Long-Term PM2.5 Exposure and Cardiometabolic Health Effects

A special issue of Toxics (ISSN 2305-6304). This special issue belongs to the section "Air Pollution and Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (24 November 2023) | Viewed by 5411

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
School of Clinical and Rehabilitation Sciences, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Interests: air pollution; environmental epidemiology; built environment; cardiovascular disease; metabolic disorders

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Guest Editor
School of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia
Interests: air pollution; environmental epidemiology; chronic disease; COVID-19; ageing population

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Cardiovascular outcomes have been causally linked to long-term particulate matter air pollution exposures for some time. What is less well defined are the mechanisms by which particulate matter exposure biologically leads to these well-defined, detrimental health outcomes. Perturbations in cardiometabolic health, characterized by insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, elevated blood pressure, adiposity, and lipid disorders, represent a constellation of pathophysiologic processes which may be causal mediators of the established link between long-term PM exposures and Cardiovascular outcomes. This special issue will focus on emerging data linking long-term exposure to PM subfractions and these indicators of cardiometabolic dysfunction, with the goal of helping to establish a clearer picture of the pathophysiologic mechanisms leading to cardiovascular outcomes.

Dr. Trenton Honda
Dr. Mona Elbarbary
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • particulate matter air pollution
  • insulin resistance
  • cardiovascular disease
  • dyslipidemia
  • hypertension
  • inflammation
  • environmental health

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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12 pages, 1052 KiB  
Article
Impacts of Indoor Dust Exposure on Human Colonic Cell Viability, Cytotoxicity and Apoptosis
by Noura Abdulrahman, Trenton J. Honda, Ayat Ali, Nabras Abdulrahman, Daniel Vrinceanu and Shishir Shishodia
Toxics 2023, 11(7), 633; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11070633 - 21 Jul 2023
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Abstract
Introduction: Environmental exposure to indoor dust is known to be associated with myriad health conditions, especially among children. Established routes of exposure include inhalation and non-dietary ingestion, which result in the direct exposure of gastrointestinal epithelia to indoor dust. Despite this, little prior [...] Read more.
Introduction: Environmental exposure to indoor dust is known to be associated with myriad health conditions, especially among children. Established routes of exposure include inhalation and non-dietary ingestion, which result in the direct exposure of gastrointestinal epithelia to indoor dust. Despite this, little prior research is available on the impacts of indoor dust on the health of human gastrointestinal tissue. Methods: Cultured human colonic (CCD841) cells were exposed for 24 h to standard trace metal dust (TMD) and organic contaminant dust (OD) samples at the following concentrations: 0, 10, 25, 50, 75, 100, 250, and 500 µg/mL. Cell viability was assessed using an MTT assay and protease analysis (glycyl-phenylalanyl-aminofluorocoumarin (GF-AFC)); cytotoxicity was assessed with a lactate dehydrogenase release assay, and apoptosis was assessed using a Caspase-Glo 3/7 activation assay. Results: TMD and OD decreased cellular metabolic and protease activity and increased apoptosis and biomarkers of cell membrane damage (LDH) in CCD841 human colonic epithelial cells. Patterns appeared to be, in general, dose-dependent, with the highest TMD and OD exposures associated with the largest increases in apoptosis and LDH, as well as with the largest decrements in metabolic and protease activities. Conclusions: TMD and OD exposure were associated with markers of reduced viability and increased cytotoxicity and apoptosis in human colonic cells. These findings add important information to the understanding of the physiologic effects of indoor dust exposure on human health. The doses used in our study represent a range of potential exposure levels, and the effects observed at the higher doses may not necessarily occur under typical exposure conditions. The effects of long-term, low-dose exposure to indoor dust are still not fully understood and warrant further investigation. Future research should explore these physiological mechanisms to further our understanding and inform public health interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Long-Term PM2.5 Exposure and Cardiometabolic Health Effects)
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10 pages, 1028 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Long-Term Air Pollution Exposure on Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus-Related Mortality among U.S. Medicare Beneficiaries
by Trenton J. Honda, Fatemeh Kazemiparkouhi and Helen Suh
Toxics 2023, 11(4), 336; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11040336 - 31 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1143
Abstract
Background: Little of the previous literature has investigated associations between air pollution exposure and type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM)-related mortality, despite a well-established link between air pollution exposure and other autoimmune diseases. Methods: In a cohort of 53 million Medicare beneficiaries living across [...] Read more.
Background: Little of the previous literature has investigated associations between air pollution exposure and type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM)-related mortality, despite a well-established link between air pollution exposure and other autoimmune diseases. Methods: In a cohort of 53 million Medicare beneficiaries living across the conterminous United States, we used Cox proportional hazard models to assess the association of long-term PM2.5 and NO2 exposures on T1DM-related mortality from 2000 to 2008. Models included strata for age, sex, race, and ZIP code and controlled for neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES); we additionally investigated associations in two-pollutant models, and whether associations were modified by participant demographics. Results: A 10 μg/m3 increase in 12-month average PM2.5 (HR: 1.183; 95% CI: 1.037–1.349) and a 10 ppb increase in NO2 (HR: 1.248; 95% CI: 1.089–1.431) was associated with an increased risk of T1DM-related mortality in age-, sex-, race-, ZIP code-, and SES-adjusted models. Associations for both pollutants were consistently stronger among Black (PM2.5: HR:1.877, 95% CI: 1.386–2.542; NO2: HR: 1.586, 95% CI: 1.258–2.001) and female (PM2.5: HR:1.297, 95% CI: 1.101–1.529; NO2: HR: 1.390, 95% CI: 1.187–1.627) beneficiaries. Conclusions: Long-term NO2 and, to a lesser extent, PM2.5 exposure is associated with statistically significant elevations in T1DM-related mortality risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Long-Term PM2.5 Exposure and Cardiometabolic Health Effects)
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13 pages, 1072 KiB  
Article
Aerosol Measurement Degradation in Low-Cost Particle Sensors Using Laboratory Calibration and Field Validation
by Angela Peck, Rodney G. Handy, Darrah K. Sleeth, Camie Schaefer, Yue Zhang, Leon F. Pahler, Joemy Ramsay and Scott C. Collingwood
Toxics 2023, 11(1), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11010056 - 06 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1183
Abstract
Increasing concern over air pollution has led to the development of low-cost sensors suitable for wide-scale deployment and use by citizen scientists. This project investigated the AirU low-cost particle sensor using two methods: (1) a comparison of pre- and post-deployment calibration equations for [...] Read more.
Increasing concern over air pollution has led to the development of low-cost sensors suitable for wide-scale deployment and use by citizen scientists. This project investigated the AirU low-cost particle sensor using two methods: (1) a comparison of pre- and post-deployment calibration equations for 24 devices following use in a field study, and (2) an in-home comparison between 3 AirUs and a reference instrument, the GRIMM 1.109. While differences (and therefore some sensor degradation) were found in the pre- and post-calibration equation comparison, absolute value changes were small and unlikely to affect the quality of results. Comparison tests found that while the AirU did tend to underestimate minimum and overestimate maximum concentrations of particulate matter, ~88% of results fell within ±1 μg/m3 of the GRIMM. While these tests confirm that low-cost sensors such as the AirU do experience some sensor degradation over multiple months of use, they remain a valuable tool for exposure assessment studies. Further work is needed to examine AirU performance in different environments for a comprehensive survey of capability, as well as to determine the source of sensor degradation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Long-Term PM2.5 Exposure and Cardiometabolic Health Effects)
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Review

