Topic Editors

College of Mechanical and Vehicle Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030, China
Dr. Lubing Wang
Key Laboratory Impact & Safety Engineering, Ministry of Education, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211, China
Dr. Yuqi Huang
Power Machinery and Vehicular Engineering Institute College of Energy Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China
College of Mechanical and Vehicle Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030, China

Safety of Lithium-Ion Batteries

Abstract submission deadline
closed (30 July 2022)
Manuscript submission deadline
closed (30 September 2022)
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59045

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

The safety of Lithium-Ion batteries (LIBs) has attracted attention worldwide due to the current trends in communication and mobilization brought about by rapidly evolving versions of smartphones, tablets, laptops, and other electronic devices, as well as the continuing increase in the number of electric vehicles. Researchers are encouraged to contribute papers addressing the mechanisms and new tecnologies on solving the safety issues of LIBs. Contributions are encouraged in areas including, but not limited to:

  • The safety behavior and mechanism of LIB under mechanical abuse;
  • The safety behavior and mechanism of LIB under electrical abuse;
  • The safety behavior and mechanism of LIB under thermal abuse;
  • The computational models of LIB;
  • The safety materials and structures of LIB/LIB module;
  • The early warning technologies.

Dr. Binghe Liu
Dr. Lubing Wang
Dr. Yuqi Huang
Dr. Yongjun Pan
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • safety behavior
  • modeling
  • early warning
  • abuse
  • materials and structures

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Batteries
batteries
4.0 5.4 2015 17.7 Days CHF 2700
Electricity
electricity
- - 2020 20.3 Days CHF 1000
Electronics
electronics
2.9 4.7 2012 15.6 Days CHF 2400
Energies
energies
3.2 5.5 2008 16.1 Days CHF 2600
Nanoenergy Advances
nanoenergyadv
- - 2021 31 Days CHF 1000

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Published Papers (20 papers)

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17 pages, 5110 KiB  
Article
End-of-Charge Temperature Rise and State-of-Health Evaluation of Aged Lithium-Ion Battery
by Binghong Han, Jonathon R. Harding, Johanna K. S. Goodman, Zhuhua Cai and Quinn C. Horn
Energies 2023, 16(1), 405; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16010405 - 29 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1931
Abstract
An increasing demand to repurpose used lithium-ion batteries in secondary applications is driving the need to develop methods of evaluating the state-of-health of used batteries. In this paper, we discover a self-terminated end-of-charge temperature rise (ECTR) phenomenon in 18650 lithium-ion cells, both recycled [...] Read more.
An increasing demand to repurpose used lithium-ion batteries in secondary applications is driving the need to develop methods of evaluating the state-of-health of used batteries. In this paper, we discover a self-terminated end-of-charge temperature rise (ECTR) phenomenon in 18650 lithium-ion cells, both recycled from the field and aged under controlled conditions in the lab. ECTR is characterized by an additional temperature rise near the end of the charging process and is accompanied by low coulombic efficiency. A higher charge rate and longer inactive time at low state-of-charge appear to increase the occurrence of ECTR. The intensity of ECTR is found to closely correlate with the excess charge capacity but is less affected by the charge current or cell impedance. ECTR is weakly dependent on the remaining cell capacity in recycled cells, and the controlled aging study shows that aging condition, not remaining capacity or internal resistance, determines the presence and intensity of ECTR behavior, which indicates that usable capacity or internal resistance should not be the single criterion to effectively evaluate the state-of-health of used cells intended for repurposing. We hypothesize that the origin of the ECTR is due to the formation of an internal lithium metal short that forms near the end of the charge process and self-terminates over time. The investigation of ECTR in this work provides a new criterion and approach to evaluate the state-of-health of cells required to safely handle aged/recycled cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Safety of Lithium-Ion Batteries)
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16 pages, 3792 KiB  
Article
The Assessment of Electric Vehicle Storage Lifetime Using Battery Thermal Management System
by Rodrigo A. Pires, Jr., Samuel A. Carvalho, Braz J. Cardoso Filho, Igor A. Pires, Rudolf Huebner and Thales A. C. Maia
Batteries 2023, 9(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries9010010 - 24 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2104
Abstract
Degradation and heat generation are among the major concerns when treating Lithium-ion batteries’ health and performance parameters. Due to the high correlation between the battery’s degradation, autonomy and heat generation to the cell’s operational temperature, the Battery Thermal Management System plays a key [...] Read more.
