Anode and Cathode Materials for Lithium-Ion and Sodium-Ion Batteries

A special issue of Batteries (ISSN 2313-0105). This special issue belongs to the section "Battery Materials and Interfaces: Anode, Cathode, Separators and Electrolytes or Others".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 February 2023) | Viewed by 41940

Special Issue Editor


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
International College of Semiconductor Technology, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan
Interests: energy storage; batteries; nanomaterials; graphene applications
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The journal “Batteries” is inviting submissions and article proposals for an upcoming Special Issue on Li-ion/Na-ion battery research. The 2019 Nobel Prize in Chemistry recognized the significance of Li-ion battery technologies, and the commercialization of Na-ion batteries has risen abruptly due to their unique performance and the abundance of raw materials. Topics should include, but are not limited to, the synthesis of anode and cathode materials, innovative electrode materials structures, high-performance batteries, low-cost electrode materials selection/production, etc. Battery performance improvements such as energy density, power density, cycle life, cost, operation temperatures, and safety are within the scope of this Special Issue. We welcome contributions from researchers and experts working in the field of energy storage applications.

Prof. Dr. Yu-Sheng Su
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Batteries is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Li-ion batteries
  • Na-ion batteries
  • Anode materials
  • Cathode materials
  • New synthesis methods
  • Novel materials structures
  • High energy density
  • High power density
  • Long cycle life
  • Low cost
  • Wide temperature range
  • Safety

Published Papers (8 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

11 pages, 18562 KiB  
Article
Textile PAN Carbon Fibers Cathode for High-Voltage Seawater Batteries
by João Ferreira, Tiago Salgueiro, Jossano Marcuzzo, Eduardo Arruda, João Ventura and Joana Oliveira
Batteries 2023, 9(3), 178; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries9030178 - 18 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2262
Abstract
Rechargeable sodium seawater batteries (SWBs) are gaining the world leadership of high voltage energy storage devices for marine environments. With natural seawater as the source of active material, SWBs can be supplied infinitely with Na cations. Because of their open-structured cathode, the cathode [...] Read more.
Rechargeable sodium seawater batteries (SWBs) are gaining the world leadership of high voltage energy storage devices for marine environments. With natural seawater as the source of active material, SWBs can be supplied infinitely with Na cations. Because of their open-structured cathode, the cathode material’s specific surface area, porosity and wettability need to be optimized to achieve a high-performance cell. In this work, activated textile polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers were used to produce an activated carbon felt with a facile manufacturing process. The easy and low-cost production of these fibers makes them excellent candidates for energy storage applications involving oxygen evolution and reduction reactions. The electrochemical performance results of the fabricated activated PAN fibers and of commercial carbon felts were measured and compared, being characterized through galvanostic charge discharge cycles, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetries. A performance improvement was observed with PAN activated carbon felt as half cell with a capacitance increase (about 9000%), and as full cell with a smaller voltage gap (about 10%) and increased gravimetric capacitance (about 260%) when compared to the commercial carbon felt. The successful implementation of PAN activated carbon felts in an aqueous environment opens new paths toward high performance seawater battery’s cathodes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anode and Cathode Materials for Lithium-Ion and Sodium-Ion Batteries)
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 2744 KiB  
Article
Effect of Lithium Salt Concentration on Materials Characteristics and Electrochemical Performance of Hybrid Inorganic/Polymer Solid Electrolyte for Solid-State Lithium-Ion Batteries
by Debabrata Mohanty, Shu-Yu Chen and I-Ming Hung
Batteries 2022, 8(10), 173; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8100173 - 9 Oct 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3707
Abstract
Lithium-ion batteries are popular energy storage devices due to their high energy density. Solid electrolytes appear to be a potential replacement for flammable liquid electrolytes in lithium batteries. This inorganic/hybrid solid electrolyte is a composite of lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) salt, (poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoro propylene) [...] Read more.
Lithium-ion batteries are popular energy storage devices due to their high energy density. Solid electrolytes appear to be a potential replacement for flammable liquid electrolytes in lithium batteries. This inorganic/hybrid solid electrolyte is a composite of lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) salt, (poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoro propylene) (PVDF-HFP) polymer and sodium superionic conductor (NASICON)-type Li1+xAlxTi2−x(PO4)3 (LATP) ceramic powder. The structure, morphology, mechanical behavior, and electrochemical performance of this composite solid electrolyte, based on various amounts of LiTFSI, were investigated. The lithium-ion transfer and conductivity increased as the LiTFSI lithium salt concentration increased. However, the mechanical strength apparently decreased once the percentage of LITFSI was over 60%. The hybrid electrolyte with 60% LiTFSI content showed high ionic conductivity of 2.14 × 10−4 S cm−1, a wide electrochemical stability window (3–6 V) and good electrochemical stability. The capacity of the Li|60% LiTFSI/PVDF-HFP/LATP| LiFePO4 solid-state lithium-metal battery was 103.8 mA h g−1 at 0.1 C, with a high-capacity retention of 98% after 50 cycles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anode and Cathode Materials for Lithium-Ion and Sodium-Ion Batteries)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

