abstract
Lithium-ion batteries have good performance and environmentally friendly characteristics, so they have great potential. However, lithium-ion batteries will age to varying degrees during use, and the process is irreversible. There are many aging mechanisms of lithium batteries. In order to better verify the [...] Read more.
Lithium-ion batteries have good performance and environmentally friendly characteristics, so they have great potential. However, lithium-ion batteries will age to varying degrees during use, and the process is irreversible. There are many aging mechanisms of lithium batteries. In order to better verify the internal changes of lithium batteries when they are aging, post-mortem analysis has been greatly developed. In this article, we summarized the electrical properties analysis and post-mortem analysis of lithium batteries developed in recent years and compared the advantages of varieties of both destructive and non-destructive methods, for example, open-circuit-voltage curve-based analysis, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. On this basis, new ideas could be proposed for predicting and diagnosing the aging degree of lithium batteries, at the same time, further implementation of these technologies will support battery life control strategies and battery design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lithium-Ion Batteries Aging Mechanisms, 2nd Edition)
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11 pages, 21682 KiB  
Article
A True Non-Newtonian Electrolyte for Rechargeable Hybrid Aqueous Battery
by Tuan K. A. Hoang, Longyan Li, Jian Zhi, The Nam Long Doan, Wenhan Dong, Xiaoxiao Huang, Junhong Ma, Yahong Xie, Menglei Chang and P. Chen
Batteries 2022, 8(7), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8070071 - 13 Jul 2022
Viewed by 2225
Abstract
The rechargeable aqueous hybrid battery is a unique system in which the Li-ion mechanism dominates the cathode while the first-order metal reaction of stripping/depositing regulates the anode. This battery inherits the advantages of the low-cost anode while possessing the capability of the Li-ion [...] Read more.
The rechargeable aqueous hybrid battery is a unique system in which the Li-ion mechanism dominates the cathode while the first-order metal reaction of stripping/depositing regulates the anode. This battery inherits the advantages of the low-cost anode while possessing the capability of the Li-ion cathode. One of the major challenges is to design a proper electrolyte to nourish such strengths and alleviate the downsides, because two different mechanisms are functioning separately at the node–electrolyte and the cathode–electrolyte interfaces. In this work, we design a non-Newtonian electrolyte which offers many advantages for a Zn/LiMn2O4 battery. The corrosion is kept low while almost non-dendritic zinc deposition is confirmed by chronoamperometry and ex situ microscopy. The gel strength and gelling duration of such non-Newtonian electrolytes can be controlled. The ionic conductivity of such gels can reach 60 mS⋅cm−1. The battery exhibits reduced self-discharge, 6–10% higher specific discharge capacity than the aqueous reference battery, high rate capability, nearly 80% capacity retention after 1000 cycles, and about 100 mAh⋅g−1 of specific discharge capacity at cycle No. 1000th. Negligible amorphization on the cathode surface and no passivation on the anode surface are observed after 1000 cycles, evidenced by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy on the post-run battery electrodes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Advances in Battery Materials)
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19 pages, 4711 KiB  
Review
On the Current and Future Outlook of Battery Chemistries for Electric Vehicles—Mini Review
by Mohamed S. E. Houache, Chae-Ho Yim, Zouina Karkar and Yaser Abu-Lebdeh
Batteries 2022, 8(7), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8070070 - 13 Jul 2022
Cited by 70 | Viewed by 16516
Abstract
As the electrification of the transportation industry is accelerating, the energy storage markets are trying to secure more reliable and environmentally benign materials. Advanced materials are the key performance enablers of batteries as well as a key element determining the cost structure, environmental [...] Read more.