Degradation and heat generation are among the major concerns when treating Lithium-ion batteries’ health and performance parameters. Due to the high correlation between the battery’s degradation, autonomy and heat generation to the cell’s operational temperature, the Battery Thermal Management System plays a key role in maximizing the battery’s health. Given the fact that the ideal temperature for degradation minimization usually does not match the ideal temperature for heat generation minimization, the BTMS must manage these phenomena in order to maximize the battery’s lifespan. This work presents a new definition of the discharge operation point of a lithium-ion battery based on degradation, autonomy and heat generation. Two cells of different electrodes formulation were modeled and evaluated in a case study. The results demonstrated a 50% improvement on total useful battery cycles in best-case scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Safety of Lithium-Ion Batteries)
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22 pages, 16816 KiB  
Article
Particle Contamination in Commercial Lithium-Ion Cells—Risk Assessment with Focus on Internal Short Circuits and Replication by Currently Discussed Trigger Methods
by Jens Grabow, Jacob Klink, Ralf Benger, Ines Hauer and Hans-Peter Beck
Batteries 2023, 9(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries9010009 - 23 Dec 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3642
Abstract
A possible contamination with impurities or material weak points generated in cell production of lithium-ion batteries increases the risk of spontaneous internal short circuits (ISC). An ISC can lead to a sudden thermal runaway (TR) of the cell, thereby making these faults especially [...] Read more.
A possible contamination with impurities or material weak points generated in cell production of lithium-ion batteries increases the risk of spontaneous internal short circuits (ISC). An ISC can lead to a sudden thermal runaway (TR) of the cell, thereby making these faults especially dangerous. Evaluation regarding the criticality of an ISC, the development of detection methods for timely fault warning and possible protection concepts require a realistic failure replication for general validation. Various trigger methods are currently discussed to reproduce these ISC failure cases, but without considering a valid basis for the practice-relevant particle properties. In order to provide such a basis for the evaluation and further development of trigger methods, in this paper, the possibilities of detecting impurity particles in production were reviewed and real particles from pouch cells of an established cell manufacturer were analysed. The results indicate that several metallic particles with a significant size up to 1 mm × 1.7 mm could be found between the cell layers. This evidence shows that contamination with impurity particles cannot be completely prevented in cell production, as a result of which particle-induced ISC must be expected and the need for an application-oriented triggering method currently exists. The cause of TR events in the field often cannot be identified. However, it is noticeable that such faults often occur during the charging process. A new interesting hypothesis for this so-far unexplained phenomenon is presented here. Based on all findings, the current trigger methods for replicating an external particle-induced ISC were evaluated in significant detail and specific improvements are identified. Here, it is shown that all current trigger methods for ISC replication exhibit weaknesses regarding reproducibility, which results mainly from the scattering random ISC contact resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Safety of Lithium-Ion Batteries)
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14 pages, 3653 KiB  
Article
Electrochemical Change Induced by Spherical Indentation in Lithium-Ion Batteries
by Huan-Cheng Lin, Kuo-Ching Chen and Chih-Hung Chen
Batteries 2022, 8(12), 268; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8120268 - 2 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1811
Abstract
Since the Young’s modulus of the separator is weaker than that of the other materials inside a lithium-ion battery, local deformation may cause blockage or rupture of the separator, resulting in internal short-circuit or other disasters. This study collects the stress–strain relationship of [...] Read more.
Since the Young’s modulus of the separator is weaker than that of the other materials inside a lithium-ion battery, local deformation may cause blockage or rupture of the separator, resulting in internal short-circuit or other disasters. This study collects the stress–strain relationship of various materials within the battery, and combines the mechanical model with the electrochemical model through the coupled relationship between the volumetric strain and the volume fractions of solid and liquid phases. From a two-dimensional electrochemical simulation of a spherical indentation on a layer-structured battery, it is found that there is local negative value of the side reaction overpotential on the negative electrode adjacent to the separator after the battery is deformed. A higher strain will cause a decrease in the negative overpotential, leading to a more serious deposition of lithium during the charge process. The deformation-dependent overpotential is evaluated and the lithium deposition is then quantified. Moreover, the issue of the separator thickness is explored. We find that under an indentation, the thickness does not affect the charging voltage, while a thinner layer will reduce the separator porosity and thus lower the overpotential and increase the chance of lithium deposition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Safety of Lithium-Ion Batteries)
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10 pages, 8118 KiB  
Article
Effect of Deformation on Safety and Capacity of Li-Ion Batteries
by Genwei Wang, Juanjuan Wu, Zijun Zheng, Lingeng Niu, Lei Pan and Bin Wang
Batteries 2022, 8(11), 235; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8110235 - 11 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2745
Abstract
Deformations in lithium-ion batteries, which may lead to thermal runaway, can occur during storage and transportation handling, as well as in road use. In this study, both radial and axial compression deformation were produced experimentally to analyze their influence on the performance and [...] Read more.
