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Toxics, Volume 11, Issue 12 (December 2023) – 82 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), encompassing legacy compounds such as PFOS, PFOA, PFNA, and PFHxS, are known for inducing hepatotoxicity. Emerging alternatives and a byproduct (HFPO-DA, HFPO4, HFPO-TA, F-53B, 6:2 FTSA, 6:2 FTCA, Nafion BP2) raise environmental concerns. In this comparative hepatic-toxicogenomics study, we found significant molecular overlap between legacy and alternative PFAS, with only Nafion BP2, 6:2 FTSA, and 6:2 FTCA showing limited PPARα activation. Predictive biomarkers indicated CAR activation by most PFAS, while specific suppression and activation patterns were observed in STAT5b, NRF2, and SREBP. No clear correlation was apparent with carbon chain length, head group type, or ether linkages, emphasizing the need for comprehensive risk assessment. View this paper
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13 pages, 5299 KiB  
Article
Ultrastructural Changes in the Midgut of Brazilian Native Stingless Bee Melipona scutellaris Exposed to Fungicide Pyraclostrobin
Toxics 2023, 11(12), 1028; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11121028 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 923
Abstract
Melipona scutellaris is a Brazilian stingless bee that is important for pollinating wild flora and agriculture crops. Fungicides have been widely used in agriculture, and floral residues can affect forager bees. The goal of our study was to evaluate the effects of sublethal [...] Read more.
Melipona scutellaris is a Brazilian stingless bee that is important for pollinating wild flora and agriculture crops. Fungicides have been widely used in agriculture, and floral residues can affect forager bees. The goal of our study was to evaluate the effects of sublethal concentrations of pyraclostrobin on the midgut ultrastructure of M. scutellaris forager workers. The bees were collected from three non-parental colonies and kept under laboratory conditions. The bees were orally exposed continuously for five days to pyraclostrobin in syrup at concentrations of 0.125 ng a.i./µL (FG1) and 0.005 ng a.i./µL (FG2). The control bees (CTL) were fed a no-fungicide sucrose solution, and the acetone solvent control bees (CAC) received a sucrose solution containing acetone. At the end of the exposure, the midguts were sampled, fixed in Karnovsky solution, and routinely processed for transmission electron microscopy. Ultrastructural analysis demonstrated that both the fungicide concentrations altered the midgut, such as cytoplasmic vacuolization (more intense in FG1), the presence of an atypical nuclear morphology, and slightly dilated mitochondrial cristae in the bees from the FG1 and FG2 groups (both more intense in FG1). Additionally, there was an alteration in the ultrastructure of the spherocrystals (FG1), which could be the result of cellular metabolism impairment and the excretion of toxic metabolites in the digestive cells as a response to fungicide exposure. The results indicate that ingested pyraclostrobin induced cytotoxic effects in the midgut of native stingless bees. These cellular ultrastructural responses of the midgut are a prelude to a reduced survival rate, as observed in previous studies. Full article
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18 pages, 6376 KiB  
Article
Structural Malformations in the Neonatal Rat Brain Accompany Developmental Exposure to Ammonium Perchlorate
Toxics 2023, 11(12), 1027; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11121027 - 18 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 874
Abstract
Environmental contaminants are often flagged as thyroid system disruptors due to their actions to reduce serum thyroxine (T4) in rodent models. The presence of a periventricular heterotopia (PVH), a brain malformation resulting from T4 insufficiency, has been described in response to T4 decrements [...] Read more.
Environmental contaminants are often flagged as thyroid system disruptors due to their actions to reduce serum thyroxine (T4) in rodent models. The presence of a periventricular heterotopia (PVH), a brain malformation resulting from T4 insufficiency, has been described in response to T4 decrements induced by pharmaceuticals that reduce the hormone synthesis enzyme thyroperoxidase. In this report, we extend these observations to the environmental contaminant perchlorate, an agent that interferes with thyroid status by inhibiting iodine uptake into the thyroid gland. Pregnant rat dams were administered perchlorate in their drinking water (0, 30, 100, 300, 1000 ppm) from gestational day (GD) 6 until the weaning of pups on postnatal day (PN) 21. Serum T4 was reduced in dams and fetuses in late gestation and remained lower in lactating dams. Pup serum and brain T4, however, were not reduced beyond PN0, and small PVHs were evident in the brains of offspring when assessed on PN14. To emulate the developmental time window of the brain in humans, a second study was conducted in which pups from perchlorate-exposed dams were administered perchlorate orally from PN0 to PN6. This treatment reduced serum and brain T4 in the pup and resulted in large PVH. A third study extended the period of serum and brain TH suppression in pups by coupling maternal perchlorate exposure with maternal dietary iodine deficiency (ID). No PVHs were evident in the pups from ID dams, small PVHs were observed in the offspring of dams exposed to 300 ppm of perchlorate, and very large PVHs were present in the brains of pups born to dams receiving ID and perchlorate. These findings underscore the importance of the inclusion of serum hormone profiles in pregnant dams and fetuses in in vivo screens for thyroid-system-disrupting chemicals and indicate that chemical-induced decreases in fetal rat serum that resolve in the immediate postnatal period may still harbor considerable concern for neurodevelopment in humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Environmental Pollutants on Neurodevelopment)
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16 pages, 4871 KiB  
Article
TGF-β Regulates m6A RNA Methylation after PM2.5 Exposure
Toxics 2023, 11(12), 1026; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11121026 - 16 Dec 2023
Viewed by 935
Abstract
PM2.5 exposure leads to a variety of respiratory diseases, including pulmonary fibrosis, metastatic lung cancer, etc. Exposure to PM2.5 results in the alteration of epigenetic modification. M6A RNA methylation is an essential epigenetic modification that regulates gene expression at [...] Read more.
PM2.5 exposure leads to a variety of respiratory diseases, including pulmonary fibrosis, metastatic lung cancer, etc. Exposure to PM2.5 results in the alteration of epigenetic modification. M6A RNA methylation is an essential epigenetic modification that regulates gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Our previous study found that PM2.5 exposure up-regulated m6A RNA methylation and TGF-β expression level in the lung, but the mechanisms and pathways of PM2.5 regulation of m6A RNA methylation are still unclear. Moreover, a previous study reported that the TGF-β signal pathway could regulate m6A RNA methylation. Based on this evidence, we investigate the role of the TGF-β signaling pathway in PM2.5-induced m6A RNA methylation with the A549 cell line. Our results showed that PM2.5 could induce upregulation of m6A RNA methylation, accompanied by increased expression of TGF-β, Smad3, methyltransferase-like 3 (METTL3), methyltransferase-like 14 (METTL14). Furthermore, these alterations induced by PM2.5 exposure could be reversed by treatment with TGF-β inhibitor. Therefore, we speculated that the TGF-β signal pathway plays an indispensable role in regulating m6A RNA methylation after PM2.5 exposure. Our study demonstrates that PM2.5 exposure influences m6A RNA methylation by inducing the alteration of the TGF-β signal pathway, which could be an essential mechanism for lung-related diseases induced by PM2.5 exposure. Full article
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16 pages, 10518 KiB  
Article
Characteristics of Soil Arsenic Contamination and the Potential of Pioneer Plants for Arsenic Remediation in Gold Mine Tailings
Toxics 2023, 11(12), 1025; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11121025 - 16 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 828
Abstract
Arsenic (As) contamination of gold mine tailings poses major threats to the natural environment and human health, necessitating adequate management measures. To investigate the soil As contamination level and the potential of pioneer plants for As remediation, the soil and plants of an [...] Read more.