As the electrification of the transportation industry is accelerating, the energy storage markets are trying to secure more reliable and environmentally benign materials. Advanced materials are the key performance enablers of batteries as well as a key element determining the cost structure, environmental impact, and recyclability of battery cells. In this review, we analyzed the state-of-the-art cell chemistries and active electrode and electrolyte materials for electric vehicles batteries, which we believe will dominate the battery chemistry landscape in the next decade. We believe that major breakthroughs and innovations in electrode materials such as high-nickel cathodes and silicon and metallic lithium anodes, along with novel liquid electrolyte formulations and solid-state electrolytes, will significantly improve the specific capacity of lithium batteries and reduce their cost, leading to accelerated mass-market penetration of EVs. Full article
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17 pages, 4478 KiB  
Article
Integration of Computational Fluid Dynamics and Artificial Neural Network for Optimization Design of Battery Thermal Management System
by Ao Li, Anthony Chun Yin Yuen, Wei Wang, Timothy Bo Yuan Chen, Chun Sing Lai, Wei Yang, Wei Wu, Qing Nian Chan, Sanghoon Kook and Guan Heng Yeoh
Batteries 2022, 8(7), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8070069 - 8 Jul 2022
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 7270
Abstract
The increasing popularity of lithium-ion battery systems, particularly in electric vehicles and energy storage systems, has gained broad research interest regarding performance optimization, thermal stability, and fire safety. To enhance the battery thermal management system, a comprehensive investigation of the thermal behaviour and [...] Read more.
The increasing popularity of lithium-ion battery systems, particularly in electric vehicles and energy storage systems, has gained broad research interest regarding performance optimization, thermal stability, and fire safety. To enhance the battery thermal management system, a comprehensive investigation of the thermal behaviour and heat exchange process of battery systems is paramount. In this paper, a three-dimensional electro-thermal model coupled with fluid dynamics module was developed to comprehensively analyze the temperature distribution of battery packs and the heat carried away. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation results of the lumped battery model were validated and verified by considering natural ventilation speed and ambient temperature. In the artificial neural networks (ANN) model, the multilayer perceptron was applied to train the numerical outputs and optimal design of the battery setup, achieving a 1.9% decrease in maximum temperature and a 4.5% drop in temperature difference. The simulation results provide a practical compromise in optimizing the battery configuration and cooling efficiency, balancing the layout of the battery system, and safety performance. The present modelling framework demonstrates an innovative approach to utilizing high-fidelity electro-thermal/CFD numerical inputs for ANN optimization, potentially enhancing the state-of-art thermal management and reducing the risks of thermal runaway and fire outbreaks. Full article
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3 pages, 181 KiB  
Editorial
Design and Development of Cathode Materials for Rechargeable Batteries
by Byunghoon Kim
Batteries 2022, 8(7), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8070068 - 8 Jul 2022
Viewed by 1640
Abstract
Over the past two decades, rechargeable Li-ion batteries (LIBs) have been the de facto standard power source for electronic devices [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cathode Materials for Rechargeable Batteries)
15 pages, 4376 KiB  
Article
Microwave-Assisted Hydrothermal Synthesis of Space Fillers to Enhance Volumetric Energy Density of NMC811 Cathode Material for Li-Ion Batteries
by Irina Skvortsova, Aleksandra A. Savina, Elena D. Orlova, Vladislav S. Gorshkov and Artem M. Abakumov
Batteries 2022, 8(7), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8070067 - 6 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3399
Abstract
Ni-rich layered transition metal (TM) oxides are considered to be the most promising cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries because of their high electrochemical capacity, high Li+ ion (de)intercalation potential, and low cobalt content. However, such materials possess several drawbacks including relatively low [...] Read more.
Ni-rich layered transition metal (TM) oxides are considered to be the most promising cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries because of their high electrochemical capacity, high Li+ ion (de)intercalation potential, and low cobalt content. However, such materials possess several drawbacks including relatively low volumetric energy density caused by insufficient values of tap density. Herein, we demonstrate an exceptionally rapid and energy-saving synthesis of the mixed hydroxide precursor for the LiNi0.8Mn0.1Co0.1O2 (NMC811) positive electrode (cathode) material through a microwave-assisted hydrothermal technique. The obtained material further serves as a space-filler to fill the voids between spherical agglomerates in the cathode powder prepared via a conventional co-precipitation technique boosting the tap density of the resulting mixed NMC811 by 30% up to 2.9 g/cm3. Owing to increased tap density, the volumetric energy density of the composite cathode exceeds 2100 mWh/cm3 vs. 1690 mWh/cm3 for co-precipitated samples. The crystal structure of the obtained materials was scrutinized by powder X-ray diffraction and high angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM); the cation composition and homogeneity of TM spatial distribution were investigated using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in a STEM mode (STEM-EDX). Well-crystallized NMC811 with a relatively low degree of anti-site disorder and homogeneous TM distribution in a combination with the co-precipitated material delivers a reversible discharge capacity as high as ~200 mAh/g at 0.1C current density and capacity retention of 78% after 300 charge/discharge cycles (current density 1C) within the voltage region of 2.7–4.3 V vs. Li/Li+. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anode and Cathode Materials for Lithium-Ion and Sodium-Ion Batteries)
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15 pages, 2611 KiB  
Article
Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy as an Analytical Tool for the Prediction of the Dynamic Charge Acceptance of Lead-Acid Batteries
by Sophia Bauknecht, Julia Kowal, Begüm Bozkaya, Jochen Settelein and Eckhard Karden
Batteries 2022, 8(7), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8070066 - 5 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2321
Abstract
The subject of this study is test cells extracted from industrially manufactured automotive batteries. Each test cell either had a full set of plates or a reduced, negative-limited set of plates. With these test cells the predictability of the dynamic charge acceptance (DCA) [...] Read more.