Deformations in lithium-ion batteries, which may lead to thermal runaway, can occur during storage and transportation handling, as well as in road use. In this study, both radial and axial compression deformation were produced experimentally to analyze their influence on the performance and safety of lithium-ion batteries. In the radial plate compression experiment, the battery was loaded to different displacements and then charge–discharge cycles were performed. It was found that the greater the deformation of the battery, the smaller the initial capacity and the faster the capacity decay. Under axial loading, the voltage of low state of charge (SOCs) batteries showed a clear step-drop phenomenon. The battery was compressed until the first voltage drop, loading was stopped, and the voltage gradually dropped to 0 V. For high-SOC lithium-ion batteries, there was almost no voltage step-down, and a small deformation could cause thermal runaway in the battery. The results showed that the small deformation in the radial direction only reduced the capacity of the battery, but had little impact on its safety, whereas a small deformation in the axial direction was more likely to cause an internal short circuit (ISC). Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Safety of Lithium-Ion Batteries)
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20 pages, 13936 KiB  
Article
Impact Tests and Computed Tomography Scans of Prismatic Battery Cells
by Simon Schwolow, Muhammad Ammad Raza Siddiqui, Philipp Bauer and Thomas Vietor
Energies 2022, 15(22), 8330; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15228330 - 8 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1309
Abstract
Recently, the use of prismatic cells in electric vehicles has increased significantly. Unlike the cylindrical or pouch format, the prismatic cell format has not been sufficiently investigated. In this study, quasi-static mechanical tests are performed on prismatic cells. The tests include a cylindrical [...] Read more.
Recently, the use of prismatic cells in electric vehicles has increased significantly. Unlike the cylindrical or pouch format, the prismatic cell format has not been sufficiently investigated. In this study, quasi-static mechanical tests are performed on prismatic cells. The tests include a cylindrical and a hemispherical impactor that mechanically load the cells in all three spatial directions. In both in-plane directions, a cell stack consisting of three cells is tested to capture the influence and loading of the outer cells of a cell stack. It is found out that, in the in-plane tests, short-circuiting occurs first in the outer cells and subsequently in the middle cell, which is targeted by the impactor. This result can also be supported by computed tomography scans. The results illustrate that, when evaluating the crash safety of battery cells, several cells should always be tested in order to capture the different loading of the cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Safety of Lithium-Ion Batteries)
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12 pages, 2502 KiB  
Article
Effect of Thermal Abuse Conditions on Thermal Runaway of NCA 18650 Cylindrical Lithium-Ion Battery
by Minkyu Jeon, Eunsong Lee, Hyunwook Park, Hongsik Yoon and Sangin Keel
Batteries 2022, 8(10), 196; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8100196 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2832
Abstract
In energy storage systems and electric vehicles utilizing lithium-ion batteries, an internal short circuit or a thermal runaway (TR) may result in fire-related accidents. Particularly, under non-oxygenated conditions, a fire can spread as a result of TR. In this study, a TR experiment [...] Read more.
In energy storage systems and electric vehicles utilizing lithium-ion batteries, an internal short circuit or a thermal runaway (TR) may result in fire-related accidents. Particularly, under non-oxygenated conditions, a fire can spread as a result of TR. In this study, a TR experiment was performed on a nickel–cobalt–aluminum 18650 cylindrical lithium-ion battery via thermal conduction. The time required to attain TR (temperature range: 250–500 °C) was drastically reduced from approximately 1200 s to 1 s. The chemical reaction rate of thermal runaway was classified according to temperature into two global mechanisms and applied to the Arrhenius equation, thereby yielding a correlation between plate temperature (TP) and time difference of TR times t (i.e., t1t0 or t2t0). As a result, activation energy for the overall reaction of the TR was estimated to be 39.9 kJ/mol. Furthermore, the safety guarantee time mandated by the safety regulation for vehicle batteries is 5 min; an analysis of the experiment results reveals that the following conditions can be satisfied: TP = 308.4 °C, Δtt1t0 = 5 min; TP = 326.2 °C, Δtt2t0 = 5 min. The experiment results offer a scientific basis for predicting the time of occurrence of TR and establishing safety standards. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Safety of Lithium-Ion Batteries)
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17 pages, 10511 KiB  
Article
Identification of Typical Sub-Health State of Traction Battery Based on a Data-Driven Approach
by Cheng Wang, Chengyang Yu, Weiwei Guo, Zhenpo Wang and Jiyuan Tan
Batteries 2022, 8(7), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8070065 - 4 Jul 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2315
Abstract
As the core component of an electric vehicle, the health of the traction battery closely affects the safety performance of the electric vehicle. If the sub-health state cannot be identified and dealt with in time, it may cause traction battery failure, pose a [...] Read more.