Arsenic (As) contamination of gold mine tailings poses major threats to the natural environment and human health, necessitating adequate management measures. To investigate the soil As contamination level and the potential of pioneer plants for As remediation, the soil and plants of an abandoned gold mine tailings in the Qinling Mountains were analyzed. The level of As contamination was assessed using the single-factor pollution index and potential ecological risk index, and its bioeffectiveness was analyzed. The enrichment capability of plants was investigated using the bioaccumulation factor and translocation factor. Redundancy analysis and partial least squares regression were employed to investigate factors affecting the distribution of As in soil and plants. The results show that As in soil mainly existed in the difficult-available state, with serious contamination and extremely high ecological risk. Lythrum salicaria L. and Equisetum ramosissimum Desf. are the preferred plants for remediation of As contamination through screening pioneer plants. Soil total nitrogen (STN) and available phosphorus (SAP) are the main factors influencing the characteristics of As distribution in the soil. Soil available potassium (SAK), water content (SWC), and SAP promote the accumulation of As by plants. This study provides plant materials and new ideas for mine ecological remediation. Full article
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16 pages, 5711 KiB  
Article
Distribution, Transfer, and Health Risk of Organochlorine Pesticides in Soil and Water of the Huangshui River Basin
Toxics 2023, 11(12), 1024; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11121024 - 15 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 930
Abstract
The potential negative impacts of organochlorine pesticides on the environment and human health continue to receive attention. In order to study the spatial distribution characteristics of organochlorine pesticides in the inland alpine region, researchers collected soil and water samples in the Huangshui River [...] Read more.
The potential negative impacts of organochlorine pesticides on the environment and human health continue to receive attention. In order to study the spatial distribution characteristics of organochlorine pesticides in the inland alpine region, researchers collected soil and water samples in the Huangshui River Basin of the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau and tested them for organochlorine pesticide residues represented by dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and hexachlorohexane (HCH). The study identified the sources of OCPs by component analysis. We also constructed the LEVEL III model, applicable to the Huangshui River Basin, and used it to study the migration patterns of OCPs in various environmental media. OCPs were detected at low levels in the study area environment. The results of the OCPs source analysis show that there are both historical residuals and new sources in the region. Residual DDTs may originate from the mixture of technical DDTs and dicofol, and HCHs may originate from lindane or technical HCH. DDTs are mainly stored in soil, the input and output pathways are mainly atmospheric advection input and output, and its transport behavior in the environment is mainly air–soil exchange. Carcinogens in the study area pose little threat to people exposed to contaminated soil and contaminated water, but the cancer risk to children is greater than to adults. This study is helpful to managers of regional pesticide management and control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ecotoxicology)
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23 pages, 2465 KiB  
Article
Characteristics of Abnormalities in Somatosensory Submodalities Observed in Residents Exposed to Methylmercury
Toxics 2023, 11(12), 1023; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11121023 - 15 Dec 2023
Viewed by 847
Abstract
Hundreds of thousands of people living along the Yatsushiro Sea coast have been exposed to methylmercury from the contaminated water of the Chisso factory in Minamata. The most common neurological disorder caused by methylmercury is somatosensory disturbance, but very few studies have been [...] Read more.
Hundreds of thousands of people living along the Yatsushiro Sea coast have been exposed to methylmercury from the contaminated water of the Chisso factory in Minamata. The most common neurological disorder caused by methylmercury is somatosensory disturbance, but very few studies have been conducted in the world to determine its pathophysiology and origin, including the Japanese cases, which have produced numerous intoxicated individuals. We have already shown in previous studies the body part where the disorder occurs and that its cause is not peripheral nerve damage but damage to the parietal lobes of the cerebrum. We reanalyzed the results of subjective symptoms, neurological findings, and quantitative sensory measurements in 197 residents (63.2 ± 10.7 years old) from contaminated areas exposed to methylmercury from seafood and 130 residents (63.7 ± 9.3 years old) from control areas, the same subjects as in previous studies, to determine the characteristics of somatosensory disturbance in detail. The most commonly affected sensory modalities were superficial peripheral touch and pain in the extremities, followed by two-point discrimination and deep senses, and in the most severe cases, full-body sensory dysfunction and impairment of all sensory submodalities. The severity of sensory submodalities correlated with each other but not with peripheral nerve conduction test indices, further confirming the correctness of our assertion about the responsible foci of sensory disturbance. The health effects of chronic methylmercury toxicosis can be elucidated by a detailed examination of sensory deficits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Environmental Epidemiology)
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16 pages, 3532 KiB  
Article
Enzymatic Stress Responses of Coreius guichenoti to Microplastics with Different Particle Sizes
Toxics 2023, 11(12), 1022; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11121022 - 15 Dec 2023
Viewed by 847
Abstract
The wild population resources of Coreius guichenoti have sharply declined in recent decades, and any negative factors may have a significant impact on their survival. In this study, the enzymatic stress responses of C. guichenoti to 25 and 48 μm polyethylene fragments were [...] Read more.
The wild population resources of Coreius guichenoti have sharply declined in recent decades, and any negative factors may have a significant impact on their survival. In this study, the enzymatic stress responses of C. guichenoti to 25 and 48 μm polyethylene fragments were explored for the first time. This was achieved by evaluating the changes in physiological and biochemical indicators of the species in response to the environmental stimuli of microplastics. In this study, we observed an early stress response in the external tissues of C. guichenoti following exposure to microplastics. The TP content in skin and muscle and the MDA content in skin, gill and muscle initially showed a significant increase. The skin, gill, and muscle exhibited greater stress responses to M5 particles, whereas M3 particles caused a greater response in the intestine and especially the liver. After the removal of microplastic exposure, the stress state of the C. guichenoti would be alleviated in a short period, but it could not fully recover to the pre-exposure level. In summary, microplastics pose a significant threat to C. guichenoti. While their negative effects can be alleviated by the removal of microplastics exposure, full recovery does not occur in a short period. Continuous monitoring of microplastics in natural waters and targeted aquatic ecological restoration are essential to ensure the normal growth and reproduction of the wild population of C. guichenoti. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spotlight on the Ecotoxicological Impacts of Plastic Pollution)
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12 pages, 1567 KiB  
Article
Comparing Ocular Toxicity of Legacy and Alternative Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances in Zebrafish Larvae
Toxics 2023, 11(12), 1021; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11121021 - 14 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 882
Abstract
Studies comparing the ocular toxicity potential between legacy and alternative PFAS are lacking. To address this research gap, zebrafish larvae were exposed to both legacy PFAS (i.e., perfluorooctanesulfonic acid [PFOS] and perfluorooctanoic acid [PFOA]) and their corresponding alternatives (i.e., perfluorobutanesulfonic acid [PFBS] and [...] Read more.
