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Machines, Volume 11, Issue 3 (March 2023) – 96 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Soft robots hold the promise of creating robotic systems that are cheaper, safer and more flexible than traditional robots. Artificial muscles belong to the most important components of soft robots, and among them, dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) represent the technology that comes closest to the capabilities of a natural muscle. With the recent commercial availability of stacked DEAs, real-world applications are within reach. To develop these applications, it is important to analyze the DEA deformation due to a stimulus in a known environment and under different loading conditions. This requires appropriate test benches, whose components are precisely specified in order to make the research field of dielectric elastomer actuators and soft robots more accessible. View this paper
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34 pages, 44798 KiB  
Article
Study on Design Constraints of Conjugated Straight-Line Internal Gear Pair
by Yundong Liang, Zongbin Chen, Yantao Zhang and Jian Liao
Machines 2023, 11(3), 412; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines11030412 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1117
Abstract
In order to solve the problem that the design constraints of the conjugated straight-line internal gear pair are unclear, the designing and checking of gear pairs requires repeated trial and error. By analogy with the design of the involute gear pair, the basic [...] Read more.
In order to solve the problem that the design constraints of the conjugated straight-line internal gear pair are unclear, the designing and checking of gear pairs requires repeated trial and error. By analogy with the design of the involute gear pair, the basic design parameters of the conjugated straight-line internal gear pair were clarified. Based on the mathematical model of the gear pair, the constraints on basic design parameters were given according to gear engagement theory and the geometrical relations of the tooth profile. The calculation formula and the constraint of the contact ratio were deduced according to the kinematic relations. Based on Litvin’s undercutting theory, the constraints on avoiding undercutting and end cutting were deduced and their correctness was verified by examples. The judgment method of tooth-overlapping interference and its corresponding numerical calculation flow were presented. The constraint on avoiding radial interference was deduced and analyzed. Based on the above content, the influence laws of design parameters on the design constraints were studied. Last, design examples were given and the effective design flow diagram of the conjugated straight-line internal gear pair was summarized. These research results provide a theoretical basis for the parameter design of conjugated straight-line internal gear pairs, provide guidance to avoid the interference of the gear pair, and promote the design system of the gear pair. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Machine Design and Theory)
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13 pages, 3082 KiB  
Article
Verification of a Newly Developed Mobile Robot’s Actuator Parameters
by Ján Semjon, Rudolf Jánoš, Marek Sukop, Peter Tuleja, Peter Marcinko and Marek Nowakowski
Machines 2023, 11(3), 411; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines11030411 - 22 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1005
Abstract
This paper addresses the issue of the verification and comparison of the selected properties of a newly developed electric actuator. This actuator is intended to act as the drive of a walking robot designed for robotic football. Its envisioned placement is inside the [...] Read more.
This paper addresses the issue of the verification and comparison of the selected properties of a newly developed electric actuator. This actuator is intended to act as the drive of a walking robot designed for robotic football. Its envisioned placement is inside the robot’s knee joint and in its upper part. An integral part of the actuator is a harmonic precision gearbox and an absolute rotation sensor. The prototype of the newly developed actuator consists of both aluminum and 3D-printed parts. The selected parameters were verified according to the selected characteristics of ISO standard 9283, namely a one-directional pose accuracy and repeatable pose accuracy. The obtained data were compared with those of the standard actuator used thus far in constructing robots for robotic football. The implemented verification is based on the need to improve the performance parameters of the actuator while ensuring the sufficient accuracy of stopping the actuator in the required position. This is ensured by the use of a more accurate harmonic reducer and rotation sensor compared to the standard actuator. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design and Control of Electrical Machines II)
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22 pages, 13416 KiB  
Article
2D and 3D Wires Formability for Car Seats: A Novel Full-Automatic Equipment Concept towards High Productivity and Flexibility
by Manuel Gaspar, Francisco J. G. Silva, Arnaldo G. Pinto and Raul D. S. G. Campilho
Machines 2023, 11(3), 410; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines11030410 - 21 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3727
Abstract
The automotive industry demands high quality at very low prices. To this end, it is necessary to constantly innovate, making processes increasingly competitive, while continuing to ensure high levels of quality. Model diversification has forced the automotive industry to make its manufacturing processes [...] Read more.
The automotive industry demands high quality at very low prices. To this end, it is necessary to constantly innovate, making processes increasingly competitive, while continuing to ensure high levels of quality. Model diversification has forced the automotive industry to make its manufacturing processes more flexible, without losing competitiveness. This has been the case for car seats, where the quantities to be produced per batch are significantly lowering due to the diversity of existing models. The objective of this work was to increase the production rate of bent wires used in car seat cushions and increase the flexibility of changing wire types in production. After benchmarking the existing solutions so far, it was verified that none are capable of complying with the required production rate, while also offering the desired flexibility. Thus, it is necessary to start with a new concept of conformation of the wires used in these seat cushions. The new concept developed and integrated some of the previously known solutions, developing other systems capable of providing the desired response in terms of productivity and flexibility. To this end, new mechanical solutions and automated systems were developed, which, together with other existing ones, made it possible to design equipment that complies with all the necessary requirements. The developed concept is innovative and can be employed to other types of products in which it can be applied. The new concept developed yields a production rate of 950 parts/hour (initial goal: 800 parts/hour), features a setup time of around 30 min, ensuring the desired flexibility, and the tool costs about 90% less than traditional tools. The payback period is around 5 months, given that the equipment cost was EUR 122.000 in terms of construction and assembly, and generated a gain of EUR 280.000 in the first year of service. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial Process Improvement by Automation and Robotics)
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18 pages, 3707 KiB  
Article
Kinematic Calibration of a Space Manipulator Based on Visual Measurement System with Extended Kalman Filter
by Zhengpu Wang, Baoshi Cao, Zongwu Xie, Boyu Ma, Kui Sun and Yang Liu
Machines 2023, 11(3), 409; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines11030409 - 21 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1543
Abstract
The calibration of kinematic parameters has been widely used to improve the pose (position and orientation) accuracy of the robot arm. Intelligent measuring equipment with high accuracy is usually provided for the industrial manipulator. Unfortunately, large noise exists in the vision measurement system, [...] Read more.
The calibration of kinematic parameters has been widely used to improve the pose (position and orientation) accuracy of the robot arm. Intelligent measuring equipment with high accuracy is usually provided for the industrial manipulator. Unfortunately, large noise exists in the vision measurement system, which is provided for space manipulators. To overcome the adverse effect of measuring noise and improve the optimality of calibrating time, a calibration method based on extended Kalman filter (EKF) for space manipulators is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the identification model based on the Denavit–Hartenberg (D-H) modeling method is established. Then, the camera which is rigidly attached to the end-effector takes pictures of a calibration board that is settled around the manipulator. The actual pose of the end-effector is calculated based on the pictures of the calibration board. Subsequently, different data between the actual pose and theoretical pose as input, whilst error parameters are estimated by EKF and compensated in the kinematic algorithm. The simulation result shows that the pose accuracy has been improved by approximately 90 percent. Compared with the calibration method of the least squares estimate (LSE), EKF is beneficial to further optimize the calibrating time with a faster computation speed and ensure the stability of the calibration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Robotics, Mechatronics and Intelligent Machines)
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13 pages, 7355 KiB  
Article
Calculation of the Heat Flux from a Ball Screw Nut to the Nut Raceway
by Tzu-Chien Kuo, An-Shik Yang, Yih-Chyun Hwang and Wen-Hsin Hsieh
Machines 2023, 11(3), 408; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines11030408 - 21 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1026
Abstract
In the field of precision machining, temperature fluctuation tends to cause the most significant machining errors. In particular, heat, which is generated in the nut of the ball screw feed system during movement, can deform the screw shaft significantly. In order to calculate [...] Read more.
