Analysis, Exposures, and Health Risks of Indoor and Outdoor Air Pollution

A special issue of Toxics (ISSN 2305-6304). This special issue belongs to the section "Air Pollution and Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 21 June 2024 | Viewed by 2458

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Guest Editor
Environmental Pollution Control Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
Interests: environmental chemistry; environmental analysis; atmospheric pollution; outdoor and indoor air quality; air sampling; health impact assessment; particulate matter; atmospheric aerosols; indoor air pollution; chemical characterization of airborne particulate matter
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INFINITE UMR1286, Translational Research in Inflammation, Inserm/Université de Lille, Lille, France
Interests: inflammatory bowel diseases; immunity; environmental risk factors; food contaminants; airborne contaminants; mechanistic studies

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Air pollution has caused major concerns across the world due to its widespread nature, damage to our environment and potential health risks to humans. Many studies have been conducted to investigate the cause and seriousness of outdoor air pollution problems. At the same time, it is significant for human exposure studies to include exposure to indoor chemicals since humans spend more than 80% of the day indoors. Information about the indoor/outdoor (I/O) ratio of air pollutant concentrations is a crucial component of human exposure and health impact assessments. This Special Issue aims to gain more insight into: (a) the concentrations of various pollutants from different chemical classes in outdoor and indoor environments; (b) the potential sources; and (c) human exposure and health risks. Original research articles and review articles on these topics are encouraged and I look forward to receiving your contributions.

Dr. Besis Athanasios
Dr. Cécile Vignal
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • air pollution
  • human health
  • indoor/outdoor (I/O) ratio
  • sources
  • risk assessment
  • particulate matter (PM)
  • volatile organic compounds (VOCs)
  • indoor dust

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

12 pages, 768 KiB  
Article
Indoor Air Quality and Bioaerosols in Spanish University Classrooms
by Esther Fuentes-Ferragud, Antonio López, Juan Miguel Piera, Vicent Yusà, Salvador Garrigues, Miguel de la Guardia, F. Xavier López Labrador, Marisa Camaró, María Ibáñez and Clara Coscollà
Toxics 2024, 12(3), 227; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics12030227 - 20 Mar 2024
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Abstract
A comprehensive study assessed indoor air quality parameters, focusing on relevant air pollutants such as particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5), gaseous compounds (CO, CO2, formaldehyde, NO2) and volatile/semi-volatile organic chemicals, as well as respiratory viruses (including [...] Read more.
A comprehensive study assessed indoor air quality parameters, focusing on relevant air pollutants such as particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5), gaseous compounds (CO, CO2, formaldehyde, NO2) and volatile/semi-volatile organic chemicals, as well as respiratory viruses (including SARS-CoV-2), fungi and bacteria in Spanish university classrooms. Non-target screening strategies evaluated the presence of organic pollutants inside and outside the classrooms. Saliva samples from teachers and students were collected to explore correlations between respiratory viruses in the air and biological samples. Indoor results revealed the punctual exceedance of recommended guidelines for CO2, formaldehyde (HCHO), volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) and PM in the least naturally ventilated classrooms. Significant differences occurred between the classes, with the least ventilated one showing higher average concentrations of CO2, HCHO, NO2, PM10 and PM2.5. A respiratory virus (rhinovirus/enterovirus) was detected in the medium naturally ventilated classroom, although saliva samples tested negative. Suspect screening tentatively identified 65 substances indoors and over 200 outdoors, with approximately half reporting a high toxicological risk based on the Cramer rules. The study provides a comprehensive overview of indoor air quality, respiratory viruses and organic pollutants in university classrooms, highlighting the variations and potential health risks associated with ventilation differences. Full article
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14 pages, 1976 KiB  
Article
Reduction of Outdoor and Indoor PM2.5 Source Contributions via Portable Air Filtration Systems in a Senior Residential Facility in Detroit, Michigan
by Zachary M. Klaver, Ryan C. Crane, Rosemary A. Ziemba, Robert L. Bard, Sara D. Adar, Robert D. Brook and Masako Morishita
Toxics 2023, 11(12), 1019; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11121019 - 14 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1244
Abstract
Background: The Reducing Air Pollution in Detroit Intervention Study (RAPIDS) was designed to evaluate cardiovascular health benefits and personal fine particulate matter (particulate matter < 2.5 μm in diameter, PM2.5) exposure reductions via portable air filtration units (PAFs) among older adults [...] Read more.
Background: The Reducing Air Pollution in Detroit Intervention Study (RAPIDS) was designed to evaluate cardiovascular health benefits and personal fine particulate matter (particulate matter < 2.5 μm in diameter, PM2.5) exposure reductions via portable air filtration units (PAFs) among older adults in Detroit, Michigan. This double-blind randomized crossover intervention study has shown that, compared to sham, air filtration for 3 days decreased 3-day average brachial systolic blood pressure by 3.2 mmHg. The results also showed that commercially available HEPA-type and true HEPA PAFs mitigated median indoor PM2.5 concentrations by 58% and 65%, respectively. However, to our knowledge, no health intervention study in which a significant positive health effect was observed has also evaluated how outdoor and indoor PM2.5 sources impacted the subjects. With that in mind, detailed characterization of outdoor and indoor PM2.5 samples collected during this study and a source apportionment analysis of those samples using a positive matrix factorization model were completed. The aims of this most recent work were to characterize the indoor and outdoor sources of the PM2.5 this community was exposed to and to assess how effectively commercially available HEPA-type and true HEPA PAFs were able to reduce indoor and outdoor PM2.5 source contributions. Methods: Approximately 24 h daily indoor and outdoor PM2.5 samples were collected on Teflon and Quartz filters from the apartments of 40 study subjects during each 3-day intervention period. These filters were analyzed for mass, carbon, and trace elements. Environmental Protection Agency Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) 5.0 was utilized to determine major emission sources that contributed to the outdoor and indoor PM2.5 levels during this study. Results: The major sources of outdoor PM2.5 were secondary aerosols (28%), traffic/urban dust (24%), iron/steel industries (15%), sewage/municipal incineration (10%), and oil combustion/refinery (6%). The major sources of indoor PM2.5 were organic compounds (45%), traffic + sewage/municipal incineration (14%), secondary aerosols (13%), smoking (7%), and urban dust (2%). Infiltration of outdoor PM2.5 for sham, HEPA-type, and true HEPA air filtration was 79 ± 24%, 61 ± 32%, and 51 ± 34%, respectively. Conclusions: The results from our study showed that intervention with PAFs was able to significantly decrease indoor PM2.5 derived from outdoor and indoor PM2.5 sources. The PAFs were also able to significantly reduce the infiltration of outdoor PM2.5. The results of this study provide insights into what types of major PM2.5 sources this community is exposed to and what degree of air quality and systolic blood pressure improvements are possible through the use of commercially available PAFs in a real-world setting. Full article
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