Studies comparing the ocular toxicity potential between legacy and alternative PFAS are lacking. To address this research gap, zebrafish larvae were exposed to both legacy PFAS (i.e., perfluorooctanesulfonic acid [PFOS] and perfluorooctanoic acid [PFOA]) and their corresponding alternatives (i.e., perfluorobutanesulfonic acid [PFBS] and perfluorobutanoic acid [PFBA]). Alterations in their visual behaviors, such as phototactic and optomotor responses (OMR), were assessed at sublethal concentrations. Gene expression variations in visual function-associated pathways were also measured. Visual behavioral assessment revealed that PFOS exposure resulted in concentration-dependent reductions in phototactic responses at 10–1000 μg/L, with PFOA exerting reduction effects only at 100 mg/L. However, their two alternatives had no effect at all tested concentrations. Following an improved contrast-OMR (C-OMR) assessment, PFOS decreased the OMR to a water flow stimulus at 10, 100, and 1000 μg/L. The gene expression analysis revealed that PFOS exposure markedly downregulated most genes involved in the opsins in the photoreceptor and phototransduction cascade, which explains the observed visual behavior changes well. Our findings indicate that PFOS is the most likely PFAS to cause visual toxicity, with PFOA present but less likely, and their substitutes, PFBS and PFBA, cannot be classified as visually toxic to zebrafish. Full article
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15 pages, 329 KiB  
Article
First Report of the Joint Exposure to Glyphosate and Glufosinate of a Male Population in the Province of Córdoba (Argentina)
Toxics 2023, 11(12), 1020; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11121020 - 14 Dec 2023
Viewed by 778
Abstract
Despite potential health implications, data on the presence of Glyphosate (GLY) and other non-GLY herbicides in human matrices remain scarce. This study aimed to develop a simple and cost-effective methodology for detecting and quantifying GLY, its primary biodegradation product; aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA); and [...] Read more.
Despite potential health implications, data on the presence of Glyphosate (GLY) and other non-GLY herbicides in human matrices remain scarce. This study aimed to develop a simple and cost-effective methodology for detecting and quantifying GLY, its primary biodegradation product; aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA); and glufosinate (GLU) in plasma and urine of environmentally and occupationally exposed populations from the province of Córdoba (Argentina). Different alternatives of pre-treatment, derivatization with FMOC-Cl, solid phase extraction, and final sample conditioning steps were evaluated to improve the quantification of the herbicides by a high-performance liquid chromatography system coupled to a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer. Recoveries ranged from 39 to 84% in both matrices, while limits of quantification were 3, 1, and 0.3 ng/mL and 3.6, 5.1, and 0.3 ng/mL for AMPA, GLY, and GLU in plasma and urine, respectively. In plasma samples, GLY was the most frequently detected analyte (32%), followed by GLU (10%). In urine samples, GLU was the most frequently detected herbicide (13%), followed by GLY (6%). No differences between group or matrix correlations were found. This study is the first report of GLU in human biological matrices and should be used to establish baseline values for future surveillance systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The 10th Anniversary of Toxics)
14 pages, 1976 KiB  
Article
Reduction of Outdoor and Indoor PM2.5 Source Contributions via Portable Air Filtration Systems in a Senior Residential Facility in Detroit, Michigan
Toxics 2023, 11(12), 1019; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11121019 - 14 Dec 2023
Viewed by 999
Abstract
Background: The Reducing Air Pollution in Detroit Intervention Study (RAPIDS) was designed to evaluate cardiovascular health benefits and personal fine particulate matter (particulate matter < 2.5 μm in diameter, PM2.5) exposure reductions via portable air filtration units (PAFs) among older adults [...] Read more.
Background: The Reducing Air Pollution in Detroit Intervention Study (RAPIDS) was designed to evaluate cardiovascular health benefits and personal fine particulate matter (particulate matter < 2.5 μm in diameter, PM2.5) exposure reductions via portable air filtration units (PAFs) among older adults in Detroit, Michigan. This double-blind randomized crossover intervention study has shown that, compared to sham, air filtration for 3 days decreased 3-day average brachial systolic blood pressure by 3.2 mmHg. The results also showed that commercially available HEPA-type and true HEPA PAFs mitigated median indoor PM2.5 concentrations by 58% and 65%, respectively. However, to our knowledge, no health intervention study in which a significant positive health effect was observed has also evaluated how outdoor and indoor PM2.5 sources impacted the subjects. With that in mind, detailed characterization of outdoor and indoor PM2.5 samples collected during this study and a source apportionment analysis of those samples using a positive matrix factorization model were completed. The aims of this most recent work were to characterize the indoor and outdoor sources of the PM2.5 this community was exposed to and to assess how effectively commercially available HEPA-type and true HEPA PAFs were able to reduce indoor and outdoor PM2.5 source contributions. Methods: Approximately 24 h daily indoor and outdoor PM2.5 samples were collected on Teflon and Quartz filters from the apartments of 40 study subjects during each 3-day intervention period. These filters were analyzed for mass, carbon, and trace elements. Environmental Protection Agency Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) 5.0 was utilized to determine major emission sources that contributed to the outdoor and indoor PM2.5 levels during this study. Results: The major sources of outdoor PM2.5 were secondary aerosols (28%), traffic/urban dust (24%), iron/steel industries (15%), sewage/municipal incineration (10%), and oil combustion/refinery (6%). The major sources of indoor PM2.5 were organic compounds (45%), traffic + sewage/municipal incineration (14%), secondary aerosols (13%), smoking (7%), and urban dust (2%). Infiltration of outdoor PM2.5 for sham, HEPA-type, and true HEPA air filtration was 79 ± 24%, 61 ± 32%, and 51 ± 34%, respectively. Conclusions: The results from our study showed that intervention with PAFs was able to significantly decrease indoor PM2.5 derived from outdoor and indoor PM2.5 sources. The PAFs were also able to significantly reduce the infiltration of outdoor PM2.5. The results of this study provide insights into what types of major PM2.5 sources this community is exposed to and what degree of air quality and systolic blood pressure improvements are possible through the use of commercially available PAFs in a real-world setting. Full article
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17 pages, 2538 KiB  
Article
Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Indoor Household Dust in Urban and Rural Areas of Chiang Mai and Lamphun Provinces, Thailand
Toxics 2023, 11(12), 1018; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11121018 - 14 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1006
Abstract
Indoor exposure to heavy metals poses human health risks worldwide, but study reports from Thailand are still limited, particularly in rural and urban areas. We measured the heavy metals in a hundred indoor household dust samples collected from urban and rural areas in [...] Read more.