As the core component of an electric vehicle, the health of the traction battery closely affects the safety performance of the electric vehicle. If the sub-health state cannot be identified and dealt with in time, it may cause traction battery failure, pose a safety hazard, and cause property damage to the driver and passengers. This study used data-driven methods to identify the two typical types of sub-health state. For the first type of sub-health state, the interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) method was used to determine whether there was an inconsistency between the voltage of a single battery and the overall voltage of the battery pack. In order to determine the threshold, the ICC value of each vehicle under different working conditions was analyzed using box plots, and a statistical ICC threshold of 0.805 was used as the standard to determine the first sub-health type. For the second type of sub-health state, the Z-score and the differential area method were combined to determine whether the single cell voltage deviated from the overall battery pack voltage. A battery whose voltage differential area exceeds the range of u ± 3σ is regarded as having a sub-health state. The results show that both methods can accurately judge the sub-health state type of a single battery. Furthermore, combined with the one-month operation data of the vehicle, we could calculate the sub-health state frequency of each single battery and take single batteries with a high frequency as the key object of attention in future vehicle operations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Safety of Lithium-Ion Batteries)
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14 pages, 3963 KiB  
Article
Numerical and Experimental Evaluation of a Battery Cell under Impact Load
by Adrian Daniel Muresanu and Mircea Cristian Dudescu
Batteries 2022, 8(5), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8050048 - 20 May 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 4121
Abstract
Impact damage is one of the most critical scenarios for the lithium-ion battery pack of an electrical vehicle, as it involves mechanical abusive loads with serious consequences on electrical and thermal stability. The development of a numerical model for an explicit dynamic simulation [...] Read more.
Impact damage is one of the most critical scenarios for the lithium-ion battery pack of an electrical vehicle, as it involves mechanical abusive loads with serious consequences on electrical and thermal stability. The development of a numerical model for an explicit dynamic simulation of a Li-ion battery pack under impact implies a significant computational effort if detailed models of a single battery cell are employed. The present paper presents a homogenized finite element model of a battery cell, validated by experimental tests of individual materials and an impact test of an entire cell. The macro model is composed of shell elements representing outside casing and elements with a homogenized and isotropic material for the jelly roll. The displacements and deformed shape of the numerical model of the battery cell were compared with those measured on real test specimens; full-field optical scanning was employed to reconstruct the 3D shape of the deformed battery. The overall deformation of the simulation and experimental results are comparable with a deviation of the maximum intrusion of 14.8% for impact direction and 19.5% for the perpendicular direction considering the cumulative effects of simplifying hypotheses of the numerical model and experimental side effects. The results are a starting point for future analyses of a battery pack and its protection systems under impact. The model presented in this paper, considering the low computing power needed for calculation and acceptable mesh size for crash, should be able to be used in bigger resources consuming crash simulation models. In this way, the cells’ deformation and behavior can be tracked more easily for safety management and diagnosis of the crashworthiness of the packs or car batteries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Safety of Lithium-Ion Batteries)
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17 pages, 5664 KiB  
Article
A Novel Data-Driven Estimation Method for State-of-Charge Estimation of Li-Ion Batteries
by Suwei Zhai, Wenyun Li, Cheng Wang and Yundi Chu
Energies 2022, 15(9), 3115; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15093115 - 24 Apr 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1651
Abstract
With the increasing proportion of Li-ion batteries in energy structures, studies on the estimation of the state of charge (SOC) of Li-ion batteries, which can effectively ensure the safety and stability of Li-ion batteries, have gained much attention. In this paper, a new [...] Read more.
