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Toxics, Volume 12, Issue 5 (May 2024) – 71 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Triphenyl phosphate (TPhP) is a common flame-retardant and plasticizer once thought to be safer than brominated flame retardants. It is ubiquitously found in nM concentrations in aquatic environments, and yet most toxicological studies have focused their efforts on the µM range. We used the zebrafish model to assess developmental toxicity at concentrations of 1.5–15 nM (0.5 µg/L–5 µg/L). Like µM studies, we observed cardiac edema and shorter length; however, cardiotoxicity did not present as cardiac looping defects as previously reported for higher concentrations. It was shown that the tbx5a transcription factor cascade, including natriuretic peptides and bone morphogenetic protein 4, was dysregulated and that TPhP acts as a weak oxidant in zebrafish. View this paper
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15 pages, 6023 KiB  
Article
The Effects of Rainfall Events on the Composition and Diversity of Microplastics on Beaches in Xiamen City on a Short-Term Scale
by Xueyan Li, Fengrun Wu, Chengyi Zhang and Tao Wang
Toxics 2024, 12(5), 375; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics12050375 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 348
Abstract
Coastal beaches are vulnerable to microplastic pollution originating primarily from terrestrial and marine sources or the in situ weathering of plastic waste. The present study investigates the effects of rainfall events on the composition and diversity of microplastics on beaches in Xiamen City [...] Read more.
Coastal beaches are vulnerable to microplastic pollution originating primarily from terrestrial and marine sources or the in situ weathering of plastic waste. The present study investigates the effects of rainfall events on the composition and diversity of microplastics on beaches in Xiamen City on a short-term scale. In the results, the quantity of microplastics in beach sediments was 245.83 ± 11.61 items·kg−1 (mean ± standard error). The abundance of microplastics did not differ after each rainfall event but significantly decreased after multiple rainfall events. When the diversity of microplastics in the coastal area was evaluated, the Shannon-Wiener index and Pielou’s index also decreased from 3.12 and 0.64 to 2.99 and 0.62, respectively, after multiple rainfall events. Rainfall had varying effects on microplastics depending on their size and shape, with particles smaller than 500 μm experiencing pronounced reductions. There was a significant negative correlation between the abundance of microplastics and the grain size of sand, but a positive correlation with sediment moisture content. We encourage the consideration of the potential impact of rainfall events during sample collection to ensure the reliability of the data. We also recommend using diversity indexes to help in understanding the influence of physical processes on microplastic distribution and their mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Emerging Contaminants)
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12 pages, 2619 KiB  
Article
Effect of Auxin on Cadmium Toxicity-Induced Growth Inhibition in Solanum lycopersicum
by Huabin Liu, Yue Wu, Jiahui Cai, Yuting Chen, Cheng Zhou, Cece Qiao, Yuliang Wang and Song Wang
Toxics 2024, 12(5), 374; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics12050374 - 19 May 2024
Viewed by 343
Abstract
Auxins play crucial regulatory roles in plants coping with cadmium (Cd) stress. However, the regulatory mechanism by which auxins alleviate Cd toxicity in tomato seedlings remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that exposure to Cd stress leads to dynamic changes in the auxin response [...] Read more.
Auxins play crucial regulatory roles in plants coping with cadmium (Cd) stress. However, the regulatory mechanism by which auxins alleviate Cd toxicity in tomato seedlings remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that exposure to Cd stress leads to dynamic changes in the auxin response in tomato roots, characterized by an initial increase followed by a subsequent weakening. Under Cd stress, tomato seedlings show primary root- and hypocotyl-growth inhibition, accompanied by the accumulation of Cd and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the roots. The exogenous application of 1-naphthylacetic acid (NAA) does not mitigate the inhibitory effect of Cd toxicity on primary root growth, but it does significantly enhance lateral root development under Cd stress. Auxin transport inhibitors, such as 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) and 2,3,5-triiodobenoic acid (TIBA), aggravate the growth inhibition of primary roots caused by Cd stress. Additionally, lateral root development was inhibited by NPA. However, applying auxin synthesis inhibitors L-kynurenine (kyn) and yucasin alleviated the tomato root growth inhibition caused by Cd stress; between them, the effect of yucasin was more pronounced. Yucasin mitigates Cd toxicity in tomato seedlings by reducing Cd2+ absorption and auxin accumulation, strengthening ROS scavenging, and reducing cell death in roots. These observations suggest that yucasin potentially mitigates Cd toxicity and improves the tolerance of tomato seedlings to Cd stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Toxicity Reduction and Environmental Remediation)
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15 pages, 8550 KiB  
Article
Effects of 17β-Estradiol Pollution on Microbial Communities and Methane Emissions in Aerobic Water Bodies
by Zihao Gao, Yu Zheng, Zhendong Li and Aidong Ruan
Toxics 2024, 12(5), 373; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics12050373 - 19 May 2024
Viewed by 344
Abstract
17β-Estradiol (E2) is a widely present trace pollutant in aquatic environments. However, its impact on microbial communities in aerobic lake waters, which are crucial for methane (CH4) production, remains unclear. This study conducted an E2 contamination experiment by constructing laboratory-simulated aerobic [...] Read more.
17β-Estradiol (E2) is a widely present trace pollutant in aquatic environments. However, its impact on microbial communities in aerobic lake waters, which are crucial for methane (CH4) production, remains unclear. This study conducted an E2 contamination experiment by constructing laboratory-simulated aerobic microecosystems. Using 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing, the effects of E2 on bacterial and archaeal communities were systematically examined. Combined with gas chromatography, the patterns and mechanisms of E2’s impact on CH4 emissions in aerobic aquatic systems were uncovered for the first time. Generally, E2 contamination increased the randomness of bacterial and archaeal community assemblies and weakened microbial interactions. Furthermore, changes occurred in the composition and ecological functions of bacterial and archaeal communities under E2 pollution. Specifically, two days after exposure to E2, the relative abundance of Proteobacteria in the low-concentration (L) and high-concentration (H) groups decreased by 6.99% and 4.01%, respectively, compared to the control group (C). Conversely, the relative abundance of Planctomycetota was 1.81% and 1.60% higher in the L and H groups, respectively. E2 contamination led to an increase in the relative abundance of the methanogenesis functional group and a decrease in that of the methanotrophy functional group. These changes led to an increase in CH4 emissions. This study comprehensively investigated the ecotoxicological effects of E2 pollution on microbial communities in aerobic water bodies and filled the knowledge gap regarding aerobic methane production under E2 contamination. Full article
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24 pages, 1848 KiB  
Article
Development of a Flavor Ingredient Wheel Linking E-Liquid Additives to the Labeled Flavor of Vaping Products
by Kelly Buettner-Schmidt, Katherine Steward, Maciej L. Goniewicz, Kolby Schaeffer Fraase, Megan Orr and Donald R. Miller
Toxics 2024, 12(5), 372; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics12050372 - 18 May 2024
Viewed by 536
Abstract
E-liquids contain combinations of chemicals, with many enhancing the sensory attractiveness of the product. Studies are needed to understand and characterize e-liquid ingredients, particularly flavorings, to inform future research and regulations of these products. We identified common flavor ingredients in a convenience sample [...] Read more.