15 pages, 4376 KiB  
Article
Microwave-Assisted Hydrothermal Synthesis of Space Fillers to Enhance Volumetric Energy Density of NMC811 Cathode Material for Li-Ion Batteries
by Irina Skvortsova, Aleksandra A. Savina, Elena D. Orlova, Vladislav S. Gorshkov and Artem M. Abakumov
Batteries 2022, 8(7), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8070067 - 6 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3470
Abstract
Ni-rich layered transition metal (TM) oxides are considered to be the most promising cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries because of their high electrochemical capacity, high Li+ ion (de)intercalation potential, and low cobalt content. However, such materials possess several drawbacks including relatively low [...] Read more.
Ni-rich layered transition metal (TM) oxides are considered to be the most promising cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries because of their high electrochemical capacity, high Li+ ion (de)intercalation potential, and low cobalt content. However, such materials possess several drawbacks including relatively low volumetric energy density caused by insufficient values of tap density. Herein, we demonstrate an exceptionally rapid and energy-saving synthesis of the mixed hydroxide precursor for the LiNi0.8Mn0.1Co0.1O2 (NMC811) positive electrode (cathode) material through a microwave-assisted hydrothermal technique. The obtained material further serves as a space-filler to fill the voids between spherical agglomerates in the cathode powder prepared via a conventional co-precipitation technique boosting the tap density of the resulting mixed NMC811 by 30% up to 2.9 g/cm3. Owing to increased tap density, the volumetric energy density of the composite cathode exceeds 2100 mWh/cm3 vs. 1690 mWh/cm3 for co-precipitated samples. The crystal structure of the obtained materials was scrutinized by powder X-ray diffraction and high angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM); the cation composition and homogeneity of TM spatial distribution were investigated using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in a STEM mode (STEM-EDX). Well-crystallized NMC811 with a relatively low degree of anti-site disorder and homogeneous TM distribution in a combination with the co-precipitated material delivers a reversible discharge capacity as high as ~200 mAh/g at 0.1C current density and capacity retention of 78% after 300 charge/discharge cycles (current density 1C) within the voltage region of 2.7–4.3 V vs. Li/Li+. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anode and Cathode Materials for Lithium-Ion and Sodium-Ion Batteries)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 5215 KiB  
Article
Effect of Mechanical Activation and Carbon Coating on Electrochemistry of TiNb2O7 Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries
by Nina V. Kosova and Dmitry Z. Tsydypylov
Batteries 2022, 8(6), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8060052 - 1 Jun 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3164
Abstract
TiNb2O7 anode material with a Wadsley–Roth crystallographic shear structure was prepared by solid-state synthesis at a relatively low temperature (1000 °C) and a short calcination time (4 h) using preliminary mechanical activation of the reagent mixture. The as-prepared final product [...] Read more.
TiNb2O7 anode material with a Wadsley–Roth crystallographic shear structure was prepared by solid-state synthesis at a relatively low temperature (1000 °C) and a short calcination time (4 h) using preliminary mechanical activation of the reagent mixture. The as-prepared final product was then ball milled in a planetary mill with and without carbon black. The crystal structure and morphology of the samples were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Electrochemical performance was studied in a galvanostatic mode in varied voltage intervals and at different cycling rates in combination with in situ electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. The resistance measured using in situ EIS had the highest values at the end of the discharge and the lowest when charging. The lithium diffusion coefficient, determined by galvanostatic intermittent titration technique (GITT), in samples milled with and without carbon black was an order of magnitude higher than that for the pristine sample. It was shown that improved electrochemical performance of the carbon composite TiNb2O7/C (reversible capacity of 250 mAh g−1 at C/10 with Coulomb efficiency of ~99%) was associated with improved conductivity due to the formation of a conductive carbon matrix and uniform distribution of submicron particles by size. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anode and Cathode Materials for Lithium-Ion and Sodium-Ion Batteries)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

18 pages, 4431 KiB  
Article
A New Charging Algorithm for Li-Ion Battery Packs Based on Artificial Neural Networks
by João P. D. Faria, Ricardo L. Velho, Maria R. A. Calado, José A. N. Pombo, João B. L. Fermeiro and Sílvio J. P. S. Mariano
Batteries 2022, 8(2), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8020018 - 15 Feb 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 6426
Abstract
This paper shows the potential of artificial intelligence (AI) in Li-ion battery charging methods by introducing a new charging algorithm based on artificial neural networks (ANNs). The proposed charging algorithm is able to find an optimized charging current profile, through ANNs, considering the [...] Read more.
This paper shows the potential of artificial intelligence (AI) in Li-ion battery charging methods by introducing a new charging algorithm based on artificial neural networks (ANNs). The proposed charging algorithm is able to find an optimized charging current profile, through ANNs, considering the real-time conditions of the Li-ion batteries. To test and validate the proposed approach, a low-cost battery management system (BMS) was developed, supporting up to 168 cells in series and n cells in parallel. When compared with the multistage charging algorithm, the proposed charging algorithm revealed a shorter charging time (7.85%) and a smaller temperature increase (32.95%). Thus, the results show that the proposed algorithm based on AI is able to effectively charge and balance batteries and can be regarded as a subject of interest for future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anode and Cathode Materials for Lithium-Ion and Sodium-Ion Batteries)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