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39 pages, 3572 KiB  
Review
Methylomic, Proteomic, and Metabolomic Correlates of Traffic-Related Air Pollution in the Context of Cardiorespiratory Health: A Systematic Review, Pathway Analysis, and Network Analysis
by Cameron Casella, Frances Kiles, Catherine Urquhart, Dominique S. Michaud, Kipruto Kirwa and Laura Corlin
Toxics 2023, 11(12), 1014; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11121014 - 12 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1487
Abstract
A growing body of literature has attempted to characterize how traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) affects molecular and subclinical biological processes in ways that could lead to cardiorespiratory disease. To provide a streamlined synthesis of what is known about the multiple mechanisms through which [...] Read more.
A growing body of literature has attempted to characterize how traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) affects molecular and subclinical biological processes in ways that could lead to cardiorespiratory disease. To provide a streamlined synthesis of what is known about the multiple mechanisms through which TRAP could lead to cardiorespiratory pathology, we conducted a systematic review of the epidemiological literature relating TRAP exposure to methylomic, proteomic, and metabolomic biomarkers in adult populations. Using the 139 papers that met our inclusion criteria, we identified the omic biomarkers significantly associated with short- or long-term TRAP and used these biomarkers to conduct pathway and network analyses. We considered the evidence for TRAP-related associations with biological pathways involving lipid metabolism, cellular energy production, amino acid metabolism, inflammation and immunity, coagulation, endothelial function, and oxidative stress. Our analysis suggests that an integrated multi-omics approach may provide critical new insights into the ways TRAP could lead to adverse clinical outcomes. We advocate for efforts to build a more unified approach for characterizing the dynamic and complex biological processes linking TRAP exposure and subclinical and clinical disease and highlight contemporary challenges and opportunities associated with such efforts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Long-Term PM2.5 Exposure and Cardiometabolic Health Effects)
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