E-liquids contain combinations of chemicals, with many enhancing the sensory attractiveness of the product. Studies are needed to understand and characterize e-liquid ingredients, particularly flavorings, to inform future research and regulations of these products. We identified common flavor ingredients in a convenience sample of commercial e-liquids using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. E-liquid flavors were categorized by flavor descriptors provided on the product packaging. A Flavor Ingredient Wheel was developed to link e-liquid flavor ingredients with flavor categories. An analysis of 109 samples identified 48 flavor ingredients. Consistency between the labeled flavor and ingredients used to produce such flavor was found. Our novel Flavor Ingredient Wheel organizes e-liquids by flavor and ingredients, enabling efficient analysis of the link between ingredients and their flavor profiles and allowing for quick assessment of an e-liquid ingredient’s flavor profile. Investigating ingredient profiles and identifying and classifying commonly used chemicals in e-liquids may assist with future studies and improve the ability to regulate these products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessing Novel Tobacco Products)
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21 pages, 2456 KiB  
Article
Validating Well-Functioning Hepatic Organoids for Toxicity Evaluation
by Seo Yoon Choi, Tae Hee Kim, Min Jeong Kim, Seon Ju Mun, Tae Sung Kim, Ki Kyung Jung, Il Ung Oh, Jae Ho Oh, Myung Jin Son and Jin Hee Lee
Toxics 2024, 12(5), 371; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics12050371 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 464
Abstract
“Organoids”, three-dimensional self-organized organ-like miniature tissues, are proposed as intermediary models that bridge the gap between animal and human studies in drug development. Despite recent advancements in organoid model development, studies on toxicity using these models are limited. Therefore, in this study, we [...] Read more.
“Organoids”, three-dimensional self-organized organ-like miniature tissues, are proposed as intermediary models that bridge the gap between animal and human studies in drug development. Despite recent advancements in organoid model development, studies on toxicity using these models are limited. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to analyze the functionality and gene expression of pre- and post-differentiated human hepatic organoids derived from induced pluripotent stem cells and utilize them for toxicity assessment. First, we confirmed the functional similarity of this hepatic organoid model to the human liver through various functional assessments, such as glycogen storage, albumin and bile acid secretion, and cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity. Subsequently, utilizing these functionally validated hepatic organoids, we conducted toxicity evaluations with three hepatotoxic substances (ketoconazole, troglitazone, and tolcapone), which are well known for causing drug-induced liver injury, and three non-hepatotoxic substances (sucrose, ascorbic acid, and biotin). The organoids effectively distinguished between the toxicity levels of substances with and without hepatic toxicity. We demonstrated the potential of hepatic organoids with validated functionalities and genetic characteristics as promising models for toxicity evaluation by analyzing toxicological changes occurring in hepatoxic drug-treated organoids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Drugs Toxicity)
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14 pages, 5253 KiB  
Article
Inhibitory Impact of Prenatal Exposure to Nano-Polystyrene Particles on the MAP2K6/p38 MAPK Axis Inducing Embryonic Developmental Abnormalities in Mice
by Junyi Lv, Qing He, Zixiang Yan, Yuan Xie, Yao Wu, Anqi Li, Yuqing Zhang, Jing Li and Zhenyao Huang
Toxics 2024, 12(5), 370; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics12050370 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 431
Abstract
Nanoplastics, created by the fragmentation of larger plastic debris, are a serious pollutant posing substantial environmental and health risks. Here, we developed a polystyrene nanoparticle (PS-NP) exposure model during mice pregnancy to explore their effects on embryonic development. We found that exposure to [...] Read more.
Nanoplastics, created by the fragmentation of larger plastic debris, are a serious pollutant posing substantial environmental and health risks. Here, we developed a polystyrene nanoparticle (PS-NP) exposure model during mice pregnancy to explore their effects on embryonic development. We found that exposure to 30 nm PS-NPs during pregnancy resulted in reduced mice placental weight and abnormal embryonic development. Subsequently, our transcriptomic dissection unveiled differential expression in 102 genes under PS-NP exposure and the p38 MAPK pathway emerged as being significantly altered in KEGG pathway mapping. Our findings also included a reduction in the thickness of the trophoblastic layer in the placenta, diminished cell invasion capabilities, and an over-abundance of immature red cells in the blood vessels of the mice. In addition, we validated our findings through the human trophoblastic cell line, HTR-8/SVneo (HTR). PS-NPs induced a drop in the vitality and migration capacities of HTR cells and suppressed the p38 MAPK signaling pathway. This research highlights the embryotoxic effects of nanoplastics on mice, while the verification results from the HTR cells suggest that there could also be certain impacts on the human trophoblast layer, indicating a need for further exploration in this area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Environmental Chemicals Exposomics and Metabolomics)
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17 pages, 4489 KiB  
Article
Segmentation of Renal Thyroid Follicle Colloid in Common Carp: Insights into Perfluorooctanoic Acid-Induced Morphometric Alterations
by Maurizio Manera and Luisa Giari
Toxics 2024, 12(5), 369; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics12050369 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 434
Abstract
Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a globally prevalent contaminant of concern recognised for its persistence and detrimental effects on both wildlife and humans. While PFOA has been established as a disruptor of thyroid function, limited data exist regarding its impact on thyroid morphology. The [...] Read more.
Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a globally prevalent contaminant of concern recognised for its persistence and detrimental effects on both wildlife and humans. While PFOA has been established as a disruptor of thyroid function, limited data exist regarding its impact on thyroid morphology. The kidney of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) harbours numerous thyroid follicles, rendering it a valuable biomarker organ for investigating PFOA-induced thyroid alterations. Renal tissue slides, stained with the Alcian blue/PAS method, were examined from carp in three experimental groups: unexposed, exposed to 200 ng L−1, and exposed to 2 mg L−1 of PFOA over 56 days. Thyroid follicle colloids were segmented, and related morphometric parameters, including perimeter, area, and shape descriptors, were obtained. Statistical analyses revealed significant reductions in thyroid follicle colloid perimeter and area in the 200 ng L−1 PFOA group compared to the unexposed and 2 mg L−1 PFOA groups. Additionally, the fish exposed to PFOA exhibited a significantly higher follicle count compared to the unexposed fish. These findings collectively suggest that PFOA induces thyroid folliculogenesis, emphasising its impact on thyroid morphology even at an environmentally relevant concentration (200 ng L−1). Full article
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14 pages, 12382 KiB  
Article
Environmentally Relevant Concentrations of Triphenyl Phosphate (TPhP) Impact Development in Zebrafish
by Benjamin Schmandt, Mfon Diduff, Gabrielle Smart and Larissa M. Williams
Toxics 2024, 12(5), 368; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics12050368 - 16 May 2024
Viewed by 869
Abstract
A common flame-retardant and plasticizer, triphenyl phosphate (TPhP) is an aryl phosphate ester found in many aquatic environments at nM concentrations. Yet, most studies interrogating its toxicity have used µM concentrations. In this study, we used the model organism zebrafish (Danio rerio [...] Read more.