Indoor exposure to heavy metals poses human health risks worldwide, but study reports from Thailand are still limited, particularly in rural and urban areas. We measured the heavy metals in a hundred indoor household dust samples collected from urban and rural areas in Chiang Mai and Lamphun provinces and found a significantly higher concentration of As in rural areas and Cd in urban areas with industrial activities. The source identification of the heavy metals showed significant enrichment from traffic emissions, paint, smoking, and mixed sources with natural soil. From health risk assessment models, children were more vulnerable to noncarcinogenic risks (HI = 1.45), primarily via ingestion (HQ = 1.39). Lifetime cancer risks (LCRs) due to heavy metal exposure were found in adults (LCR = 5.31 × 10−4) and children (LCR = 9.05 × 10−4). The cancer risks from As were higher in rural areas via ingestion, while Cr and Ni were higher in urban areas via inhalation and ingestion, respectively. This study estimated that approximately 5 out of 10,000 adults and 9 out of 10,000 children among the population may develop cancer in their lifetime from exposure to indoor heavy metals in this region. Full article
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27 pages, 1222 KiB  
Systematic Review
Freshwater Lacustrine Zooplankton and Microplastic: An Issue to Be Still Explored
Toxics 2023, 11(12), 1017; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11121017 - 13 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1031
Abstract
Lakes are essentially interlinked to humans as they provide water for drinking, agriculture, industrial and domestic purposes. The upsurge of plastic usage, its persistence, and potential detrimental effects on organisms cause impacts on the trophic food web of freshwater ecosystems; this issue, however, [...] Read more.
Lakes are essentially interlinked to humans as they provide water for drinking, agriculture, industrial and domestic purposes. The upsurge of plastic usage, its persistence, and potential detrimental effects on organisms cause impacts on the trophic food web of freshwater ecosystems; this issue, however, still needs to be explored. Zooplankton worldwide is commonly studied as an indicator of environmental risk in aquatic ecosystems for several pollutants. The aim of the review is to link the existing knowledge of microplastic pollution in zooplankton to assess the potential risks linked to these organisms which are at the first level of the lacustrine trophic web. A database search was conducted through the main databases to gather the relevant literature over the course of time. The sensitivity of zooplankton organisms is evident from laboratory studies, whereas several knowledge gaps exist in the understanding of mechanisms causing toxicity. This review also highlights insufficient data on field studies hampering the understanding of the pollution extent in lakes, as well as unclear trends on ecosystem–level cascading effects of microplastics (MPs) and mechanisms of toxicity (especially in combination with other pollutants). Therefore, this review provides insight into understanding the overlooked issues of microplastic in lake ecosystems to gain an accurate ecological risk assessment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecotoxicological Effects of Emerging Contaminants on Aquatic Species)
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17 pages, 6113 KiB  
Article
Degradation of Ciprofloxacin in Water by Magnetic-Graphene-Oxide-Activated Peroxymonosulfate
Toxics 2023, 11(12), 1016; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11121016 - 13 Dec 2023
Viewed by 752
Abstract
Antibiotics are extensively applied in the pharmaceutical industry, while posing a tremendous hazard to the ecosystem and human health. In this study, the degradation performance of ciprofloxacin (CIP), one of the typical contaminants of antibiotics, in an oxidation system of peroxymonosulfate (PMS) activated [...] Read more.
Antibiotics are extensively applied in the pharmaceutical industry, while posing a tremendous hazard to the ecosystem and human health. In this study, the degradation performance of ciprofloxacin (CIP), one of the typical contaminants of antibiotics, in an oxidation system of peroxymonosulfate (PMS) activated by magnetic graphene oxide (MGO) was investigated. The effects of the MGO dosage, PMS concentration and pH on the degradation of CIP were evaluated, and under the optimal treatment conditions, the CIP degradation rate was up to 96.5% with a TOC removal rate of 63.4%. A kinetic model of pseudo-secondary adsorption indicated that it involves an adsorption process with progressively intensified chemical reactions. Furthermore, the MGO exhibited excellent recyclability and stability, maintaining strong catalytic activity after three regenerative cycles, with a CIP removal rate of 87.0%. EPR and LC-MS experiments suggested that •OH and SO4• generated in the MGO/PMS system served as the main reactants contributing to the decomposition of the CIP, whereby the CIP molecule was effectively destroyed to produce other organic intermediates. Results of this study indicate that organic pollutants in the aqueous environment can be effectively removed in the MGO/PMS system, in which MGO has excellent catalytic activity and stabilization for being recycled to avoid secondary pollution, with definite research value and application prospects in the field of water treatment. Full article
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13 pages, 395 KiB  
Article
Method Validation for Quantification of PFOS and PFOA in Human Plasma and a Pilot Study in Blood Donors from Thai Red Cross Society
Toxics 2023, 11(12), 1015; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11121015 - 13 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1077
Abstract
Information regarding per- and polyfluorinated substances concentrations in biological samples from the Thai population was still lacking. A sensitive bioanalytical method was developed and validated for the quantification of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) levels in human plasma. Simple protein [...] Read more.
Information regarding per- and polyfluorinated substances concentrations in biological samples from the Thai population was still lacking. A sensitive bioanalytical method was developed and validated for the quantification of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) levels in human plasma. Simple protein precipitation and LC–MS/MS techniques were used with stable isotope internal standards of 13C8–PFOS and 13C8–PFOA. The validated method followed the ICH bioanalytical validation guideline, and the results showed good accuracy, precision, and reproducibility. The validated analytical method was then applied to determine PFOS and PFOA concentrations in 50 human plasma samples from the National Blood Center, Thai Red Cross Society. The concentrations were found to be in ranges of <0.91–6.27 ng/mL for PFOS and <0.49–2.72 ng/mL for PFOA. PFOS was also measured separately for its isomers, and the geometric means of the linear isomer (L–PFOS) and branched isomer (br–PFOS) in plasma samples were at 1.85 and 0.41 ng/mL, respectively. Both PFOS and PFOA concentrations were lower in comparison to previous reports from other countries. The present study showed the application of our reliable method to determine PFOS and PFOA in biological samples in order to monitor the human exposure of both chemicals in Thailand. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Exposome Analysis and Risk Assessment)
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39 pages, 3572 KiB  
Review
Methylomic, Proteomic, and Metabolomic Correlates of Traffic-Related Air Pollution in the Context of Cardiorespiratory Health: A Systematic Review, Pathway Analysis, and Network Analysis
Toxics 2023, 11(12), 1014; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11121014 - 12 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1103
Abstract
A growing body of literature has attempted to characterize how traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) affects molecular and subclinical biological processes in ways that could lead to cardiorespiratory disease. To provide a streamlined synthesis of what is known about the multiple mechanisms through which [...] Read more.