In the field of precision machining, temperature fluctuation tends to cause the most significant machining errors. In particular, heat, which is generated in the nut of the ball screw feed system during movement, can deform the screw shaft significantly. In order to calculate and evaluate the thermal deformation of the ball screw shaft, the rate of the heat transfer from the nut to the screw shaft must be known. This rate can be calculated by subtracting the heat transfer rate to the nut raceway from the heat generation rate of the nut. Hence, it is necessary to calculate the heat flux from the nut to the nut raceway. This paper introduces a novel method to calculate the heat flux from the nut to the nut raceway. The new approach also enables calculations for different operating conditions. Furthermore, an experimental setup is established to measure the temperature increase, from 0 to 180 s after the nut starts moving, for various operating conditions. It is then theoretically shown that the 0–180 s temperature increase/heat flux curves for the nut are “universal”, i.e., the curve remains unchanged for the different operating conditions. Subsequently, a thermal model using the finite element method (FEM) is developed to simulate the nut temperature increase over time, which is then compared with the experimental data. As a result, it becomes possible to determine the heat flux from the nut to the nut raceway and calculate the 0–180 s temperature increase/heat flux curve (ΔT˜0~180s,Training Data) for the training group. Finally, the heat flux from the nut to the nut raceway is calculated for ten different operating conditions in the test group using the 0–180 s temperature increase/heat flux curve of the training group (ΔT˜0~180s,Training Data). The corresponding temperature curves are then calculated by inputting the values of the heat fluxes into the FEM model. The highest root mean square error (RMSE) between the calculated and experimentally measured temperature increase was 0.16 °C for Test 7 (the error was 10.7%). This result indicates that the new method is valid and feasible for calculating the heat flux from a ball screw nut to the nut raceway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Advanced Manufacturing)
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23 pages, 7640 KiB  
Article
Study on the Engagement Characteristics and Control Strategy of High Speed Difference Dry Friction Clutch
by Chu Zhu, Zhi Chen, Zongcai Shi and Yingdong Zhang
Machines 2023, 11(3), 407; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines11030407 - 21 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1387
Abstract
In the short/vertical take-off and landing aircraft propulsion system, the vertical take-off/landing and rapid flight are switched through the engagement and disconnection of the dry friction clutch. The smooth and rapid connection of the friction clutch is crucial for the mobility and reliability [...] Read more.
In the short/vertical take-off and landing aircraft propulsion system, the vertical take-off/landing and rapid flight are switched through the engagement and disconnection of the dry friction clutch. The smooth and rapid connection of the friction clutch is crucial for the mobility and reliability of this type of aircraft. However, the friction clutch vibrates and generates a large amount of heat at high speed, which affects the engagement performance of the clutch. In practice, when the engagement pressure rises quickly, the clutch engagement time is short, and the temperature rise is small, but the impact torque is large, and vice versa. In view of this problem, with a short/vertical take-off aircraft dry friction clutch as the research object, considering the nonlinear variation of friction coefficient and lift fan load torque, the dynamics model and temperature field model of the high speed difference dry friction clutch are established to analyze the clutch engagement time, impact torque, and temperature change. The engagement test at the high speed of the clutch shows that the simulation results of the kinetic model and temperature field model are consistent with the test results. To realize low temperature rise, low impact torque, and short engagement time, the variable slope engagement pressure control method is proposed. Compared with the traditional fixed slope engagement pressure, the proposed variable slope engagement pressure can reduce the engagement time, impact torque and temperature rise simultaneously. The research results can provide a reference for the friction clutch engagement control of short-range take-off and landing aircraft, reduce the development cost of such aircraft, and improve the reliability of the design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamic Stability Analysis of Aerospace Structures)
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14 pages, 9003 KiB  
Article
Investigation on White Layer Formation in Dry High-Speed Milling of Nickel-Based Superalloy GH4169
by Jiamao Zhang, Jin Du, Binxun Li and Guosheng Su
Machines 2023, 11(3), 406; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines11030406 - 21 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1560
Abstract
To investigate the formation mechanism of the white layer on the machined surface during high-speed milling of nickel-based superalloy GH4169, several cutting parameters were selected for milling experiments. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) were employed to [...] Read more.
To investigate the formation mechanism of the white layer on the machined surface during high-speed milling of nickel-based superalloy GH4169, several cutting parameters were selected for milling experiments. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) were employed to characterize element distribution, phase transformation, and microstructure changes in the machined surface of the superalloy and then reveal the formation mechanism of the white layer on the machined surface. The results show that the white layer appears on the machined surface of GH4169, which is dense and has no obvious structural features. The total amount of elements in the white layer remains unchanged, but the distribution of elements such as C, N, O, Fe, and Ni changes due to phase change. The formation mechanism of the white layer is due to the dynamic recovery and dynamic recrystallization caused by the heat–force coupling effect, which leads to the grain refinement of the material and thus forms the white layer. This investigation can provide theoretical support to improve the service life of the parts in actual machining. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced Manufacturing and Surface Technology)
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5 pages, 185 KiB  
Editorial
Bio-Inspired Smart Machines: Structure, Mechanisms and Applications
by Yanjie Wang, Dong Mei, Xiaofeng Liu, Aihong Ji, Shichao Niu and Bo Li
Machines 2023, 11(3), 405; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines11030405 - 20 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1018
Abstract
With the long-term evolution of nature, each creature has its unique structure and function, which can adjust to unstructured environments with diversity [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio-Inspired Smart Machines: Structure, Mechanisms and Applications)
13 pages, 1826 KiB  
Article
Proposal of Hybrid Discontinuous PWM Technique for Five-Phase Inverters under Open-Phase Fault Operation
by Markel Fernandez, Endika Robles, Iker Aretxabaleta, Iñigo Kortabarria and José Luis Martín
Machines 2023, 11(3), 404; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines11030404 - 20 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1085
Abstract
One of the most common issues in inverters are open-circuit faults (OPF). In this scenario, a proper fault-tolerant technique must be used to improve the motor performance. Although basic fault-tolerant modulation techniques are normally preferred, this paper proposes a discontinuous pulse-width modulation algorithm [...] Read more.
One of the most common issues in inverters are open-circuit faults (OPF). In this scenario, a proper fault-tolerant technique must be used to improve the motor performance. Although basic fault-tolerant modulation techniques are normally preferred, this paper proposes a discontinuous pulse-width modulation algorithm (HD-PWM) to operate five-phase inverters under a single OPF. In particular, loss equalization between the remaining switches after a fault occurs is the main objective of the HD-PWM algorithm, thus preventing future faults from occurring. The efficiency and harmonic distortion of the proposed technique are compared to the well-known sinusoidal PWM by simulation and experimentation under OPF conditions. The results obtained show a great performance of the proposed modulation technique, obtaining a relevant efficiency improvement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Electrical Machines and Drives)
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26 pages, 16743 KiB  
Article
Comparative Study of Path Tracking Controllers on Low Friction Roads for Autonomous Vehicles
by Jaepoong Lee and Seongjin Yim
Machines 2023, 11(3), 403; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines11030403 - 20 Mar 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1632
Abstract
This paper presents a comparison among path tracking controllers on low-friction roads for autonomous vehicles. There are two goals in this paper. The first is to check the performance of path tracking controllers on low-friction roads, and the second is to check the [...] Read more.
This paper presents a comparison among path tracking controllers on low-friction roads for autonomous vehicles. There are two goals in this paper. The first is to check the performance of path tracking controllers on low-friction roads, and the second is to check the effectiveness of four-wheel steering (4WS) for path tracking. To fully investigate the performance of path-tracking controllers on low-friction roads in this paper, the pure pursuit method, Stanley method, PID control, linear quadratic regulator, sliding mode control and model predictive control are designed and compared in terms of some measures. Front and four-wheel steering are adopted as actuators for path tracking. To utilize 4WS in the pure pursuit method, Stanley method and PID control, a yaw rate tracking control is adopted. With the designed path tracking controllers, a simulation is conducted on vehicle simulation software. From the simulation results, it is shown that most path tracking controllers are effective for path tracking on low-friction roads if finely tuned, and that 4WS is not recommended for path tracking on low-friction roads. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Vehicle Dynamics and Control)
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19 pages, 724 KiB  
Article
Optimizing Cascaded Control of Mechatronic Systems through Constrained Residual Reinforcement Learning
by Tom Staessens, Tom Lefebvre and Guillaume Crevecoeur
Machines 2023, 11(3), 402; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines11030402 - 20 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1065
Abstract
Cascaded control structures are prevalent in industrial systems with many disturbances to obtain stable control but are cumbersome and challenging to tune. In this work, we propose cascaded constrained residual reinforcement learning (RL), an intuitive method that allows to improve the performance of [...] Read more.
Cascaded control structures are prevalent in industrial systems with many disturbances to obtain stable control but are cumbersome and challenging to tune. In this work, we propose cascaded constrained residual reinforcement learning (RL), an intuitive method that allows to improve the performance of a cascaded control structure while maintaining safe operation at all times. We draw inspiration from the constrained residual RL framework, in which a constrained reinforcement learning agent learns corrective adaptations to a base controller’s output to increase optimality. We first revisit the interplay between the residual agent and the baseline controller and subsequently extend this to the cascaded case. We analyze the differences and challenges this structure brings and derive some principle insights from this into the stability and operation of the cascaded residual architecture. Next, we propose a novel actor structure to enable efficient learning under the cascaded setting. We show that the standard algorithm is suboptimal for application to cascaded control structures and validate our method on a high-fidelity simulator of a dual motor drivetrain, resulting in a performance improvement of 14.7% on average, with only a minor decrease in performance occurring during the training phase. We study the different principles constituting the method and examine and validate their contribution to the algorithm’s performance under the considered cascaded control structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Electrical Machines and Drives)
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14 pages, 6489 KiB  
Article
Exploration of Flow Instability Characteristics in a Two-Stage Axial-Flow Compressor via Numerical Simulation Method
by Tong Wang, Xiangyuan Dou and Yongwen Liu
Machines 2023, 11(3), 401; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines11030401 - 20 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1060
Abstract
A four-blade-passage numerical model was developed for a two-stage axial-flow compressor with an inlet guide vane (IGV) for the purpose of studying the steady and dynamic characteristics of the compressor approaching its stability limit. The flow-field information indicated that the tip-leakage flow decreased [...] Read more.
A four-blade-passage numerical model was developed for a two-stage axial-flow compressor with an inlet guide vane (IGV) for the purpose of studying the steady and dynamic characteristics of the compressor approaching its stability limit. The flow-field information indicated that the tip-leakage flow decreased more rapidly from the blade’s leading edge to the trailing edge, with a decreasing flow rate. The leakage flow was verified to be driven via the blade load over the whole operating range. Further research on the blade load was carried out. The magnitude of the highest blade load in the leading-edge portion of the first-stage rotor determined the lowest flow rate with steady-simulation analysis. The circumferential grooves on the rotor improved the rotor’s stable range via reducing the blade load. Unsteady-simulation results showed that the extreme blade load appeared first at the front of the first stage, with a decreasing flow rate. The second stage played a positive compensative role through releasing some of the load from the first stage. It can be generalized that the lowest flow rate at a specific speed is determined via not only any single stage but also other stages in a multistage axial-flow compressor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from CITC2022)
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27 pages, 9634 KiB  
Article
Dynamic Service Mechanism of Double-Row Spherical Roller Bearings Due to Self-Aligning Behavior
by Yu Xing, Yifei Zhang, Yin Zhang, Daoyun Qiao, Yuxia Pei and Yuan Xiao
Machines 2023, 11(3), 400; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines11030400 - 19 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1451
Abstract
Spherical roller bearings (SRBs) are widely used under self-aligning operating conditions, such as rotor bending or an angular misalignment between inner and outer rings due to their self-aligning function. However, the characterization of SRBs’ self-aligning function is often ignored in the present models. [...] Read more.
Spherical roller bearings (SRBs) are widely used under self-aligning operating conditions, such as rotor bending or an angular misalignment between inner and outer rings due to their self-aligning function. However, the characterization of SRBs’ self-aligning function is often ignored in the present models. The reason for this is that the self-aligning condition is essentially a fault condition, and many scholars have assumed SRBs are in an ideal operating condition. Although there is nothing wrong with this analysis theoretically, it is incapable of characterizing SRBs’ service behavior comprehensively. In this work, the Lagrange equation was introduced to model the relationship among the rollers and the inner and outer rings. The contact region in particular was characterized in detail in order to solve the problems of undetermined contact status (UCS) and the varying law of the self-aligning contact angle (SAC angle). For the experiment, a novel SRBs pedestal with a self-aligning operating condition was designed, and the relevant self-aligning function testing was carried out. A good agreement was shown between the theoretical and experimental results. The results pointed out that, if taking no account of the self-aligning function, SRBs can be regarded as angular contact ball bearings or cylinder roller bearings. The amplitude of the inner-ring motion orbit is determined by the external load, but the shape is influenced by the direction and magnitude of the SAC angle. In the example of this paper, the values of the main frequency equal 136.8 Hz. Some additional frequencies are clearly aroused under the self-aligning operating condition, whose value is approximately equal to 8.3 Hz or its integer multiples. The dynamic performance of SRBs will be substantially improved by a light axial load plus an anticlockwise self-aligning contact angle rather than a large axial preload. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vibration and Acoustic Analysis of Components and Machines)
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23 pages, 11065 KiB  
Article
New Two-BWT Blade Aerodynamic Design and CFD Simulation
by Guo Li, Juchuan Dai, Fan Zhang and Chengming Zuo
Machines 2023, 11(3), 399; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines11030399 - 19 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1410
Abstract
Due to reduced manufacturing, transportation, and installation costs, the two-blade wind turbines (Two-BWT) are a viable option for offshore wind farms. So far, there is no mature design model for offshore Two-BWT. This paper proposes an aerodynamic design method for offshore Two-BWT blades [...] Read more.