A common flame-retardant and plasticizer, triphenyl phosphate (TPhP) is an aryl phosphate ester found in many aquatic environments at nM concentrations. Yet, most studies interrogating its toxicity have used µM concentrations. In this study, we used the model organism zebrafish (Danio rerio) to uncover the developmental impact of nM exposures to TPhP at the phenotypic and molecular levels. At concentrations of 1.5–15 nM (0.5 µg/L–5 µg/L), chronically dosed 5dpf larvae were shorter in length and had pericardial edema phenotypes that had been previously reported for exposures in the µM range. Cardiotoxicity was observed but did not present as cardiac looping defects as previously reported for µM concentrations. The RXR pathway does not seem to be involved at nM concentrations, but the tbx5a transcription factor cascade including natriuretic peptides (nppa and nppb) and bone morphogenetic protein 4 (bmp4) were dysregulated and could be contributing to the cardiac phenotypes. We also demonstrate that TPhP is a weak pro-oxidant, as it increases the oxidative stress response within hours of exposure. Overall, our data indicate that TPhP can affect animal development at environmentally relevant concentrations and its mode of action involves multiple pathways. Full article
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15 pages, 14887 KiB  
Article
Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Induce Maternal Preeclampsia-like Syndrome and Adverse Birth Outcomes via Disrupting Placental Function in SD Rats
by Haixin Li, Dandan Miao, Haiting Hu, Pingping Xue, Kun Zhou and Zhilei Mao
Toxics 2024, 12(5), 367; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics12050367 - 16 May 2024
Viewed by 451
Abstract
The escalating utilization of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) in everyday products has sparked concerns regarding their potential hazards to pregnant females and their offspring. To address these concerns and shed light on their undetermined adverse effects and mechanisms, we established a [...] Read more.
The escalating utilization of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) in everyday products has sparked concerns regarding their potential hazards to pregnant females and their offspring. To address these concerns and shed light on their undetermined adverse effects and mechanisms, we established a pregnant rat model to investigate the impacts of TiO2 NPs on both maternal and offspring health and to explore the underlying mechanisms of those impacts. Pregnant rats were orally administered TiO2 NPs at a dose of 5 mg/kg body weight per day from GD5 to GD18 during pregnancy. Maternal body weight, organ weight, and birth outcomes were monitored and recorded. Maternal pathological changes were examined by HE staining and TEM observation. Maternal blood pressure was assessed using a non-invasive blood analyzer, and the urinary protein level was determined using spot urine samples. Our findings revealed that TiO2 NPs triggered various pathological alterations in maternal liver, kidney, and spleen, and induced maternal preeclampsia-like syndrome, as well as leading to growth restriction in the offspring. Further examination unveiled that TiO2 NPs hindered trophoblastic cell invasion into the endometrium via the promotion of autophagy. Consistent hypertension and proteinuria resulted from the destroyed the kidney GBM. In total, an exposure to TiO2 NPs during pregnancy might increase the risk of human preeclampsia through increased maternal arterial pressure and urinary albumin levels, as well as causing fetal growth restriction in the offspring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Environmental Chemicals Exposomics and Metabolomics)
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10 pages, 1549 KiB  
Communication
Hair Mercury Levels in Pregnant Women: Fish Consumption as a Determinant of Exposure
by Olga Rumiantseva, Viktor Komov, Mikhail Kutuzov, Hicham Zaroual, Ksenia Mizina, Maria Belova, Igor Nikitin, Alla Stolyarova, Dmitry Mashin and Daria Vilkova
Toxics 2024, 12(5), 366; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics12050366 - 16 May 2024
Viewed by 491
Abstract
The consumption of fish in food may contain mercury, a harmful element and dangerous chemical detrimental to human health. The purpose of this study was to determine the mercury level in the hair of pregnant women with different fish intakes in their diets. [...] Read more.
The consumption of fish in food may contain mercury, a harmful element and dangerous chemical detrimental to human health. The purpose of this study was to determine the mercury level in the hair of pregnant women with different fish intakes in their diets. The concentration of total mercury in hair was determined using an atomic absorption spectrometer. In this study, 98 pregnant women were invited to participate (aged from 18 to 48 years). The mean content of mercury in the hair of pregnant women in Northwestern Russia was 0.428 mg/kg (ranging from 0.018 to 3.1 mg/kg). As a result, 22% of women had mercury values above 0.58 mg/kg, which is considered dangerous for the fetus. The hair mercury concentration in a village area was higher than that in a city area (i.e., 0.548 mg/kg and 0.326 mg/kg). Moreover, the maximum level of mercury was noted for a group of pregnant women who consumed more than 5 kg/month of fish and fish products. Furthermore, the consumption of freshwater fish in the diet leads to a higher mercury content in the hair of pregnant women than the consumption of marine fish. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mercury Cycling and Health Effects)
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11 pages, 1303 KiB  
Perspective
Food Plants and Environmental Contamination: An Update
by Nicoletta Guerrieri, Stefania Mazzini and Gigliola Borgonovo
Toxics 2024, 12(5), 365; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics12050365 - 15 May 2024
Viewed by 537
Abstract
Food plants are the basis of human nutrition, but, in contaminated places, they can uptake contaminants. Environmental contamination and climate change can modify food quality; generally, they have a negative impact on and imply risks to human health. Heavy metals, like lead, arsenic, [...] Read more.
Food plants are the basis of human nutrition, but, in contaminated places, they can uptake contaminants. Environmental contamination and climate change can modify food quality; generally, they have a negative impact on and imply risks to human health. Heavy metals, like lead, arsenic, cadmium, and chromium, can be present at various environmental levels (soil, water, and atmosphere), and they are widely distributed in the world. Food plants can carry out heavy metal bioaccumulation, a defense pathway for plants, which is different for every plant species. Accumulation is frequent in the roots and the leaves, and heavy metals can be present in fruits and seeds; As and Cd are always present. In addition, other contaminants can bioaccumulate in food plants, including emerging contaminants, like persistent organic pollutants (POPs), pesticides, and microplastics. In food plants, these are present in the roots but also in the leaves and fruits, depending on their chemical structure. The literature published in recent years was examined to understand the distribution of contaminants among food plants. In the literature, old agronomical practices and new integrated technology to clean the water, control the soil, and monitor the crops have been proposed to mitigate contamination and produce high food quality and high food safety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Pollution and Food Safety)
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13 pages, 1852 KiB  
Article
Short-Term Effects of Ambient Air Pollution on Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Admissions in Jiuquan, China
by Hairong Bao, Jiyuan Dong, Deshun Li, Lisha Zhu and Juan Shu
Toxics 2024, 12(5), 364; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics12050364 - 15 May 2024
Viewed by 420
Abstract
Recent findings indicate that air pollution contributes to the onset and advancement of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Nevertheless, there is insufficient research indicating that air pollution is linked to COPD in the region of inland northwest China. Daily hospital admission records for [...] Read more.
Recent findings indicate that air pollution contributes to the onset and advancement of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Nevertheless, there is insufficient research indicating that air pollution is linked to COPD in the region of inland northwest China. Daily hospital admission records for COPD, air pollutant levels, and meteorological factor information were collected in Jiuquan for this study between 1 January 2018 and 31 December 2019. We employed a distributed lag non-linear model (DLNM) integrated with the generalized additive model (GAM) to assess the association between air pollution and hospital admissions for COPD with single lag days from lag0 to lag7 and multiday moving average lag days from lag01 to lag07. For example, the pollutant concentration on the current day was lag0, and on the prior 7th day was lag7. The present and previous 7-day moving average pollutant concentration was lag07. Gender, age, and season-specific stratified analyses were also carried out. It is noteworthy that the delayed days exhibited a different pattern, and the magnitude of associations varied. For NO2 and CO, obvious associations with hospitalizations for COPD were found at lag1, lag01–lag07, and lag03–lag07, with the biggest associations at lag05 and lag06 [RR = 1.015 (95%CI: 1.008, 1.023) for NO2, RR = 2.049 (95%CI: 1.416, 2.966) for CO], while only SO2 at lag02 was appreciably linked to hospitalizations for COPD [1.167 (95%CI: 1.009, 1.348)]. In contrast, short-term encounters with PM2.5, PM10, and O3 were found to have no significant effects on COPD morbidity. The lag effects of NO2 and CO were stronger than those of PM2.5 and PM10. Males and those aged 65 years or older were more vulnerable to air pollution. When it came to the seasons, the impacts appeared to be more pronounced in the cold season. In conclusion, short-term encounters with NO2 and CO were significantly correlated with COPD hospitalization in males and the elderly (≥65). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Air Pollution and Health)
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19 pages, 7555 KiB  
Article
Ribosomal Dysregulation in Metastatic Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Proteomic Insights and CX-5461’s Therapeutic Promise
by Miao Gao, Ting Liu, Kairui Hu, Songling Chen, Shixin Wang, Di Gan, Zhihan Li and Xiaohuang Lin
Toxics 2024, 12(5), 363; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics12050363 - 13 May 2024
Viewed by 600
Abstract
One of the main barriers to the successful treatment of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) is postoperative progression, primarily due to tumor cell metastasis. To systematically investigate the molecular characteristics and potential mechanisms underlying the metastasis in laryngeal cancer, we carried out a [...] Read more.
One of the main barriers to the successful treatment of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) is postoperative progression, primarily due to tumor cell metastasis. To systematically investigate the molecular characteristics and potential mechanisms underlying the metastasis in laryngeal cancer, we carried out a TMT-based proteomic analysis of both cancerous and adjacent non-cancerous tissues from 10 LSCC patients with lymph node metastasis (LNM) and 10 without. A total of 5545 proteins were quantified across all samples. We identified 57 proteins that were downregulated in LSCC with LNM, which were enriched in cell adhesion pathways, and 69 upregulated proteins predominantly enriched in protein production pathways. Importantly, our data revealed a strong correlation between increased ribosomal activity and the presence of LNM, as 18 ribosomal subunit proteins were found to be upregulated, with RPS10 and RPL24 being the most significantly overexpressed. The potential of ribosomal proteins, including RPS10 and RPL24, as biomarkers for LSCC with LNM was confirmed in external validation samples (six with LNM and six without LNM) using Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, we have confirmed that the RNA polymerase I inhibitor CX-5461, which impedes ribosome biogenesis in LSCC, also decreases the expression of RPS10, RPL24, and RPS26. In vitro experiments have revealed that CX-5461 moderately reduces cell viability, while it significantly inhibits the invasion and migration of LSCC cells. It can enhance the expression of the epithelial marker CDH1 and suppress the expression of the mesenchymal markers CDH2, VIM, and FN at a dose that does not affect cell viability. Our study broadens the scope of the proteomic data on laryngeal cancer and suggests that ribosome targeting could be a supplementary therapeutic strategy for metastatic LSCC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drug Metabolism and Toxicological Mechanisms)
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15 pages, 2971 KiB  
Article
Bioreactor Expansion Affects Microbial Succession of Mixotrophic Acidophiles and Bioremediation of Cadmium-Contaminated Soils
by Xiaodong Hao, Ping Zhu, Xueduan Liu, Luhua Jiang, Huidan Jiang, Hongwei Liu and Zhiqun Chen
Toxics 2024, 12(5), 362; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics12050362 - 13 May 2024
Viewed by 476
Abstract
Microbial scale-up cultivation is the first step to bioremediating cadmium (Cd)-contaminated soils at the industrial scale. However, the changes in the microbial community as the bioreactor volume expands and their associations with soil Cd removal remain unclear. Herein, a six-stage scale-up cultivation process [...] Read more.
Microbial scale-up cultivation is the first step to bioremediating cadmium (Cd)-contaminated soils at the industrial scale. However, the changes in the microbial community as the bioreactor volume expands and their associations with soil Cd removal remain unclear. Herein, a six-stage scale-up cultivation process of mixotrophic acidophiles was conducted, scaling from 0.1 L to 10 m3, to remediate Cd-contaminated soils. The findings showed that bioreactor expansion led to a delay in sulfur and glucose oxidations, resulting in a reduced decline in solution pH and cell density. There were minimal differences observed in bacterial alpha-diversity and community structure as the bioreactor volume increased, except for the 10 m3 scale. However, bioreactor expansion decreased fungal alpha-diversity, changed the community structure, and simplified fungal community compositions. At the family level, Acidithiobacillaceae and Debaryomycetaceae dominated the bacterial and fungal communities throughout the scale-up process, respectively. Correlation analysis indicated that the indirect effect of mixotrophic acidophiles played a significant role in soil Cd removal. Bacterial community shifts, driven by changes in bioreactor volume, decreased the pH value through sulfur oxidation, thereby indirectly enhancing Cd removal efficiency. This study will contribute to the potential industrial application of mixotrophic acidophiles in bioremediating Cd-contaminated soils. Full article
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15 pages, 1150 KiB  
Article
Transformation and Degradation of PAH Mixture in Contaminated Sites: Clarifying Their Interactions with Native Soil Organisms
by Xiaoyu Li, Shengnan Zhang, Ruixue Guo, Xuejing Xiao, Boying Liu, Rehab Khaled Mahmoud, Mostafa R. Abukhadra, Ruijuan Qu and Zunyao Wang
Toxics 2024, 12(5), 361; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics12050361 - 13 May 2024
Viewed by 602
Abstract
Soil contamination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), especially caused by the mixture of two or more PAHs, raised great environmental concerns. However, research on the migration and transformation processes of PAHs in soils and their interactions with native communities is limited. In this [...] Read more.
Soil contamination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), especially caused by the mixture of two or more PAHs, raised great environmental concerns. However, research on the migration and transformation processes of PAHs in soils and their interactions with native communities is limited. In this work, soil samples from uncontaminated sites around the industrial parks in Handan, Hengshui, and Shanghai were artificially supplemented with three concentrations of anthracene (Ant), 9-chloroanthracene (9-ClAnt), benzopyrene (BaP), and chrysene (Chr). Ryegrass was planted to investigate the degradation of PAHs and its interaction with native soil organisms in the constructed ryegrass–microbe–soil microcosmic system. The bacterial and fungal communities in soil were affected by PAHs; their species diversity and relative abundance changed after exposure to different concentrations of PAHs, among which Lysobacter, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, and Massilia bacteria were correlated to the degradation of PAHs. On the 56th day, the contents of BaP, Chr, and Ant decreased with the degradation process, while the degradation of 9-ClAnt was limited. Nineteen intermediates, including hydroxylation and carboxylated compounds, were identified. The present research would help clarify the potential interactions between PAHs and native organisms in contaminated sites, providing fundamental information for evaluating the transformation risks of PAHs in the natural environment. Full article
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11 pages, 2934 KiB  
Article
Study on the Environmental Impact and Benefits of Incorporating Humus Composites in Anaerobic Co-Digestion Treatment
by Ke Zhao, Qiang Wei, Mingxuan Bai and Mengnan Shen
Toxics 2024, 12(5), 360; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics12050360 - 13 May 2024
Viewed by 671
Abstract
This study evaluated the environmental impact and overall benefits of incorporating humus composites in the anaerobic co-digestion of kitchen waste and residual sludge. The life cycle assessment method was used to quantitatively analyze the environmental impact of the entire anaerobic co-digestion treatment process [...] Read more.