A growing body of literature has attempted to characterize how traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) affects molecular and subclinical biological processes in ways that could lead to cardiorespiratory disease. To provide a streamlined synthesis of what is known about the multiple mechanisms through which TRAP could lead to cardiorespiratory pathology, we conducted a systematic review of the epidemiological literature relating TRAP exposure to methylomic, proteomic, and metabolomic biomarkers in adult populations. Using the 139 papers that met our inclusion criteria, we identified the omic biomarkers significantly associated with short- or long-term TRAP and used these biomarkers to conduct pathway and network analyses. We considered the evidence for TRAP-related associations with biological pathways involving lipid metabolism, cellular energy production, amino acid metabolism, inflammation and immunity, coagulation, endothelial function, and oxidative stress. Our analysis suggests that an integrated multi-omics approach may provide critical new insights into the ways TRAP could lead to adverse clinical outcomes. We advocate for efforts to build a more unified approach for characterizing the dynamic and complex biological processes linking TRAP exposure and subclinical and clinical disease and highlight contemporary challenges and opportunities associated with such efforts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Long-Term PM2.5 Exposure and Cardiometabolic Health Effects)
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16 pages, 937 KiB  
Article
Metals in Cow Milk and Soy Beverages: Is There a Concern?
Toxics 2023, 11(12), 1013; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11121013 - 11 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1054
Abstract
Nowadays, there is an increased consumption of plant-based protein beverages like soy beverages (SBs) as substitutes for cow milk (CM). Both accumulate toxic metals like lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and manganese (Mn), which, although essential, are neurotoxic at high levels. Metals can also [...] Read more.
Nowadays, there is an increased consumption of plant-based protein beverages like soy beverages (SBs) as substitutes for cow milk (CM). Both accumulate toxic metals like lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and manganese (Mn), which, although essential, are neurotoxic at high levels. Metals can also perturb the normal development of children. This work aimed to evaluate these metal concentrations in CM and SB purchased on the Portuguese market. After validation of the method, linearity of calibration curves, work range, detection and quantification limits, and selectivity, metals were determined in 14 CM and 14 SB brands using atomic absorption spectrometry. The values were compared between CM and SB and with permissible limit values. Soy beverages had significantly (p < 0.05) higher concentrations of Cd (5.6 ± 4.2 µg/L) and Mn (117.4 ± 30.3) µg/L) than CM (2.15 ± 1.84 µg/L and 5.93 ± 1.21 µg/L, respectively); the Pb concentrations in CM (19.3 ± 12.1 µg/L) were not significantly (p > 0.05) higher than in SB (13.4 ± 9.6 µg/L). These values were similar to other studies and close to but under permissible limit values. Nevertheless, due to the toxicity and bioaccumulation of metals, the fact that these foods are routinely ingested by all ages, mainly children, and represent key ingredients in many processed foods, including baby foods, we suggest strict surveying of metal levels in CM and SBs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Exposure to Toxic Chemicals and Human Health II)
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12 pages, 298 KiB  
Review
Xylazine Poisoning in Clinical and Forensic Practice: Analysis Method, Characteristics, Mechanism and Future Challenges
Toxics 2023, 11(12), 1012; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11121012 - 11 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1224
Abstract
Xylazine abuse is emerging globally, while the identification of xylazine lethal cases poses a great challenge in clinical and forensic practice. The non-specific symptoms delay the diagnosis and treatment of xylazine poisoning, the pathological changes and lethal concentration of xylazine in body fluid [...] Read more.
Xylazine abuse is emerging globally, while the identification of xylazine lethal cases poses a great challenge in clinical and forensic practice. The non-specific symptoms delay the diagnosis and treatment of xylazine poisoning, the pathological changes and lethal concentration of xylazine in body fluid and organs of fatal xylazine poisoning cases are seldom reported and the other toxins detected in such cases complicate the role of xylazine in the cause of death. Therefore, we carefully reviewed related updated information on xylazine, summarized the knowledge from clinical and forensic perspectives and can thus provide a reference in such cases and throw light on further study in the field of xylazine poisoning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Drug Toxicity)
23 pages, 1057 KiB  
Review
Radiation-Induced Intestinal Injury: Injury Mechanism and Potential Treatment Strategies
Toxics 2023, 11(12), 1011; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11121011 - 10 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1130
Abstract
Radiation-induced intestinal injury (RIII) is one of the most common intestinal complications caused by radiotherapy for pelvic and abdominal tumors and it seriously affects the quality of life of patients. However, the treatment of acute RIII is essentially symptomatic and nutritional support treatment [...] Read more.
Radiation-induced intestinal injury (RIII) is one of the most common intestinal complications caused by radiotherapy for pelvic and abdominal tumors and it seriously affects the quality of life of patients. However, the treatment of acute RIII is essentially symptomatic and nutritional support treatment and an ideal means of prevention and treatment is lacking. Researchers have conducted studies at the cellular and animal levels and found that some chemical or biological agents have good therapeutic effects on RIII and may be used as potential candidates for clinical treatment. This article reviews the injury mechanism and potential treatment strategies based on cellular and animal experiments to provide new ideas for the diagnosis and treatment of RIII in clinical settings. Full article
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15 pages, 2547 KiB  
Article
Hormesis and Low Toxic Effects of Three Lanthanides in Microfungi Isolated from Rare Earth Mining Waste in Northwestern Russia
Toxics 2023, 11(12), 1010; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11121010 - 10 Dec 2023
Viewed by 941
Abstract
The low-dose toxicity of chloride and nitrate salts of three lanthanides (La, Ce and Nd) was tested on six microfungal species. Five of them (Geomyces vinaceus, Aspergillus niveoglaucus, Pseudogymnoascus pannorum, Penicillium simplicissimum and Umbelopsis isabellina) were isolated from [...] Read more.
The low-dose toxicity of chloride and nitrate salts of three lanthanides (La, Ce and Nd) was tested on six microfungal species. Five of them (Geomyces vinaceus, Aspergillus niveoglaucus, Pseudogymnoascus pannorum, Penicillium simplicissimum and Umbelopsis isabellina) were isolated from the loparite ore tailings on the Kola Peninsula, northwestern Russia. Sydowia polyspora was a control strain. In the case of nitrate salts, the toxicity of REEs to four of six microorganisms was significantly (p < 0.5) lower compared to chloride salts. In this case, nitrates can play the role of exogenous nutrients, compensating for the toxic effect of REEs. Interestingly, U. isabellina only showed an opposite response, indicating the highest toxicity of nitrate (IC5 = 9–20 mg/L) REEs’ salts compared to chlorides (IC5 = 80–195 mg/L) at low concentration levels. In addition, treatment with lanthanides showed a “hormesis effect” on fungal growth with stimulation at low doses and inhibition at high doses. However, U. isabellina and S. polyspora demonstrated the absence of hormetic response under the treatment of REEs’ nitrate salt. Taking into account the specific hormetic responses and high tolerance of P. simplicissimum and U. isabellina to lanthanides, our findings may be useful in the assessment of the potential application of the selected fungi to bioremediation and REE bioleaching. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Hormesis in Toxicology)
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9 pages, 289 KiB  
Case Report
Elevated Lead, Nickel, and Bismuth Levels in the Peritoneal Fluid of a Peritoneal Endometriosis Patient without Toxic Habits or Occupational Exposure following a Vegetarian Diet
Toxics 2023, 11(12), 1009; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11121009 - 10 Dec 2023
Viewed by 831
Abstract
Potentially toxic elements (PTEs), found as environmental contaminants, have been related to endometriosis disease. In this context, the peritoneal fluid (PF) matrix has been poorly studied despite its importance. PF is the environment in which endometriotic lesions reside and communicate with surrounding tissues [...] Read more.
Potentially toxic elements (PTEs), found as environmental contaminants, have been related to endometriosis disease. In this context, the peritoneal fluid (PF) matrix has been poorly studied despite its importance. PF is the environment in which endometriotic lesions reside and communicate with surrounding tissues including tissues and nerve cells. In this work, our investigation group reports the special case of a peritoneal endometriosis patient presenting elevated lead, nickel, and bismuth levels in PF. This patient reported following a vegetarian diet and no toxic habits or occupational exposure. In conclusion, the elevated levels of PTEs found may result from a vegetarian diet or an unidentified environmental exposure source. This report provides new insights regarding the possible etiology of endometriosis disease and potential biomarkers for its diagnosis in early stages, although additional research is needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Toxics: Women's Special Issue Series)
11 pages, 524 KiB  
Article
Impact of Cadmium Contamination on Fertilizer Value and Associated Health Risks in Different Soil Types Following Anaerobic Digestate Application
Toxics 2023, 11(12), 1008; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11121008 - 10 Dec 2023
Viewed by 822
Abstract
Cadmium (Cd) contamination in the soil potentially hampers microbial biomass and adversely affects their services such as decomposition and mineralization of organic matter. It can reduce nitrogen (N) metabolism and consequently affect plant growth and physiology. Further, Cd accumulation in plants can pose [...] Read more.
Cadmium (Cd) contamination in the soil potentially hampers microbial biomass and adversely affects their services such as decomposition and mineralization of organic matter. It can reduce nitrogen (N) metabolism and consequently affect plant growth and physiology. Further, Cd accumulation in plants can pose health risks through vegetable consumption. Here, we investigated consequences of Cd contamination on fertilizer value and associated health risks following the application of biogas residues (BGR) to various soil types. Our results indicate that the application of BGR to all soil types significantly increased dry matter (DM) yield and N uptake. However, the Cd contamination negatively affected DM yield and N recovery from BGR in a dose-dependent manner. Organic N mineralization from BGR also decreased in Cd-contaminated soils. The highest DM yield and N recovery were recorded in sandy soil, whereas the lowest values were observed in clay soil. Cadmium was accumulated in spinach, and health risk index (HRI) associated with its dietary intake revealed that consuming spinach grown in Cd-contaminated soil, with or without BGR, is unsafe. Among the soil types, values of daily intake of metals (DIM) and HRI were lowest in clay soil and highest in sandy soil. However, the application of BGR curtailed HRI across all soil types. Notably, the application of BGR alone resulted in HRI values < 1, which are under the safe limit. We conclude that soil contamination with Cd reduces fertilizer value and entails implications for human health. However, the application of BGR to the soil can decrease Cd effects. Full article
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14 pages, 2883 KiB  
Article
Bioaccumulation of Some Metals and Metalloids in Laughing Gulls (Leucophaeus atricilla): Increases in Mercury and Decreases in Selenium from 2019 to 2022/2023
Toxics 2023, 11(12), 1007; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11121007 - 09 Dec 2023
Viewed by 838
Abstract
The elements in blood normally reflect the levels in prey, indicating a recent exposure. Laughing gulls (Leucophaes atricilla) eat mainly horseshoe crab eggs (Limulus polyphemus) in the spring in Delaware Bay, New Jersey. The levels of arsenic (As), cadmium [...] Read more.
The elements in blood normally reflect the levels in prey, indicating a recent exposure. Laughing gulls (Leucophaes atricilla) eat mainly horseshoe crab eggs (Limulus polyphemus) in the spring in Delaware Bay, New Jersey. The levels of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), and selenium (Se) in the blood of laughing gulls foraging on crab eggs were examined in Delaware Bay to provide information on a species that is normally a generalist, and to determine if the levels of these elements were similar in 2019 and 2022/2023, were intercorrelated, and were related to those in crab eggs. Hg increased from 2019 (136 ± 31 ng/g) to 2022/2023 (473 ± 75 ng/g), while Cd and Se decreased. There were some significant correlations among elements and a close relationship between the element levels in blood and those in crab eggs collected in the same month (except for As). The levels differed between laughing gulls and three species of shorebirds for As and Cd. The elements in the blood of gulls and shorebirds should be similar because they eat mainly the same eggs in the same places. A significant proportion of laughing gull blood samples had levels of Hg and Se that were above the levels associated with adverse effects, which requires further examination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Toxics: Women's Special Issue Series)
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21 pages, 31255 KiB  
Article
Uncertainty Evaluation of Soil Heavy Metal(loid) Pollution and Health Risk in Hunan Province: A Geographic Detector with Monte Carlo Simulation
Toxics 2023, 11(12), 1006; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11121006 - 08 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1156
Abstract
Research on soil heavy metal(loid) pollution and health risk assessment is extensive, but a notable gap exists in systematically examining uncertainty in this process. We employ the Nemerow index, the health risk assessment model, and the geographic detector model (GDM) to analyze soil [...] Read more.
Research on soil heavy metal(loid) pollution and health risk assessment is extensive, but a notable gap exists in systematically examining uncertainty in this process. We employ the Nemerow index, the health risk assessment model, and the geographic detector model (GDM) to analyze soil heavy metal(loid) pollution, assess health risks, and identify driving factors in Hunan Province, China. Furthermore, the Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) method is utilized to quantitatively evaluate the uncertainties associated with the sampling point positions, model parameters, and classification boundaries of the driving factors in these processes. The experimental findings reveal the following key insights: (1) Regions with high levels of heavy metal(loid) pollution, accompanied by low uncertainty, are identified in Chenzhou and Hengyang Cities in Hunan Province. (2) Arsenic (As) and chromium (Cr) are identified as the primary contributors to health risks. (3) The GDM results highlight strong nonlinear enhanced interactions among lithology and other factors. (4) The input GDM factors, such as temperature, river distance, and gross domestic product (GDP), show high uncertainty on the influencing degree of soil heavy metal(loid) pollution. This study thoroughly assesses high heavy metal(loid) pollution in Hunan Province, China, emphasizing uncertainty and offering a scientific foundation for land management and pollution remediation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Metals and Radioactive Substances)
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21 pages, 13023 KiB  
Article
Ecotoxicology of Polymetallic Nodule Seabed Mining: The Effects of Cobalt and Nickel on Phytoplankton Growth and Pigment Concentration
Toxics 2023, 11(12), 1005; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11121005 - 08 Dec 2023
Viewed by 939
Abstract
In order to improve the understanding of the environmental impacts of polymetallic nodule mining, ecotoxicological studies were conducted on the growth of model phytoplankton species Skeletonema costatum and Prorocentrum donghaiense using cobalt and nickel. This study evaluated various physiological and ecological indicators, such [...] Read more.