The subject of this study is test cells extracted from industrially manufactured automotive batteries. Each test cell either had a full set of plates or a reduced, negative-limited set of plates. With these test cells the predictability of the dynamic charge acceptance (DCA) by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is investigated. Thereby, the DCA was performed according to EN 50342-6:2015 standard. The micro cycling approach was used for the EIS measurements to disregard any influencing factors from previous usage. During the evaluation, Kramers-Kronig (K-K) was used to avoid systematic errors caused by violations of the stationarity, time-invariance or linearity. Furthermore, the analysis of the distribution of relaxation times (DRT) was used to identify a usable equivalent circuit model (ECM) and starting values for the parameter prediction. For all cell types and layouts, the resistance R1, the parameter indicating the size of the first/high-frequency semicircle, is smaller for cells with higher DCA. According to the literature, this semicircle represents the charge transfer reaction, thus confirming that current-enhancing additives may decrease the pore diameter of the negative electrode. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Battery Modelling, Simulation, Management and Application)
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17 pages, 10511 KiB  
Article
Identification of Typical Sub-Health State of Traction Battery Based on a Data-Driven Approach
by Cheng Wang, Chengyang Yu, Weiwei Guo, Zhenpo Wang and Jiyuan Tan
Batteries 2022, 8(7), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8070065 - 4 Jul 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2302
Abstract
As the core component of an electric vehicle, the health of the traction battery closely affects the safety performance of the electric vehicle. If the sub-health state cannot be identified and dealt with in time, it may cause traction battery failure, pose a [...] Read more.
As the core component of an electric vehicle, the health of the traction battery closely affects the safety performance of the electric vehicle. If the sub-health state cannot be identified and dealt with in time, it may cause traction battery failure, pose a safety hazard, and cause property damage to the driver and passengers. This study used data-driven methods to identify the two typical types of sub-health state. For the first type of sub-health state, the interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) method was used to determine whether there was an inconsistency between the voltage of a single battery and the overall voltage of the battery pack. In order to determine the threshold, the ICC value of each vehicle under different working conditions was analyzed using box plots, and a statistical ICC threshold of 0.805 was used as the standard to determine the first sub-health type. For the second type of sub-health state, the Z-score and the differential area method were combined to determine whether the single cell voltage deviated from the overall battery pack voltage. A battery whose voltage differential area exceeds the range of u ± 3σ is regarded as having a sub-health state. The results show that both methods can accurately judge the sub-health state type of a single battery. Furthermore, combined with the one-month operation data of the vehicle, we could calculate the sub-health state frequency of each single battery and take single batteries with a high frequency as the key object of attention in future vehicle operations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Safety of Lithium-Ion Batteries)
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13 pages, 3567 KiB  
Article
Upgrading the Properties of Ceramic-Coated Separators for Lithium Secondary Batteries by Changing the Mixing Order of the Water-Based Ceramic Slurry Components
by Ssendagire Kennedy, Jeong-Tae Kim, Yong Min Lee, Isheunesu Phiri and Sun-Yul Ryou
Batteries 2022, 8(7), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8070064 - 1 Jul 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3877
Abstract
Developing uniform ceramic-coated separators in high-energy Li secondary batteries has been a challenging task because aqueous ceramic coating slurries have poor dispersion stability and coating quality on the hydrophobic surfaces of polyolefin separators. In this study, we develop a simple but effective strategy [...] Read more.