This study evaluated the environmental impact and overall benefits of incorporating humus composites in the anaerobic co-digestion of kitchen waste and residual sludge. The life cycle assessment method was used to quantitatively analyze the environmental impact of the entire anaerobic co-digestion treatment process of waste, including garbage collection, transportation, and final product utilization. Moreover, the comprehensive assessment of the environmental impact, energy-saving and emission-reduction abilities, and economic cost of using humus composites in the anaerobic co-digestion treatment process was conducted using a benefit analysis method. The results showed that the anaerobic co-digestion of kitchen waste and residual sludge significantly contributed to the mitigation of global warming potential (GWP), reaching −19.76 kgCO2-eq, but had the least impact on the mitigation of acidification potential (AP), reaching −0.10 kgSO2-eq. In addition, the addition of humus composites significantly increased the production of biogas. At a concentration of 5 g/L, the biogas yield of the anaerobic co-digestion process was 70.76 m3, which increased by 50.62% compared with the blank group. This amount of biogas replaces ~50.52 kg of standard coal, reducing CO2 emissions by 13.74 kg compared with burning the same amount of standard coal. Therefore, the anaerobic co-digestion treatment of kitchen waste and residual sludge brings considerable environmental benefits. Full article
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17 pages, 5103 KiB  
Article
Degradation of Bisphenol A by Nitrogen-Rich ZIF-8-Derived Carbon Materials-Activated Peroxymonosulfate
by Xiaofeng Tang, Hanqing Xue, Jiawen Li, Shengnan Wang, Jie Yu and Tao Zeng
Toxics 2024, 12(5), 359; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics12050359 - 12 May 2024
Viewed by 468
Abstract
Bisphenol A (BPA), representing a class of organic pollutants, finds extensive applications in the pharmaceutical industry. However, its widespread use poses a significant hazard to both ecosystem integrity and human health. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) based on peroxymonosulfate (PMS) via heterogeneous catalysts are [...] Read more.
Bisphenol A (BPA), representing a class of organic pollutants, finds extensive applications in the pharmaceutical industry. However, its widespread use poses a significant hazard to both ecosystem integrity and human health. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) based on peroxymonosulfate (PMS) via heterogeneous catalysts are frequently proposed for treating persistent pollutants. In this study, the degradation performance of BPA in an oxidation system of PMS activated by transition metal sites anchored nitrogen-doped carbonaceous substrate (M-N-C) materials was investigated. As heterogeneous catalysts targeting the activation of peroxymonosulfate (PMS), M-N-C materials emerge as promising contenders poised to overcome the limitations encountered with traditional carbon materials, which often exhibit insufficient activity in the PMS activation process. Nevertheless, the amalgamation of metal sites during the synthesis process presents a formidable challenge to the structural design of M-N-C. Herein, employing ZIF-8 as the precursor of carbonaceous support, metal ions can readily penetrate the cage structure of the substrate, and the N-rich linkers serve as effective ligands for anchoring metal cations, thereby overcoming the awkward limitation. The research results of this study indicate BPA in water matrix can be effectively removed in the M-N-C/PMS system, in which the obtained nitrogen-rich ZIF-8-derived Cu-N-C presented excellent activity and stability on the PMS activation, as well as the outstanding resistance towards the variation of environmental factors. Moreover, the biological toxicity of BPA and its degradation intermediates were investigated via the Toxicity Estimation Software Tool (T.E.S.T.) based on the ECOSAR system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Toxicity Reduction and Environmental Remediation)
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13 pages, 1218 KiB  
Perspective
Inhalation of Microplastics—A Toxicological Complexity
by Myriam Borgatta and Florian Breider
Toxics 2024, 12(5), 358; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics12050358 - 11 May 2024
Viewed by 499
Abstract
Humans are chronically exposed to airborne microplastics (MPs) by inhalation. Various types of polymer particles have been detected in lung samples, which could pose a threat to human health. Inhalation toxicological studies are crucial for assessing the effects of airborne MPs and for [...] Read more.
Humans are chronically exposed to airborne microplastics (MPs) by inhalation. Various types of polymer particles have been detected in lung samples, which could pose a threat to human health. Inhalation toxicological studies are crucial for assessing the effects of airborne MPs and for exposure-reduction measures. This communication paper addresses important health concerns related to MPs, taking into consideration three levels of complexity, i.e., the particles themselves, the additives present in the plastics, and the exogenous substances adsorbed onto them. This approach aims to obtain a comprehensive toxicological profile of deposited MPs in the lungs, encompassing local and systemic effects. The physicochemical characteristics of MPs may play a pivotal role in lung toxicity. Although evidence suggests toxic effects of MPs in animal and cell models, no established causal link with pulmonary or systemic diseases in humans has been established. The transfer of MPs and associated chemicals from the lungs into the bloodstream and/or pulmonary circulation remains to be confirmed in humans. Understanding the toxicity of MPs requires a multidisciplinary investigation using a One Health approach. Full article
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17 pages, 4803 KiB  
Article
A Deep Learning Approach for Chromium Detection and Characterization from Soil Hyperspectral Data
by Chundi Ma, Xinhang Xu, Min Zhou, Tao Hu and Chongchong Qi
Toxics 2024, 12(5), 357; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics12050357 - 11 May 2024
Viewed by 373
Abstract
High levels of chromium (Cr) in soil pose a significant threat to both humans and the environment. Laboratory-based chemical analysis methods for Cr are time consuming and expensive; thus, there is an urgent need for a more efficient method for detecting Cr in [...] Read more.
High levels of chromium (Cr) in soil pose a significant threat to both humans and the environment. Laboratory-based chemical analysis methods for Cr are time consuming and expensive; thus, there is an urgent need for a more efficient method for detecting Cr in soil. In this study, a deep neural network (DNN) approach was applied to the Land Use and Cover Area frame Survey (LUCAS) dataset to develop a hyperspectral soil Cr content prediction model with good generalizability and accuracy. The optimal DNN model was constructed by optimizing the spectral preprocessing methods and DNN hyperparameters, which achieved good predictive performance for Cr detection, with a correlation coefficient value of 0.79 on the testing set. Four important hyperspectral bands with strong Cr sensitivity (400–439, 1364–1422, 1862–1934, and 2158–2499 nm) were identified by permutation importance and local interpretable model-agnostic explanations. Soil iron oxide and clay mineral content were found to be important factors influencing soil Cr content. The findings of this study provide a feasible method for rapidly determining soil Cr content from hyperspectral data, which can be further refined and applied to large-scale Cr detection in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Innovative Strategies to Mitigate the Impact of Mining)
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19 pages, 4059 KiB  
Article
Adsorption of Cadmium and Lead Capacity and Environmental Stability of Magnesium-Modified High-Sulfur Hydrochar: Greenly Utilizing Chicken Feather
by Weiqi Deng, Xubin Kuang, Zhaoxin Xu, Deyun Li, Yongtao Li and Yulong Zhang
Toxics 2024, 12(5), 356; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics12050356 - 11 May 2024
Viewed by 469
Abstract
Chicken feathers represent a viable material for producing biochar adsorbents. Traditional slow pyrolysis methods often result in sulfur element losses from chicken feathers, whereas hydrothermal reactions generate substantial amounts of nutrient-rich hydrothermal liquor. Magnesium-modified high-sulfur hydrochar MWF was synthesized through magnesium modification, achieving [...] Read more.
Chicken feathers represent a viable material for producing biochar adsorbents. Traditional slow pyrolysis methods often result in sulfur element losses from chicken feathers, whereas hydrothermal reactions generate substantial amounts of nutrient-rich hydrothermal liquor. Magnesium-modified high-sulfur hydrochar MWF was synthesized through magnesium modification, achieving a S content of 3.68%. The maximum equilibrium adsorption amounts of MWF for Cd2+ and Pb2+ were 25.12 mg·g−1 and 70.41 mg·g−1, respectively, representing 4.00 times and 2.75 times of WF. Magnesium modification elevated the sulfur content, pH, ash content, and electronegativity of MWF. The primary mechanisms behind MWF’s adsorption of Cd2+ and Pb2+ involve magnesium ion exchange and complexation with C=O/O=C–O, quaternary N, and S functional groups. MWF maintains robust stability and antioxidative properties, even with low aromaticity levels. Given the lower energy consumption during hydrochar production, MWF offers notable carbon sequestration benefits. The hydrothermal solution derived from MWF is nutrient-rich. Following supplementation with inorganic fertilizer, the hydrothermal solution of MWF significantly enhanced bok choy growth compared to the control group. In general, adopting magnesium-modified hydrothermal reactions to produce hydrochar and converting the resultant hydrothermal solution into water-soluble fertilizer proves a viable strategy for the eco-friendly utilization of chicken feathers. This approach carries substantial value for heavy metal remediation and agricultural practices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Techniques and Methods for Toxic Agent Analysis and Removal)
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17 pages, 8313 KiB  
Article
Migration Patterns and Potential Risk Assessment of Trace Elements in the Soil–Plant System in the Production Area of the Chinese Medicinal Herb Scrophularia ningpoensis Hemsl.
by Yufeng Gong, Wei Ren and Zhenming Zhang
Toxics 2024, 12(5), 355; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics12050355 - 11 May 2024
Viewed by 522
Abstract
Scrophularia ningpoensis Hemsl. holds a prominent place among Chinese medicinal herbs. Assessing the soil–plant system of its origin is crucial for ensuring medication safety. Although some trace elements are essential for the normal functioning of living organisms, exposure to higher concentrations is harmful [...] Read more.
Scrophularia ningpoensis Hemsl. holds a prominent place among Chinese medicinal herbs. Assessing the soil–plant system of its origin is crucial for ensuring medication safety. Although some trace elements are essential for the normal functioning of living organisms, exposure to higher concentrations is harmful to humans, so in order to assess the possible health risk of trace elements in the soil–plant system of Scrophularia ningpoensis Hemsl. origin for human assessment, we used non-carcinogenic risk (HI) and carcinogenic risk (CR) for their evaluation. In this paper, the following trace elements were studied in the soil–Scrophularia ningpoensis Hemsl. system: manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), zinc (Zn), selenium (Se), molybdenum (Mo), arsenic (As) and lead (Pb). Correlation and structural equation analyses showed that the effect of soil in the root zone on the plant was much greater than the effect of soil in the non-root zone on the plant. The single-factor pollution index (Pi) showed that the soil in the production area of Scrophularia ningpoensis Hemsl. was polluted to a certain extent, notably with Pb showing the highest average Pi values of 0.94 and 0.89 in the non-root and root zones, respectively. Additionally, the Nemerow composite pollution indices (PN) for both zones indicated an alert range. Regarding health risks, exposure to soil in the non-root zone posed higher non-carcinogenic risk (HI) and carcinogenic risk (CR) compared to the root zone, although neither zone presented a significant carcinogenic risk. The potential non-carcinogenic risk (HI) and carcinogenic risk (CR) from consuming Scrophularia ningpoensis Hemsl. leaves and stems were more than ten times higher than that of roots. However, the carcinogenic risk (CR) values for both the soil and plant of interest in the soil– Scrophularia ningpoensis Hemsl. system did not exceed 10−4, and therefore no significant carcinogenic risk existed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Health Risk Assessment of the Trace and Macro Elements)
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16 pages, 3458 KiB  
Article
Machine Learning Model for Prediction of Development of Cancer Stem Cell Subpopulation in Tumurs Subjected to Polystyrene Nanoparticles
by Amra Ramović Hamzagić, Marina Gazdić Janković, Danijela Cvetković, Dalibor Nikolić, Sandra Nikolić, Nevena Milivojević Dimitrijević, Nikolina Kastratović, Marko Živanović, Marina Miletić Kovačević and Biljana Ljujić
Toxics 2024, 12(5), 354; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics12050354 - 10 May 2024
Viewed by 449
Abstract
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) play a key role in tumor progression, as they are often responsible for drug resistance and metastasis. Environmental pollution with polystyrene has a negative impact on human health. We investigated the effect of polystyrene nanoparticles (PSNPs) on cancer cell [...] Read more.
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) play a key role in tumor progression, as they are often responsible for drug resistance and metastasis. Environmental pollution with polystyrene has a negative impact on human health. We investigated the effect of polystyrene nanoparticles (PSNPs) on cancer cell stemness using flow cytometric analysis of CD24, CD44, ABCG2, ALDH1 and their combinations. This study uses simultaneous in vitro cell lines and an in silico machine learning (ML) model to predict the progression of cancer stem cell (CSC) subpopulations in colon (HCT-116) and breast (MDA-MB-231) cancer cells. Our findings indicate a significant increase in cancer stemness induced by PSNPs. Exposure to polystyrene nanoparticles stimulated the development of less differentiated subpopulations of cells within the tumor, a marker of increased tumor aggressiveness. The experimental results were further used to train an ML model that accurately predicts the development of CSC markers. Machine learning, especially genetic algorithms, may be useful in predicting the development of cancer stem cells over time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Novel Methods in Toxicology Research)
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18 pages, 4852 KiB  
Article
Stress Responses and Ammonia Nitrogen Removal Efficiency of Oocystis lacustris in Saline Ammonium-Contaminated Wastewater Treatment
by Yuqi Zhu, Yili Zhang, Hui Chen, Lisha Zhang and Chensi Shen
Toxics 2024, 12(5), 353; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics12050353 - 10 May 2024
Viewed by 432
Abstract
The increasing concern over climate change has spurred significant interest in exploring the potential of microalgae for wastewater treatment. Among the various types of industrial wastewaters, high-salinity NH4+-N wastewater stands out as a common challenge. Investigating microalgae’s resilience to NH [...] Read more.