In order to improve the understanding of the environmental impacts of polymetallic nodule mining, ecotoxicological studies were conducted on the growth of model phytoplankton species Skeletonema costatum and Prorocentrum donghaiense using cobalt and nickel. This study evaluated various physiological and ecological indicators, such as cell proliferation, chlorophyll a, pigments, total protein, and antioxidant enzyme markers. The results show that the introduction of low amounts of cobalt or nickel increased the growth rate of phytoplankton. The phytoplankton benefited from low concentrations of cobalt and nickel stress. The increased protein levels and decreased activity of antioxidant enzymes considerably impacted physiological responses during the promotion of cell abundance. High concentrations of cobalt or nickel resulted in decreased light-absorbing pigments, increased photoprotective pigments, an inactive chlorophyll content, decreased total proteins, and maximal antioxidant enzyme activity in phytoplankton. Throughout the experiment, both the phytoplankton protein and enzyme activity declined with prolonged stress, and the cells underwent age-induced damage. Thus, seabed mining’s repercussions on phytoplankton could result in both short-term growth promotion and long-term damage. These consequences depend on the impurity concentrations infiltrating the water, their duration, and the organism’s physiological responses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Health Risk Assessment of the Trace and Macro Elements)
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16 pages, 2136 KiB  
Article
Exploring Serum Biomarkers for Neuropathic Pain in Rat Models of Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy: A Comparative Pilot Study with Oxaliplatin, Paclitaxel, Bortezomib, and Vincristine
Toxics 2023, 11(12), 1004; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11121004 - 08 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1024
Abstract
Blood biomarkers, including neurofilament light chain (NfL), have garnered attention as potential indicators for chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN), a dose-limiting adverse effect of neurotoxic anticancer drugs. However, no blood biomarker has been established for routine application or translational research. This pilot study aimed [...] Read more.
Blood biomarkers, including neurofilament light chain (NfL), have garnered attention as potential indicators for chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN), a dose-limiting adverse effect of neurotoxic anticancer drugs. However, no blood biomarker has been established for routine application or translational research. This pilot study aimed to evaluate a limited panel of blood biomarkers in rat models of CIPN and their correlations with neuropathic pain. CIPN models were induced through repeated injections of oxaliplatin, paclitaxel, bortezomib, and vincristine. Electronic von Frey testing was used to assess tactile allodynia. Post anticancer injections, serum concentrations of 31 proteins were measured. Allodynia thresholds decreased in anticancer-treated animals compared to controls. No consistent modifications were observed in the biomarkers across CIPN models. The most noteworthy biomarkers with increased concentrations in at least two CIPN models were NfL (paclitaxel, vincristine), MCP-1, and RANTES (oxaliplatin, vincristine). Vincristine-treated animals exhibited strong correlations between LIX, MCP-1, NfL, and VEGF concentrations and tactile allodynia thresholds. No single biomarker can be recommended as a unique indicator of CIPN-related pain. Because of the study limitations (single dose of each anticancer drug, young animals, and single time measurement of biomarkers), further investigations are necessary to define the kinetics, specificities, and sensitivities of MCP-1, RANTES, and NfL. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Exposome Analysis and Risk Assessment)
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14 pages, 2874 KiB  
Article
The Developmental Toxicity and Endocrine-Disrupting Effects of Fenpropathrin on Gobiocypris rarus during the Early Life Stage
Toxics 2023, 11(12), 1003; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11121003 - 08 Dec 2023
Viewed by 727
Abstract
In the present study, the developmental toxicity and endocrine-disrupting effects of fenpropathrin on Gobiocypris rarus during the early life stage were studied using a semi-static water exposure method. The results showed that the LOEC (lowest observed effect concentration) of fenpropathrin on the incubation [...] Read more.
In the present study, the developmental toxicity and endocrine-disrupting effects of fenpropathrin on Gobiocypris rarus during the early life stage were studied using a semi-static water exposure method. The results showed that the LOEC (lowest observed effect concentration) of fenpropathrin on the incubation of rare minnow embryos was above 2.5 μg·L−1. The LOEC and NOEC (no observed effect concentration) of fenpropathrin on the developmental malformations and death indicators were 2.0 and 1.5 μg·L−1, respectively. After exposure to 1.5 μg·L−1 of fenpropathrin for 31 days, the expressions of androgen receptor genes (AR) and sex hormone-synthesis-related genes (CYP17 and CYP19a) were significantly decreased and the expressions of thyroid hormone receptor genes (TRβ) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor genes (AhR1a and AhR2) were significantly increased in juvenile Gobiocypris rarus. The expression levels of the androgen receptor gene (AR), estrogen receptor gene (ER1), and the sex hormone-synthesis-related genes (HMGR, CYP17, and CYP19a) were significantly decreased, while the estrogen receptor gene (ER2a), thyroid hormone receptor gene (TRβ), and aromatic hydrocarbon receptor genes (AhR1a and AhR2) were upregulated in juvenile Gobiocypris rarus under exposure to 2.0 μg·L−1 of fenpropathrin. Relatively low concentrations of fenpropathrin can affect the expression of sex hormone receptor genes, genes related to sex hormone synthesis, thyroid hormone receptor genes, and aromatic hydrocarbon receptor genes, thus interfering with the reproductive system, thyroid system, and metabolic level in Gobiocypris rarus. Therefore, more attention should be paid to the endocrine-disrupting effect caused by the pyrethroid insecticides in the water environment. Furthermore, studies on the internal mechanism of the endocrine-disrupting effect of pyrethroid insecticides on fish is needed in the future. Full article
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15 pages, 4699 KiB  
Brief Report
Reduced Isocyanate Release Using a Waterproof, Resin-Based Cast Alternative Relative to Fiberglass Casts
Toxics 2023, 11(12), 1002; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11121002 - 08 Dec 2023
Viewed by 894
Abstract
The effects of occupational isocyanate exposure range from asthma and contact dermatitis to neurotoxicity and cancer. Respiratory sensitization due to orthopedic cast application has been well documented. This study aims to compare the safety of standard-of-care fiberglass casts and a novel waterproof cast [...] Read more.