Developing uniform ceramic-coated separators in high-energy Li secondary batteries has been a challenging task because aqueous ceramic coating slurries have poor dispersion stability and coating quality on the hydrophobic surfaces of polyolefin separators. In this study, we develop a simple but effective strategy for improving the dispersion stability of aqueous ceramic coating slurries by changing the mixing order of the ceramic slurry components. The aqueous ceramic coating slurry comprises ceramics (Al2O3), polymeric binders (sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, CMC), surfactants (disodium laureth sulfosuccinate, DLSS), and water. The interaction between the ceramic slurry components is studied by changing the mixing order of the ceramic slurry components and quantitatively evaluating the dispersion stability of the ceramic coating slurry using a Lumisizer. In the optimized mixing sequence, Al2O3 and DLSS premixed in aqueous Al2O3-DLSS micelles through strong surface interactions, and they repel each other due to steric repulsion. The addition of CMC in this state does not compromise the dispersion stability of aqueous ceramic coating slurries and enables uniform ceramic coating on polyethylene (PE) separators. The prepared Al2O3 ceramic-coated separators (Al2O3–CCSs) exhibit improved physical properties, such as high wettability electrolyte uptake and ionic conductivity, compared to the bare PE separators. Furthermore, Al2O3–CCSs exhibit improved electrochemical performance, such as rate capability and cycling performance. The half cells (LiMn2O4/Li metal) comprising Al2O3–CCSs retain 90.4% (88.4 mAh g−1) of initial discharge capacity after 150 cycles, while 27.6% (26.4 mAh g−1) for bare PE. Furthermore, the full cells (LiMn2O4/graphite) consisting of Al2O3–CCSs exhibit 69.8% (72.2 mAh g−1) of the initial discharge capacity and 24.9% (25.0 mAh g−1) for bare PE after 1150 cycles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Advances in Battery Materials)
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16 pages, 3818 KiB  
Article
Effect of x on the Electrochemical Performance of Two-Layered Cathode Materials xLi2MnO3–(1−x)LiNi0.5Mn0.5O2
by Renny Nazario-Naveda, Segundo Rojas-Flores, Luisa Juárez-Cortijo, Moises Gallozzo-Cardenas, Félix N. Díaz, Luis Angelats-Silva and Santiago M. Benites
Batteries 2022, 8(7), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8070063 - 29 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2722
Abstract
In our study, the cathodic material xLi2MnO3–(1−x)LiNi0.5Mn0.5O2 was synthesized by means of the co-precipitation technique. The effect of x (proportion of components Li2MnO3 and LiNi0.5Mn0.5O2) [...] Read more.
In our study, the cathodic material xLi2MnO3–(1−x)LiNi0.5Mn0.5O2 was synthesized by means of the co-precipitation technique. The effect of x (proportion of components Li2MnO3 and LiNi0.5Mn0.5O2) on the structural, morphological, and electrochemical performance of the material was evaluated. Materials were structurally characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), and the morphological analysis was performed using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) technique, while charge–discharge curves and differential capacity and impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were used to study the electrochemical behavior. The results confirm the formation of the structures with two phases corresponding to the rhombohedral space group R3m and the monoclinic space group C2/m, which was associated to the components of the layered material. Very dense agglomerations of particles between 10 and 20 µm were also observed. In addition, the increase in the proportion of the LiNi0.5Mn0.5O2 component affected the initial irreversible capacity and the Li2MnO3 layer’s activation and cycling performance, suggesting an optimal chemical ratio of the material’s component layers to ensure high energy density and long-term durability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrode Materials for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries)
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16 pages, 4483 KiB  
Review
Transition Metal Dichalcogenides for High−Performance Aqueous Zinc Ion Batteries
by Baishan Liu
Batteries 2022, 8(7), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8070062 - 29 Jun 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2956
Abstract
Aqueous zinc ion batteries (ZIBs) with cost—effectiveness, air stability, and remarkable energy density have attracted increasing attention for potential energy storage system applications. The unique electrical properties and competitive layer spacing of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) provide dramatical freedom for facilitating ion diffusion [...] Read more.
Aqueous zinc ion batteries (ZIBs) with cost—effectiveness, air stability, and remarkable energy density have attracted increasing attention for potential energy storage system applications. The unique electrical properties and competitive layer spacing of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) provide dramatical freedom for facilitating ion diffusion and intercalation, making TMDs suitable for ZIB cathode materials. The recently updated advance of TMDs for high−performance ZIB cathode materials have been summarized in this review. In particular, the key modification strategies of TMDs for realizing the full potential in ZIBs are highlighted. Finally, the insights for further development of TMDs as ZIB cathodes are proposed, to guide the research directions related to the design of aqueous ZIBs while approaching the theoretical performance metrics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zn-Based Batteries: Recent Progresses and Challenges)
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19 pages, 7166 KiB  
Article
Thermal Stability and the Effect of Water on Hydrogen Fluoride Generation in Lithium-Ion Battery Electrolytes Containing LiPF6
by Ji Yun Han and Seungho Jung
Batteries 2022, 8(7), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8070061 - 28 Jun 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3545
Abstract
Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have been used as electrochemical energy storage devices in various fields, ranging from mobile phones to electric vehicles. LIBs are composed of a positive electrode, a negative electrode, an electrolyte, and a binder. Among them, electrolytes consist of organic solvents [...] Read more.
Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have been used as electrochemical energy storage devices in various fields, ranging from mobile phones to electric vehicles. LIBs are composed of a positive electrode, a negative electrode, an electrolyte, and a binder. Among them, electrolytes consist of organic solvents and lithium ion conducting salts. The electrolytes used in LIBs are mostly linear and cyclic alkyl carbonates. These electrolytes are usually based on their combinations to allow the use of Li as the anodic active component, resulting in the high power and energy density of batteries. However, these organic electrolytes have high volatility and flammability that pose a serious safety issue when exposed to extreme conditions such as elevated temperatures. At that time, these electrolytes can react with active electrode materials and release a considerable amount of heat and gas. In this study, a simultaneous thermal analysis-mass spectrometry analysis was performed on six different organic solvents to examine the effect of water on hydrogen fluoride (HF) generation temperature in the electrolyte of a LIB. The electrolytes used in the experiment were anhydrous diethyl carbonate, 1,2-dimethoxyethane, ethylene carbonate, 1,3-dioxolane, tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol, and 2-methyl-tetrahydrofuran, each containing LiPF6. The HF formation temperature was observed and compared with that when water entered the electrolyte exposed to high-temperature conditions such as fire. Full article
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25 pages, 3188 KiB  
Article
Determination of Internal Temperature Differences for Various Cylindrical Lithium-Ion Batteries Using a Pulse Resistance Approach
by Sebastian Ludwig, Marco Steinhardt and Andreas Jossen
Batteries 2022, 8(7), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8070060 - 23 Jun 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 4951
Abstract
The temperature of lithium-ion batteries is crucial in terms of performance, aging, and safety. The internal temperature, which is complicated to measure with conventional temperature sensors, plays an important role here. For this reason, numerous methods exist in the literature for determining the [...] Read more.
The temperature of lithium-ion batteries is crucial in terms of performance, aging, and safety. The internal temperature, which is complicated to measure with conventional temperature sensors, plays an important role here. For this reason, numerous methods exist in the literature for determining the internal cell temperature without sensors, which are usually based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. This study presents a method in the time domain, based on the pulse resistance, for determining the internal cell temperature by examining the temperature behavior for the cylindrical formats 18650, 21700, and 26650 in isothermal and transient temperature states for different states of charge (SOCs). A previously validated component-resolved 2D thermal model was used to analyze the location of the calculated temperature TR within the cell, which is still an unsolved question for pulse resistance-based temperature determination. The model comparison shows that TR is close to the average jelly roll temperature. The differences between surface temperature and TR depend on the SOC and cell format and range from 2.14K to 2.70K (18650), 3.07K to 3.85K (21700), and 4.74K to 5.45K (26650). The difference decreases for each cell format with increasing SOC and is linear dependent on the cell diameter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Battery Performance, Ageing, Reliability and Safety)
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