The increasing concern over climate change has spurred significant interest in exploring the potential of microalgae for wastewater treatment. Among the various types of industrial wastewaters, high-salinity NH4+-N wastewater stands out as a common challenge. Investigating microalgae’s resilience to NH4+-N under high-salinity conditions and their efficacy in NH4+-N utilization is crucial for advancing industrial wastewater microalgae treatment technologies. This study evaluated the effectiveness of employing nitrogen-efficient microalgae, specifically Oocystis lacustris, for NH4+-N removal from saline wastewater. The results revealed Oocystis lacustris’s tolerance to a Na2SO4 concentration of 5 g/L. When the Na2SO4 concentration reached 10 g/L, the growth inhibition experienced by Oocystis lacustris began to decrease on the 6th day of cultivation, with significant alleviation observed by the 7th day. Additionally, the toxic mechanism of saline NH4+-N wastewater on Oocystis lacustris was analyzed through various parameters, including chlorophyll-a, soluble protein, oxidative stress indicators, key nitrogen metabolism enzymes, and microscopic observations of algal cells. The results demonstrated that when the Oocystis lacustris was in the stationary growth phase with an initial density of 2 × 107 cells/L, NH4+-N concentrations of 1, 5, and 10 mg/L achieved almost 100% removal of the microalgae on the 1st, 2nd, and 4th days of treatment, respectively. On the other hand, saline NH4+-N wastewater minimally impacted photosynthesis, protein synthesis, and antioxidant systems within algal cells. Additionally, NH4+-N within the cells was assimilated into glutamic acid through glutamate dehydrogenase-mediated pathways besides the conventional pathway involving NH4+-N conversion into glutamine and assimilation amino acids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Toxicity Reduction and Environmental Remediation)
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18 pages, 2099 KiB  
Article
The Role of Life Stages in the Sensitivity of Hediste diversicolor to Nanoplastics: A Case Study with Poly(Methyl)Methacrylate (PMMA)
by Beatriz Neves, Miguel Oliveira, Carolina Frazão, Mónica Almeida, Ricardo J. B. Pinto, Etelvina Figueira and Adília Pires
Toxics 2024, 12(5), 352; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics12050352 - 10 May 2024
Viewed by 456
Abstract
The presence of plastic particles in oceans has been recognized as a major environmental concern. The decrease in particle size increases their ability to directly interact with biota, with particles in the nanometer size range (nanoplastics—NPs) displaying a higher ability to penetrate biological [...] Read more.
The presence of plastic particles in oceans has been recognized as a major environmental concern. The decrease in particle size increases their ability to directly interact with biota, with particles in the nanometer size range (nanoplastics—NPs) displaying a higher ability to penetrate biological membranes, which increases with the decrease in particle size. This study aimed to evaluate the role of life stages in the effects of poly(methyl)methacrylate (PMMA) NPs on the polychaete Hediste diversicolor, a key species in the marine food web and nutrient cycle. Thus, behavioral (burrowing activity in clean and spiked sediment) and biochemical endpoints (neurotransmission, energy reserves, antioxidant defenses, and oxidative damage) were assessed in juvenile and adult organisms after 10 days of exposure to spiked sediment (between 0.5 and 128 mg PMMA NPs/Kg sediment). Overall, the results show that H. diversicolor is sensitive to the presence of PMMA NPs. In juveniles, exposed organisms took longer to burrow in sediment, with significant differences from the controls being observed at all tested concentrations when the test was performed with clean sediment, whereas in PMMA NP-spiked sediment, effects were only found at the concentrations 8, 32, and 128 mg PMMA NPs/Kg sediment. Adults displayed lower sensitivity, with differences to controls being found, for both sediment types, at 8, 32, and 128 mg PMMA NPs/Kg sediment. In terms of Acetylcholinesterase, used as a marker of effects on neurotransmission, juveniles and adults displayed opposite trends, with exposed juveniles displaying increased activity (suggesting apoptosis), whereas in adults, overall decreased activity was found. Energy-related parameters revealed a generally similar pattern (increase in exposed organisms) and higher sensitivity in juveniles (significant effects even at the lower concentrations). NPs also demonstrated the ability to increase antioxidant defenses (higher in juveniles), with oxidative damage only being found in terms of protein carbonylation (all tested NPs conditions) in juveniles. Overall, the data reveal the potential of PMMA NPs to affect behavior and induce toxic effects in H. diversicolor, with greater effects in juveniles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity)
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27 pages, 7322 KiB  
Review
Recovery of Ag(I) from Wastewater by Adsorption: Status and Challenges
by Qiang Wang, Mengling Li, Meng Xi, Mengyuan Zhao, Xiaotong Wang, Xiaoyu Chen and Lin Ding
Toxics 2024, 12(5), 351; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics12050351 - 10 May 2024
Viewed by 392
Abstract
Untreated or inadequately treated silver−containing wastewater may pose adverse effects on hu−man health and the ecological environment. Currently, significant progress has been made in the treatment of Ag(I) in wastewater using adsorption methods, with adsorbents playing a pivotal role in this process. This [...] Read more.
Untreated or inadequately treated silver−containing wastewater may pose adverse effects on hu−man health and the ecological environment. Currently, significant progress has been made in the treatment of Ag(I) in wastewater using adsorption methods, with adsorbents playing a pivotal role in this process. This paper provides a systematic review of various adsorbents for the recovery and treatment of Ag(I) in wastewater, including MOFs, COFs, transition metal sulfides, metal oxides, biomass materials, and other polymeric materials. The adsorption mechanisms of these materials for Ag(I) are elaborated upon, along with the challenges currently faced. Furthermore, insights into optimizing adsorbents and developing novel adsorbents are proposed in this study. Full article
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17 pages, 9723 KiB  
Article
Study of the Adsorption and Separation Behavior of Scandium and Zirconium by Trialkyl Phosphine Oxide-Modified Resins in Sulfuric and Hydrochloric Acid Media
by Botao Xu, Xiangbiao Yin, Shunyan Ning, Yilai Zhong, Xinpeng Wang, Toyohisa Fujita, Mohammed F. Hamza and Yuezhou Wei
Toxics 2024, 12(5), 350; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics12050350 - 10 May 2024
Viewed by 448
Abstract
Zirconium is recognized as one of the main impurities of the rare earth element scandium during purification. It presents significant challenges due to its similar chemical properties, making separating it difficult. This study used trialkyl phosphine oxide (TRPO) as a functional ligand, and [...] Read more.
Zirconium is recognized as one of the main impurities of the rare earth element scandium during purification. It presents significant challenges due to its similar chemical properties, making separating it difficult. This study used trialkyl phosphine oxide (TRPO) as a functional ligand, and the effects of carrier type and acidity on adsorption performance were first investigated. Among these, the novel extraction resin SiO2-P as a carrier for TRPO demonstrated more prominent separation performance in 0.2 M H2SO4 and 5 M HCl solutions. The kinetic and isotherm data were consistent with the pseudo-secondary kinetics and Langmuir model, respectively, and the adsorption process could be regarded as homogeneous monolayer adsorption subject to the dual effects of chemisorption and internal diffusion. In addition, thermodynamic analysis showed that the adsorption process of zirconium under the experimental conditions was a spontaneous endothermic process. Combined with the results of SEM-EDS, FT-IR, and XPS analyses, scandium and zirconium were successfully adsorbed by the resin and uniformly distributed on its surface, and the greater affinity of the P=O groups on the resin for zirconium was the critical factor contributing to the separation of scandium and zirconium. Finally, scandium and zirconium in sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid media were extracted and separated by column experiments, and the purity of scandium could reach 99.8% and 99.99%, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Toxicity Reduction and Environmental Remediation)
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13 pages, 2708 KiB  
Article
Analyzing the Effects of Age, Time of Day, and Experiment on the Basal Locomotor Activity and Light-Off Visual Motor Response Assays in Zebrafish Larvae
by Niki Tagkalidou, Cristiana Roberta Multisanti, Maria Jose Bleda, Juliette Bedrossiantz, Eva Prats, Caterina Faggio, Carlos Barata and Demetrio Raldúa
Toxics 2024, 12(5), 349; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics12050349 - 9 May 2024
Viewed by 505
Abstract
The recent availability of commercial platforms for behavioral analyses in zebrafish larvae based on video-tracking technologies has exponentially increased the number of studies analyzing different behaviors in this model organism to assess neurotoxicity. Among the most commonly used assays in zebrafish larvae are [...] Read more.