The effects of occupational isocyanate exposure range from asthma and contact dermatitis to neurotoxicity and cancer. Respiratory sensitization due to orthopedic cast application has been well documented. This study aims to compare the safety of standard-of-care fiberglass casts and a novel waterproof cast alternative by measuring the amount of isocyanate released during off-gassing over time. A 3D-printed arm simulator with comparable casing material amounts was placed in a sealed chamber. An isocyanate-sensing color-changing (SafeAir) tag was used to measure the levels of toxic exposure. Triplicate trials were conducted across all time periods (15 min, 1 h, and 24 h) and conditions. The bare arm simulator and freshly opened tags served as negative controls. Normalized pixel intensity indexes and isocyanate release estimates in ppb were derived from ImageJ-analyzed SafeAir tag photos. Fiberglass casts exhibited greater isocyanate release than both the waterproof alternative (p = 0.0002) and no-cast controls (p = 0.0006), particularly at 24 h. The waterproof alternative and no-cast control did not statistically differ (p = 0.1603). Therefore, the waterproof alternative released less isocyanate than the fiberglass casts. Waterproof cast alternatives may be safer than fiberglass by limiting medical professionals’ exposure to toxic isocyanates and, thus, decreasing their risk of suffering occupational asthma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exposome: New Frontiers in Exposure Science)
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14 pages, 2790 KiB  
Communication
Biodegradation Potential of C7-C10 Perfluorocarboxylic Acids and Data from the Genome of a New Strain of Pseudomonas mosselii 5(3)
Toxics 2023, 11(12), 1001; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11121001 - 08 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1027
Abstract
The use of bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas—destructors of persistent pollutants for biotechnologies of environmental purification—is an interesting area of research. The aim of this work was to study the potential of Pseudomonas mosselii strain 5(3) isolated from pesticide-contaminated soil as a degrader [...] Read more.
The use of bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas—destructors of persistent pollutants for biotechnologies of environmental purification—is an interesting area of research. The aim of this work was to study the potential of Pseudomonas mosselii strain 5(3) isolated from pesticide-contaminated soil as a degrader of C7-C10 perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) and analyze its complete genome. The genome of the strain has been fully sequenced. It consists of a chromosome with a length of 5,676,241 b.p. and containing a total of 5134 genes, in particular, haloalkane dehalogenase gene (dhaA), haloacetate dehalogenase H-1 gene (dehH1), fluoride ion transporter gene (crcB) and alkanesulfonate monooxygenase gene (ssuE), responsible for the degradation of fluorinated compounds. The strain P. mosselii 5(3) for was cultivated for 7 days in a liquid medium with various C7-C10 PFCAs as the sole source of carbon and energy, and completely disposed of them. The results of LC-MS analysis showed that the transformation takes place due to perfluorohexanoic acid with the release of various levels of stoichiometry (depending on PFCA) of fluorine ion mineralization indicators determined by ion chromatography. Thus, Pseudomonas mosselii strain 5(3) demonstrates a genetically confirmed high potential for the decomposition of C7-C10 PFCA. Full article
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21 pages, 4688 KiB  
Article
Effects of Cyfluthrin Exposure on Neurobehaviour, Hippocampal Tissue and Synaptic Plasticity in Wistar Rats
Toxics 2023, 11(12), 999; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11120999 - 07 Dec 2023
Viewed by 900
Abstract
This experiment was conducted to study the effects of Cyfluthrin (Cy) exposure on neurobehaviour, hippocampal tissue and synaptic plasticity in Wistar rats. First, it was found that high-dose Cy exposure could cause nerve injury, resulting in symptoms such as deficits in learning and [...] Read more.
This experiment was conducted to study the effects of Cyfluthrin (Cy) exposure on neurobehaviour, hippocampal tissue and synaptic plasticity in Wistar rats. First, it was found that high-dose Cy exposure could cause nerve injury, resulting in symptoms such as deficits in learning and memory ability, spatial exploration and autonomic motor function. Moreover, it was found that medium- and high-dose Cy exposure could cause an abnormal release of the neurotransmitter Glu. Second, brain tissue pathology showed that the middle and high doses of Cy caused tissue deformation, reduced the number of hippocampal puramidal cells, caused a disorder of these cells, decreased the number of Nissl bodies, and caused pyknosis of the hippocampal cell nuclear membrane and serious damage to organelles, indicating that exposure to these doses of Cy may cause hippocampal tissue damage in rats. Third, as the exposure dose increased, morphological changes in hippocampal synapses, including blurred synaptic spaces, a decreased number of synaptic vesicles and a decreased number of synapses, became more obvious. Moreover, the expression levels of the key synaptic proteins PSD-95 and SYP also decreased in a dose-dependent manner, indicating obvious synaptic damage. Finally, the study found that medium and high doses of Cy could upregulate the expression of A2AR in the hippocampus and that the expression levels of inflammatory factors and apoptosis-related proteins increased in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the expression of A2AR mRNA was correlated with neurobehavioural indicators and the levels of inflammatory factors, synaptic plasticity-related factors and apoptosis-related factors, suggesting that Cy may cause nerve damage in rats and that this effect is closely related to A2AR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Neurotoxicity)
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19 pages, 2340 KiB  
Article
Perturbations in Osteogenic Cell Fate Following Exposure to Constituents Present in Tobacco: A Combinatorial Study
Toxics 2023, 11(12), 998; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11120998 - 07 Dec 2023
Viewed by 884
Abstract
Tobacco smoke contains between 7000 and 10,000 constituents, and only an evanescently low number of which have been identified, let alone been evaluated for their toxicity. Recently, the Food and Drug Administration has published a list of 93 chemical tobacco constituents that are [...] Read more.
Tobacco smoke contains between 7000 and 10,000 constituents, and only an evanescently low number of which have been identified, let alone been evaluated for their toxicity. Recently, the Food and Drug Administration has published a list of 93 chemical tobacco constituents that are harmful or potentially harmful to a number of cellular processes. However, their effect on developing skeletal cells is unknown. In this study, we used ToxPI, a computational tool, to prioritize constituents on this list for screening in osteogenically differentiating human embryonic stem cells and fibroblasts. In selected endpoint assays, we evaluated the potential of these chemicals to inhibit osteogenic differentiation success as well as their cytotoxicity. Six of these chemicals, which were ascribed an embryotoxic potential in our screen, as well as nicotine, which was not found to be osteotoxic in vitro, were then evaluated in combinatorial exposures, either in pairs of two or three. No one single chemical could be pinpointed as the culprit of reduced calcification in response to tobacco exposure. Combining chemicals at their half-maximal inhibitory concentration of differentiation often elicited expected decreases in calcification over the individual exposures; however, cytotoxicity was improved in many of the dual combinations. A reverse response was also noted, in which calcification output improved in combinatorial exposures. Results from ternary combinations reflected those from double combinations. Thus, the results from this study suggest that it may be difficult to isolate single chemicals as the primary drivers of skeletal embryotoxicity and that the full combination of chemicals in tobacco smoke may produce the hypomineralization phenotype that we have so far observed in vitro in human embryonic stem cells as well as in vivo in zebrafish. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity)
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