28 pages, 11641 KiB  
Review
Boron Nitride-Based Nanomaterials: Synthesis and Application in Rechargeable Batteries
by Srikanth Mateti, Irin Sultana, Ying Chen, Manikantan Kota and Md Mokhlesur Rahman
Batteries 2023, 9(7), 344; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries9070344 - 27 Jun 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3035
Abstract
Conventional boron nitride material is a resistant refractory compound of boron and nitrogen with various crystalline forms. The hexagonal form, which corresponds to graphite, is used as a lubricant and an additive to cosmetic products because of its higher stability and softness. Recently, [...] Read more.
Conventional boron nitride material is a resistant refractory compound of boron and nitrogen with various crystalline forms. The hexagonal form, which corresponds to graphite, is used as a lubricant and an additive to cosmetic products because of its higher stability and softness. Recently, various nanostructured boron nitride materials, including nanosheets, nanotubes, nanoparticles, and nanocomposites with diverse new properties, have been achieved through the development of advanced synthesis techniques as well as a deeper understanding of the properties and related applications. As nanostructured boron nitride materials exhibit high chemical, thermal and mechanical stability, the incorporation of nanostructured boron nitride materials into the key components (electrolytes, separators, and electrodes) of electrochemical systems can alleviate various inherent problems. This review article systematically summarizes the integration of nanostructured boron nitride into electrolytes, separators, and electrodes of lithium-ion, sodium-ion, and lithium-sulfur batteries. Various structures, synthesis methods, properties, and electrochemical performance of nanostructured boron nitride incorporated electrolytes, separators, and electrodes in rechargeable batteries are discussed. The challenges and possibilities for future application of boron nitride-based nanomaterials in electrochemical energy storage systems are also highlighted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anode and Cathode Materials for Lithium-Ion and Sodium-Ion Batteries)
Show Figures

Figure 1

25 pages, 5184 KiB  
Review
Recent Development in Carbon-LiFePO4 Cathodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries: A Mini Review
by Brindha Ramasubramanian, Subramanian Sundarrajan, Vijila Chellappan, M. V. Reddy, Seeram Ramakrishna and Karim Zaghib
Batteries 2022, 8(10), 133; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8100133 - 21 Sep 2022
Cited by 49 | Viewed by 14447
Abstract
Li-ion batteries are in demand due to technological advancements in the electronics industry; thus, expanding the battery supply chain and improving its electrochemical performance is crucial. Carbon materials are used to increase the cyclic stability and specific capacity of cathode materials, which are [...] Read more.
Li-ion batteries are in demand due to technological advancements in the electronics industry; thus, expanding the battery supply chain and improving its electrochemical performance is crucial. Carbon materials are used to increase the cyclic stability and specific capacity of cathode materials, which are essential to batteries. LiFePO4 (LFP) cathodes are generally safe and have a long cycle life. However, the common LFP cathode has a low inherent conductivity, and adding a carbon nanomaterial significantly influences how well it performs electrochemically. Therefore, the major focus of this review is on the importance, current developments, and future possibilities of carbon-LFP (C-LFP) cathodes in LIBs. Recent research on the impacts of different carbon sizes, LFP’s shape, diffusion, bonding, additives, dopants, and surface functionalization was reviewed. Overall, with suitable modifications, C-LFP cathodes are expected to bring many benefits to the energy storage sector in the forthcoming years. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anode and Cathode Materials for Lithium-Ion and Sodium-Ion Batteries)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

16 pages, 3260 KiB  
Review
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon-Enabled Wet Chemical Prelithiation and Presodiation for Batteries
by Yu-Sheng Su and Jeng-Kuei Chang
Batteries 2022, 8(8), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8080099 - 19 Aug 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3616
Abstract
The current mainstream energy storage systems are in urgent need of performance improvements to meet novel application requirements. In pursuit of a higher energy density in Li-ion and Na-ion batteries, the conventional electrode materials have reached the upper limit of their theoretical specific [...] Read more.
The current mainstream energy storage systems are in urgent need of performance improvements to meet novel application requirements. In pursuit of a higher energy density in Li-ion and Na-ion batteries, the conventional electrode materials have reached the upper limit of their theoretical specific capacities. Hence, facile methods of reducing irreversible lithium-ion/sodium-ion loss are developed to further boost the battery energy density. Herein, we review studies that use polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons for wet chemical prelithiation and presodiation. The molecular structures of arenes and solvents used for solution-based prelithiation/presodiation have a substantial impact on the prelithiation/presodiation power and effectiveness. Multiple reports have already shown excellent initial Coulombic efficiency and streamlined processes by using this type of wet chemical prelithiation/presodiation strategy. This review article will cover how to select appropriate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon prelithiation/presodiation reagents for various materials/electrodes and provide possible directions and guidelines for future works. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anode and Cathode Materials for Lithium-Ion and Sodium-Ion Batteries)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop