Biological Comprehensive Remediation of Soil and Water Contaminated by Heavy Metals

A special issue of Toxics (ISSN 2305-6304). This special issue belongs to the section "Toxicity Reduction and Environmental Remediation".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2023) | Viewed by 7573

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Environmental Sciences, COMSATS University Islamabad, Vehari, Pakistan
Interests: trace element biogeochemistry; plant stress physiology; remediation; wastewater and drinking water treatment; risk assessment

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Guest Editor
Department of Environmental Sciences, COMSATS University Islamabad, Vehari-Campus, Vehari 61100, Pakistan
Interests: soil remediation; water treatment; heavy metal stress; risk assessment

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Guest Editor
Associate Professor, College of Natural and Health Sciences, Zayed University, Abu Dhabi P.O. Box 144534, United Arab Emirates
Interests: interface between environmental chemistry, analytical chemistry, materials and nanotechnology; sustainable water solutions and trace analysis; heavy metals; emerging organic pollutants

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The proliferation of heavy metal(loid)s in the environment due to population growth, urbanization, industrialization, etc., is a major problem that has caused widespread environmental contamination. Both organic and inorganic pollutants are contributing to this contamination, with heavy metal(loid)s being the most significant source of pollution. Due to their frequent use in industrial processes, heavy metals are released into the environment and can be found in water, air, and soil. Cadmium, arsenic, lead, chromium, nickel, copper, and mercury are the most common heavy metal(loid)s that can pollute the environment. Owing to their persistent nature and biomagnification, living organisms, including humans, are frequently exposed to these toxic metals via various routes (water, food, etc.). Inside living organisms, heavy metal(loid)s can provoke numerous noxious effects, such as cancer of various organs; therefore, it is of prime importance to remediate water and soil contaminated by heavy metal(loid)s to minimize human exposure to toxic metal(loid)s.

The prime objective of the current Special Issue, “Biological Comprehensive Remediation of Soil and Water Contaminated by Heavy Metals”, is to focus on the occurrence, biogeochemistry, and risk assessment of heavy metals in the soil–water–plant–human continuum, as well as the biological techniques for remediating heavy-metal-contaminated soil and water. We encourage and welcome authors working in relevant fields to submit their original research and review articles to this Special Issue.

Dr. Muhammad Shahid
Dr. Behzad Murtaza
Dr. Jibran Iqbal
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • heavy metal biogeochemistry
  • occurance and contamination
  • toxicity
  • biological remediation
  • soil and water traetment
  • risk assessment

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

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11 pages, 524 KiB  
Article
Impact of Cadmium Contamination on Fertilizer Value and Associated Health Risks in Different Soil Types Following Anaerobic Digestate Application
by Ghulam Mustafa Shah, Umer Farooq, Zunaira Shabbir, Jianbin Guo, Renjie Dong, Hafiz Faiq Bakhat, Muhammad Wakeel, Ayesha Siddique and Naeem Shahid
Toxics 2023, 11(12), 1008; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11121008 - 10 Dec 2023
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Abstract
Cadmium (Cd) contamination in the soil potentially hampers microbial biomass and adversely affects their services such as decomposition and mineralization of organic matter. It can reduce nitrogen (N) metabolism and consequently affect plant growth and physiology. Further, Cd accumulation in plants can pose [...] Read more.
Cadmium (Cd) contamination in the soil potentially hampers microbial biomass and adversely affects their services such as decomposition and mineralization of organic matter. It can reduce nitrogen (N) metabolism and consequently affect plant growth and physiology. Further, Cd accumulation in plants can pose health risks through vegetable consumption. Here, we investigated consequences of Cd contamination on fertilizer value and associated health risks following the application of biogas residues (BGR) to various soil types. Our results indicate that the application of BGR to all soil types significantly increased dry matter (DM) yield and N uptake. However, the Cd contamination negatively affected DM yield and N recovery from BGR in a dose-dependent manner. Organic N mineralization from BGR also decreased in Cd-contaminated soils. The highest DM yield and N recovery were recorded in sandy soil, whereas the lowest values were observed in clay soil. Cadmium was accumulated in spinach, and health risk index (HRI) associated with its dietary intake revealed that consuming spinach grown in Cd-contaminated soil, with or without BGR, is unsafe. Among the soil types, values of daily intake of metals (DIM) and HRI were lowest in clay soil and highest in sandy soil. However, the application of BGR curtailed HRI across all soil types. Notably, the application of BGR alone resulted in HRI values < 1, which are under the safe limit. We conclude that soil contamination with Cd reduces fertilizer value and entails implications for human health. However, the application of BGR to the soil can decrease Cd effects. Full article
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Review

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20 pages, 1955 KiB  
Review
Water Quality Degradation Due to Heavy Metal Contamination: Health Impacts and Eco-Friendly Approaches for Heavy Metal Remediation
by Peng Zhang, Mingjie Yang, Jingjing Lan, Yan Huang, Jinxi Zhang, Shuangshuang Huang, Yashi Yang and Junjie Ru
Toxics 2023, 11(10), 828; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11100828 - 30 Sep 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 6318
Abstract
Water quality depends on its physicochemical and biological parameters. Changes in parameters such as pH, temperature, and essential and non-essential trace metals in water can render it unfit for human use. Moreover, the characteristics of the local environment, geological processes, geochemistry, and hydrological [...] Read more.
Water quality depends on its physicochemical and biological parameters. Changes in parameters such as pH, temperature, and essential and non-essential trace metals in water can render it unfit for human use. Moreover, the characteristics of the local environment, geological processes, geochemistry, and hydrological properties of water sources also affect water quality. Generally, groundwater is utilized for drinking purposes all over the globe. The surface is also utilized for human use and industrial purposes. There are several natural and anthropogenic activities responsible for the heavy metal contamination of water. Industrial sources, including coal washery, steel industry, food processing industry, plastic processing, metallic work, leather tanning, etc., are responsible for heavy metal contamination in water. Domestic and agricultural waste is also responsible for hazardous metallic contamination in water. Contaminated water with heavy metal ions like Cr (VI), Cd (II), Pb (II), As (V and III), Hg (II), Ni (II), and Cu (II) is responsible for several health issues in humans, like liver failure, kidney damage, gastric and skin cancer, mental disorders and harmful effects on the reproductive system. Hence, the evaluation of heavy metal contamination in water and its removal is needed. There are several physicochemical methods that are available for the removal of heavy metals from water, but these methods are expensive and generate large amounts of secondary pollutants. Biological methods are considered cost-effective and eco-friendly methods for the remediation of metallic contaminants from water. In this review, we focused on water contamination with toxic heavy metals and their toxicity and eco-friendly bioremediation approaches. Full article
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