With the increasing proportion of Li-ion batteries in energy structures, studies on the estimation of the state of charge (SOC) of Li-ion batteries, which can effectively ensure the safety and stability of Li-ion batteries, have gained much attention. In this paper, a new data-driven method named the probabilistic threshold compensation fuzzy neural network (PTCFNN) is proposed to estimate the SOC of Li-ion batteries. Compared with other traditional methods that need to build complex battery models, the PTCFNN only needs data learning to obtain nonlinear mapping relationships inside Li-ion batteries. In order to avoid the local optimal value problem of traditional BP neural networks and the fixed reasoning mechanism of traditional fuzzy neural networks, the PTCFNN combines the advantages of a probabilistic fuzzy neural network and a compensation fuzzy neural network so as to improve the learning convergence speed and optimize the fuzzy reasoning mechanism. Finally, in order to verify the estimation performance of the PTCFNN, a 18650-20R Li-ion battery was used to carry out the estimation test. The results show that the mean absolute error and mean square error are very small under the conditions of a low-current test and dynamic-current test, and the overall estimation error is less than 1%, which further indicates that this method has good estimation ability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Safety of Lithium-Ion Batteries)
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15 pages, 6415 KiB  
Article
Effect of High-Rate Cycle Aging and Over-Discharge on NCM811 (LiNi0.8Co0.1Mn0.1O2) Batteries
by Tao Yin, Longzhou Jia, Xichao Li, Lili Zheng and Zuoqiang Dai
Energies 2022, 15(8), 2862; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15082862 - 14 Apr 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2665
Abstract
Inconsistencies in a monomer battery pack can lead to the over-discharge of a single battery. Although deep over-discharge can be avoided by optimizing the battery control system, slight over-discharge still often occurs in the battery pack. The aging behavior of cylindrical NCM811 batteries [...] Read more.
Inconsistencies in a monomer battery pack can lead to the over-discharge of a single battery. Although deep over-discharge can be avoided by optimizing the battery control system, slight over-discharge still often occurs in the battery pack. The aging behavior of cylindrical NCM811 batteries under high-rate aging and over-discharge was studied. By setting the end-of-discharge of 1 V, the battery capacity rapidly decayed after 130 cycles. Additionally, the temperature sharply increased in the over-discharge stage. The micro short-circuit was found by the discharge voltage curve and impedance spectrum. Batteries with 100%, 79.6% and 50.9% SOH (state of health = Q_now/Q_new × 100%) as a result of high-rate aging and over-discharging were subjected to thermal testing in an adiabatic environment. The battery without high-rate aging and over-discharge did not experience thermal runaway. However, severe thermal runaway occurred in the 79.6% and 50.9% SOH batteries. Regarding the cyclic aging of the 50.9% SOH battery, the fusion temperature of the separator decreased by 22.3 °C, indicating a substantial degradation of the separator and thus reducing battery safety. Moreover, the results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analyses revealed that the particles of the positive material were broken and detached, and that large-area cracks and delamination had formed on the negative material. Furthermore, Ni deposition and the uneven deposition of P and F on the negative surface were observed, which increased the risk of short-circuit in the battery. Positive and negative materials were attached on both sides of the separator, which reduced the effective area of ionic transportation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Safety of Lithium-Ion Batteries)
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15 pages, 11757 KiB  
Article
State of Charge Centralized Estimation of Road Condition Information Based on Fuzzy Sunday Algorithm
by Jingwei Hu, Bing Lin, Mingfen Wang, Jie Zhang, Wenliang Zhang and Yu Lu
Energies 2022, 15(8), 2853; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15082853 - 13 Apr 2022
Viewed by 1460
Abstract
Accurate estimation of the state of charge (SOC) is critical for battery management systems. A backpropagation neural network (BPNN) based on a modified fuzzy Sunday algorithm is proposed to improve the accuracy of SOC predictions of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The road condition information [...] Read more.
Accurate estimation of the state of charge (SOC) is critical for battery management systems. A backpropagation neural network (BPNN) based on a modified fuzzy Sunday algorithm is proposed to improve the accuracy of SOC predictions of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The road condition information relating to the data is obtained using the fuzzy Sunday algorithm, and the acquired feature information is used to estimate SOC using BPNN based on the Levenberg–Marquardt (L–M) training process. The change from exact character matching to fuzzy number matching is an improvement to the Sunday algorithm. The quantification of the road condition is innovatively integrated into the neural network. At present, this kind of feature is new to the estimation process, and our experiment proved that the effect is good. To quickly estimate the SOC under different driving conditions, the same network was used to predict the data of different road conditions. In addition, a strategy is proposed for SOC estimation under unknown road conditions, which improves the estimation accuracy. Studies have shown that the model used in the experiment is more accurate than other machine learning models. This model assures prediction accuracy, reliability, and timeliness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Safety of Lithium-Ion Batteries)
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29 pages, 16314 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Model-Based and Sensor-Based Detection of Thermal Runaway in Li-Ion Battery Modules for Automotive Application
by Jacob Klink, André Hebenbrock, Jens Grabow, Nury Orazov, Ulf Nylén, Ralf Benger and Hans-Peter Beck
Batteries 2022, 8(4), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8040034 - 12 Apr 2022
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 5952
Abstract
In recent years, research on lithium–ion (Li-ion) battery safety and fault detection has become an important topic, providing a broad range of methods for evaluating the cell state based on voltage and temperature measurements. However, other measurement quantities and close-to-application test setups have [...] Read more.
In recent years, research on lithium–ion (Li-ion) battery safety and fault detection has become an important topic, providing a broad range of methods for evaluating the cell state based on voltage and temperature measurements. However, other measurement quantities and close-to-application test setups have only been sparsely considered, and there has been no comparison in between methods. In this work, the feasibility of a multi-sensor setup for the detection of Thermal Runaway failure of automotive-size Li-ion battery modules have been investigated in comparison to a model-based approach. For experimental validation, Thermal Runaway tests were conducted in a close-to-application configuration of module and battery case—triggered by external heating with two different heating rates. By two repetitions of each experiment, a high accordance of characteristics and results has been achieved and the signal feasibility for fault detection has been discussed. The model-based method, that had previously been published, recognised the thermal fault in the fastest way—significantly prior to the required 5 min pre-warning time. This requirement was also achieved with smoke and gas sensors in most test runs. Additional criteria for evaluating detection approaches besides detection time have been discussed to provide a good starting point for choosing a suitable approach that is dependent on application defined requirements, e.g., acceptable complexity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Safety of Lithium-Ion Batteries)
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17 pages, 9518 KiB  
Article
Optimized Nail for Penetration Test on Lithium-Ion Cells and Its Utilization for the Validation of a Multilayer Electro-Thermal Model
by Luigi Aiello, Gregor Gstrein, Simon Erker, Bernhard Kaltenegger, Christian Ellersdorfer and Wolfgang Sinz
Batteries 2022, 8(4), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8040032 - 1 Apr 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 5753
Abstract
Nail penetration is one of the most critical scenarios for a lithium-ion cell: it involves the superposition of electrical, thermal and mechanical abusive loads. When an electrically conductive nail is introduced into the active layers of a lithium-ion cell, an electric short circuit [...] Read more.
Nail penetration is one of the most critical scenarios for a lithium-ion cell: it involves the superposition of electrical, thermal and mechanical abusive loads. When an electrically conductive nail is introduced into the active layers of a lithium-ion cell, an electric short circuit takes place between the conductive components (electrodes and current collectors). Hence, for this load case, electro-thermal modeling must be performed considering each and every layer of the cell in order to predict the electric quantities and the cell temperature (with numerical models). When standard conic nails are used, as is typical for this class of tests, the electrical contact between conductive components and the nail itself suffers of poor reproducibility mainly due to the separator that interposes between the electrically conductive components. This phenomenon makes it difficult to validate electro-thermal models, since the electrical contact between nail and lithium-ion cell parts cannot be safely determined. In this work, an alternative nail with an optimized ratio between the external surface and volume is presented to overcome this issue. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the designed nail, five tests (with the same conditions) were conducted on five commercial lithium-ion pouch cells, monitoring the tabs voltage and surface temperature. In all tests, thermal runaway was reached within 30 s and the tabs voltage showed comparable behavior, indicating that the short circuit values for all five repetitions were similar. The investigation included the implementation of a detailed layers model to demonstrate how the validation of such model would be possible with the novel data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Safety of Lithium-Ion Batteries)
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8 pages, 2274 KiB  
Article
Multi-Layered Numerical Model Development of a Standard Cylindrical Lithium-Ion Battery for the Impact Test
by Young Ju Ahn, Yeon-Seung Lee and Jin-Rae Cho
Energies 2022, 15(7), 2509; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15072509 - 29 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2269
Abstract
For safety issues in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), international standards and regulations for various abusive environments have been developed, and UL1642 in Underwriters Laboratories (UL) currently covers electrical, mechanical, environmental, and fire exposure tests. An impact test is one of mechanical abuse tests in [...] Read more.