The recent availability of commercial platforms for behavioral analyses in zebrafish larvae based on video-tracking technologies has exponentially increased the number of studies analyzing different behaviors in this model organism to assess neurotoxicity. Among the most commonly used assays in zebrafish larvae are basal locomotor activity (BLA) and visual motor responses (VMRs). However, the effect of different intrinsic and extrinsic factors that can significantly alter the outcome of these assays is still not well understood. In this work, we have analyzed the influence of age (5–8 days post-fertilization), time of day (8:00, 10:00, 12:00, 14:00; 16:00, 18:00, and 20:00 h), and experiment (three experiments performed at different days) on BLA and VMR results (4004 analyses for each behavior) in 143 larvae. The results from both behaviors were adjusted to a random-effects linear regression model using generalized least squares (GLSs), including in the model the effect of the three variables, the second-way interactions between them, and the three-way interaction. The results presented in this manuscript show a specific effect of all three intrinsic factors and their interactions on both behaviors, supporting the view that the most stable time period for performing these behavioral assays is from 10:00 am to 04:00 pm, with some differences depending on the age of the larva and the behavioral test. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Novel Methods in Toxicology Research)
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22 pages, 4680 KiB  
Article
Exposure to a PFOA, PFOS and PFHxS Mixture during Gestation and Lactation Alters the Liver Proteome in Offspring of CD-1 Mice
by Emily Kaye, Emily Marques, Juliana Agudelo Areiza, Seyed Mohamad Sadegh Modaresi and Angela Slitt
Toxics 2024, 12(5), 348; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics12050348 - 9 May 2024
Viewed by 659
Abstract
Perfluroalkyl substances (PFASs) are persistent man-made chemicals considered to be emerging pollutants, with Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), and Perfluorohexanesulphonic acid (PFHxS) being linked to hepatotoxicity and steatosis. PFOA, PFOS, and PFHxS can undergo placental and lactational transfer, which results in PFOA, [...] Read more.
Perfluroalkyl substances (PFASs) are persistent man-made chemicals considered to be emerging pollutants, with Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), and Perfluorohexanesulphonic acid (PFHxS) being linked to hepatotoxicity and steatosis. PFOA, PFOS, and PFHxS can undergo placental and lactational transfer, which results in PFOA, PFOS, and PFHxS distribution to the neonatal liver. Moreover, in pregnant dams, exposure to a PFAS mixture, in combination with a high fat diet, increased hepatic steatosis in offspring at postnatal day 21, but the mechanisms have not been elucidated. It was hypothesized that gestational/lactational PFAS exposure would alter the pup liver proteome and biochemical/signaling pathways. Timed-pregnant CD-1 dams were fed a standard chow or 60% kcal high-fat diet. From GD1 until PND20, dams were dosed via oral gavage with vehicle (0.5% Tween 20), individual doses of PFOA, PFOS, PFHxS at 1 mg/kg, or a mixture (1 mg/kg each, totaling 3 mg/kg). Livers were collected from PND21 offspring and SWATH-MS proteomics was performed. IPA analysis revealed PFAS exposure modified disease and biological function pathways involved in liver damage, xenobiotics, and lipid regulation in the PND21 liver. These pathways included lipid and fatty acid transport, storage, oxidation, and synthesis, as well as xenobiotic metabolism and transport, and liver damage and inflammation. This indicates the pup liver proteome is altered via maternal exposure and predisposes the pup to metabolic dysfunctions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue PFAS Toxicology and Metabolism)
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16 pages, 638 KiB  
Review
Applying Red Mud in Cadmium Contamination Remediation: A Scoping Review
by Jintao Li, Xuwei Li, Matthew Fischel, Xiaochen Lin, Shiqi Zhou, Lei Zhang, Lei Wang and Jiali Yan
Toxics 2024, 12(5), 347; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics12050347 - 8 May 2024
Viewed by 525
Abstract
Red mud is an industrial solid waste rarely utilized and often disposed of in landfills, resulting in resource waste and environmental pollution. However, due to its high pH and abundance of iron and aluminum oxides and hydroxides, red mud has excellent adsorption properties [...] Read more.
Red mud is an industrial solid waste rarely utilized and often disposed of in landfills, resulting in resource waste and environmental pollution. However, due to its high pH and abundance of iron and aluminum oxides and hydroxides, red mud has excellent adsorption properties which can effectively remove heavy metals through ion exchange, adsorption, and precipitation. Therefore, red mud is a valuable resource rather than a waste byproduct. In recent years, red mud has been increasingly studied for its potential in wastewater treatment and soil improvement. Red mud can effectively reduce the migration and impact of heavy metals in soils and water bodies. This paper reviews the research results from using red mud to mitigate cadmium pollution in water bodies and soils, discusses the environmental risks of red mud, and proposes key research directions for the future management of red mud in cadmium-contaminated environments. Full article
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26 pages, 4226 KiB  
Article
Influence of Four Veterinary Antibiotics on Constructed Treatment Wetland Nitrogen Transformation
by Matthew V. Russell, Tiffany L. Messer, Deborah A. Repert, Richard L. Smith, Shannon Bartelt-Hunt, Daniel D. Snow and Ariel P. Reed
Toxics 2024, 12(5), 346; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics12050346 - 8 May 2024
Viewed by 571
Abstract
The use of wetlands as a treatment approach for nitrogen in runoff is a common practice in agroecosystems. However, nitrate is not the sole constituent present in agricultural runoff and other biologically active contaminants have the potential to affect nitrate removal efficiency. In [...] Read more.
The use of wetlands as a treatment approach for nitrogen in runoff is a common practice in agroecosystems. However, nitrate is not the sole constituent present in agricultural runoff and other biologically active contaminants have the potential to affect nitrate removal efficiency. In this study, the impacts of the combined effects of four common veterinary antibiotics (chlortetracycline, sulfamethazine, lincomycin, monensin) on nitrate-N treatment efficiency in saturated sediments and wetlands were evaluated in a coupled microcosm/mesocosm scale experiment. Veterinary antibiotics were hypothesized to significantly impact nitrogen speciation (e.g., nitrate and ammonium) and nitrogen uptake and transformation processes (e.g., plant uptake and denitrification) within the wetland ecosystems. To test this hypothesis, the coupled study had three objectives: 1. assess veterinary antibiotic impact on nitrogen cycle processes in wetland sediments using microcosm incubations, 2. measure nitrate-N reduction in water of floating treatment wetland systems over time following the introduction of veterinary antibiotic residues, and 3. identify the fate of veterinary antibiotics in floating treatment wetlands using mesocosms. Microcosms containing added mixtures of the veterinary antibiotics had little to no effect at lower concentrations but stimulated denitrification potential rates at higher concentrations. Based on observed changes in the nitrogen loss in the microcosm experiments, floating treatment wetland mesocosms were enriched with 1000 μg L−1 of the antibiotic mixture. Rates of nitrate-N loss observed in mesocosms with the veterinary antibiotic enrichment were consistent with the microcosm experiments in that denitrification was not inhibited, even at the high dosage. In the mesocosm experiments, average nitrate-N removal rates were not found to be impacted by the veterinary antibiotics. Further, veterinary antibiotics were primarily found in the roots of the floating treatment wetland biomass, accumulating approximately 190 mg m−2 of the antibiotic mixture. These findings provide new insight into the impact that veterinary antibiotic mixtures may have on nutrient management strategies for large-scale agricultural operations and the potential for veterinary antibiotic removal in these wetlands. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exposure and Toxicity of Emerging Organic Pollutants in Soil)
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