For safety issues in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), international standards and regulations for various abusive environments have been developed, and UL1642 in Underwriters Laboratories (UL) currently covers electrical, mechanical, environmental, and fire exposure tests. An impact test is one of mechanical abuse tests in UL1642, which aims to determine the safe prevention of fire or explosion. As the energy density of a lithium-ion battery is continuously increasing, it is difficult to pass the regulation. Therefore, it is necessary to predict failure mode due to an internal short circuit in developing high-capacity cells. For a sudden and measured mechanical force, we speculate that damage to a separator consisting of LIBs makes the battery experience an exothermic phenomenon due to an internal short circuit because a separator is a key component for preventing the electrical contact between two electrodes. Therefore, if we can find mechanical stresses of each component in LIBs, we can evaluate whether each component is severely damaged or not. In the present study, we propose a finite element model consisting of a multi-layered structure, which will permit us to assess the possible onset location of the short circuit, and to predict the sequence of failure at a cell level. We applied the proposed method to a cylindrical cell, and the accuracy of the model was verified through the comparison of the experiment results. Additionally, simulation results showed that it is possible to track mechanical stress variations of each component progressively. Furthermore, we performed the numerical experiment evaluating the thickness effect of a center-pin. We expect the proposed finite element model to be used in order to devise cell level abuse-tolerant design from a mechanical point of view before conducting mechanical abuse tests as part of the product development process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Safety of Lithium-Ion Batteries)
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24 pages, 9186 KiB  
Article
Performance Comparison of Long Short-Term Memory and a Temporal Convolutional Network for State of Health Estimation of a Lithium-Ion Battery using Its Charging Characteristics
by Jikai Bi, Jae-Cheon Lee and Hao Liu
Energies 2022, 15(7), 2448; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15072448 - 26 Mar 2022
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 2705
Abstract
The market for eco-friendly batteries is increasing owing to population growth, environmental pollution, and energy crises. The widespread application of lithium-ion batteries necessitates their state of health (SOH) estimation, which is a popular and difficult area of research. In general, the capacity of [...] Read more.
The market for eco-friendly batteries is increasing owing to population growth, environmental pollution, and energy crises. The widespread application of lithium-ion batteries necessitates their state of health (SOH) estimation, which is a popular and difficult area of research. In general, the capacity of a battery is selected as a direct health factor to characterize the degradation state of the battery’s SOH. However, it is difficult to directly measure the actual capacity of a battery. Therefore, this study extracted three features from the current, voltage, and internal resistance of a lithium-ion battery during its charging–discharging process to estimate its SOH. A battery-accelerated aging test system was designed to obtain time series battery degradation data. A performance comparison of lithium-ion battery SOH fitting results was conducted for two different deep learning architectures, a long short-term memory (LSTM) network and temporal convolution network (TCN), which are time series deep learning networks based on a recurrent neural network (RNN) and convolutional neural network (CNN), respectively. The results showed that the proposed method has high prediction accuracy, while the performance of the TCN was 3% better than that of the LSTM regarding the average maximum relative error in SOH estimation of a lithium-ion battery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Safety of Lithium-Ion Batteries)
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16 pages, 5925 KiB  
Article
An Electrothermal Model to Predict Thermal Characteristics of Lithium-Ion Battery under Overcharge Condition
by Charles Mohamed Hamisi, Pius Victor Chombo, Yossapong Laoonual and Somchai Wongwises
Energies 2022, 15(6), 2284; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15062284 - 21 Mar 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2482
Abstract
Understanding the thermal characteristics of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) under various operating situations is critical for improving battery safety. Although the application of LIBs in the real world is mostly transient, many previous models consider the phenomenon of the constant state. This study examines [...] Read more.
Understanding the thermal characteristics of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) under various operating situations is critical for improving battery safety. Although the application of LIBs in the real world is mostly transient, many previous models consider the phenomenon of the constant state. This study examines thermal behavior by developing a 2D electrothermal model to predict the thermal behavior of LIBs with overcharge abuse in high thermal conditions. The 18,650 cylindrical LiCoO2 graphite is investigated in a thermally controlled chamber at 35, 50, and 60 °C with a K-type thermocouple mounted on the LIB surface under charging rates of 1C, 2C, and 3C to acquire quantitative data regarding the thermal response of LIBs. Maximum critical temperatures are found at 62.6 to 78.9 °C, 66.4 to 83.5 °C, and 72.1 to 86.6 °C at 1C, 2C, and 3C, respectively. Comparing simulation analysis and experimental conditions, the highest relative error of 1.71% was obtained. It was found that relative errors increase as the charging rate increases. Moreover, increasing the charging current and surrounding temperature significantly increases the battery’s surface temperature. Furthermore, battery heat distribution appears almost uniform and tends to increase towards the positive terminal because cathode material is highly resistant. In addition, increasing the LIB heat transfer coefficient could positively improve the battery performance by eventually curbing the rise in battery temperature and reducing non-uniformity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Safety of Lithium-Ion Batteries)
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20 pages, 13695 KiB  
Article
A Cost-Effective Passive/Active Hybrid Equalizer Circuit Design
by Chein-Chung Sun, Chun-Hung Chou, Yu-Liang Lin and Yu-Hua Huang
Energies 2022, 15(6), 2000; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15062000 - 9 Mar 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3474
Abstract
This paper proposes a novel hybrid equalizer circuit (HEC) for a battery management system (BMS) to implement the passive HEC (P-HEC), active HEC (A-HEC), or active/passive (AP-HEC) with the same equalizer circuit architecture. The advantages of an HEC are that it is simple, [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a novel hybrid equalizer circuit (HEC) for a battery management system (BMS) to implement the passive HEC (P-HEC), active HEC (A-HEC), or active/passive (AP-HEC) with the same equalizer circuit architecture. The advantages of an HEC are that it is simple, cost-effective, highly energy efficient, and fail safe. The P-HEC can further use a cooling fan or heater instead of a conventional resistor as a power dissipation element to convert the energy of the waste heat generated by the resistor to adjust the battery temperature. Even if the P-HEC uses the resistor to consume energy as in conventional methods, the P-HEC still dramatically improves the component lifetime and reliability of the BMS because the waste heat generated by the equalizer resistor is outside of the BMS board. Three significant advantages of an A-HEC are its (1) low cost, (2) small volume, and (3) higher energy efficiency than the conventional active equalizer circuits (AECs). In the HEC design, the MOSFETs of the switch array do not need high-speed switching to transfer energy as conventional AECs with DC/DC converter architecture because the A-HEC uses an isolated battery charger to charge the string cell. Therefore, the switch array is equal to a cell selector with a simple ON/OFF function. In summary, the HEC provides a small volume, cost-effective, high efficiency, and fail-safe equalizer circuit design to satisfy cell balancing demands for all kinds of electric vehicles (EVs) and energy storage systems (ESSs). Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Safety of Lithium-Ion Batteries)
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14 pages, 27176 KiB  
Article
Online Cell Screening Algorithm for Maximum Peak Current Estimation of a Lithium-Ion Battery Pack for Electric Vehicles
by Tae-Won Noh, Junghoon Ahn and Byoung Kuk Lee
Energies 2022, 15(4), 1423; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15041423 - 15 Feb 2022
Viewed by 1778
Abstract
In this study, an online cell screening algorithm is proposed to estimate the maximum peak current considering the cell inconsistencies in battery packs for electric vehicles. Based on the equivalent circuit model, the maximum peak current is mathematically defined, and the inconsistency parameters [...] Read more.
In this study, an online cell screening algorithm is proposed to estimate the maximum peak current considering the cell inconsistencies in battery packs for electric vehicles. Based on the equivalent circuit model, the maximum peak current is mathematically defined, and the inconsistency parameters affecting the maximum peak current are analyzed. The proposed algorithm compares the inconsistency parameters of each cell and subsequently selects a cell or a group of cells whose voltage can exceed the allowable voltage range. The maximum peak current is determined based on the selected cells, while ensuring that all the cells are charged and discharged within the allowable voltage range. The feasibility and superiority of the proposed algorithm are verified through an experiment conducted on a commercially manufactured battery pack for electric vehicles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Safety of Lithium-Ion Batteries)
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12 pages, 2736 KiB  
Article
Prediction of Internal Circuit and Mechanical-Electrical-Thermal Response of Lithium-Ion Battery Cell with Mechanical-Thermal Coupled Analysis
by Jaemin Moon, HyukKyun Chang, Jun Lee and Chang-Wan Kim
Energies 2022, 15(3), 929; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15030929 - 27 Jan 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2742
Abstract
The lithium-ion battery (LIB) is widely used as an energy storage device for electric vehicles (EV) due to its advantages, such as high energy density and long lifespan. However, LIB for EV can be exposed to mechanical abuse such as vehicle collision, which [...] Read more.
The lithium-ion battery (LIB) is widely used as an energy storage device for electric vehicles (EV) due to its advantages, such as high energy density and long lifespan. However, LIB for EV can be exposed to mechanical abuse such as vehicle collision, which causes thermal runaway due to extreme mechanical deformation. Therefore, it is necessary to predict the internal short circuit (ISC) of the LIB cell under mechanical loading conditions and to analyze the mechanical, electrical, and thermal responses after ISC. In this paper, the starting point of ISC is predicted using a two-way mechanical-electrical-thermal coupled analysis method. At the same time, mechanical responses, along with the effects of the ISC area on electrical and thermal responses of the LIB cell, were analyzed. ISC was defined as failure of the separator. The separator’s failure was calculated considering material nonlinearity. Considering the indentation test results, the finite element method (FEM) analysis could accurately predict the starting point of ISC. In the order of cylindrical, hemispherical, and conical indenters, ISC occurred quickly, and the ISC area was large. The larger the ISC area, the greater the voltage drop, current, and joule heat, and the higher the maximum temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Safety of Lithium-Ion Batteries)
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