Due to reduced manufacturing, transportation, and installation costs, the two-blade wind turbines (Two-BWT) are a viable option for offshore wind farms. So far, there is no mature design model for offshore Two-BWT. This paper proposes an aerodynamic design method for offshore Two-BWT blades using the blade element momentum (BEM) theory. This method calculates the power coefficient of the Two-BWT by analogy with the three-blade wind turbines (Three-BWT), and then determines the wind rotor diameter. Then, the airfoil, chord length, and twist angle are taken as the key design factors. Furthermore, the piecewise combination method (PCM) for airfoil distribution, the three-point sine method (Three-PSM) for chord length distribution, and the two-point sine method (Two-PSM) for torsion angle distribution are adopted, respectively. Subsequently, the minimum rotational speed, under the rated wind speed and rated power, is taken as the optimization objective to establish the optimization model. The global flow field of Two-BWT is constructed based on CFD technology, and the characteristics of wind speed distribution and blade pressure distribution in the flow field are investigated. Finally, the CFD results are compared with the results of the BEM theory, and the consistency of the results also shows the feasibility of the design method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Energy Equipment and Condition Monitoring)
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8 pages, 2039 KiB  
Communication
A New Self-Reconfiguration Wave-like Crawling Robot: Design, Analysis, and Experiments
by Haosheng Sun, Qingxiang Wu, Xuebing Wang, Tong Yang and Ning Sun
Machines 2023, 11(3), 398; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines11030398 - 19 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1726
Abstract
Traditional mobile robots with fixed structures lack the ability to cope with complex terrains and tasks. Reconfigurable modular mobile robots have received considerable attention as they can automatically reassemble according to the changing environment or task. In this paper, a new self-reconfiguration wave-like [...] Read more.
Traditional mobile robots with fixed structures lack the ability to cope with complex terrains and tasks. Reconfigurable modular mobile robots have received considerable attention as they can automatically reassemble according to the changing environment or task. In this paper, a new self-reconfiguration wave-like crawling (SWC) robot is presented to improve the mobile robots’ locomotion capacity. First, the mechanical design of the wave-like crawling mechanism is detailed. Then, the series and parallel connections are introduced to achieve self-reconfiguration. In addition, the kinematic model of the SWC robot is established. Finally, experiments were performed to verify the robotic system with wireless data transmission. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Intelligent Systems and Robotics)
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20 pages, 7012 KiB  
Article
Effects of Tool Edge Geometry and Cutting Conditions on the Performance Indicators in Dry Turning AISI 1045 Steel
by Adel T. Abbas, Magdy M. El Rayes, Abdulhamid A. Al-Abduljabbar, Adham E. Ragab, Faycal Benyahia and Ahmed Elkaseer
Machines 2023, 11(3), 397; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines11030397 - 18 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1516
Abstract
This article presents an experimental investigation and statistical analysis of the effects of cutting conditions on the machining performance of AISI 1045 steel using a wiper-shaped insert. Experimental findings are used to compare the machining performance obtained using wiper inserts with those obtained [...] Read more.
This article presents an experimental investigation and statistical analysis of the effects of cutting conditions on the machining performance of AISI 1045 steel using a wiper-shaped insert. Experimental findings are used to compare the machining performance obtained using wiper inserts with those obtained using conventional round-nose inserts as recently reported in the literature. In addition, the effects of process conditions, namely cutting speed, feed rate, and depth of cut, are analyzed in order to obtain optimum conditions for both types of inserts. The goal is to achieve the optimal machining outcomes: minimum surface roughness, resultant cutting force, and cutting temperature, but maximum material removal rate. A full factorial design was followed to conduct the experimental trials, while ANOVA was utilized to estimate the effect of each factor on the process responses. A desirability function optimization tool was used to optimize the studied responses. The results reveal that the optimum material removal rate for wiper-shaped inserts is 67% more than that of conventional inserts, while maintaining a 0.7 µm surface roughness value. The superior results obtained with wiper-shaped inserts allow wiper tools to use higher feed rates, resulting in larger material removal rates while obtaining the same surface quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High Performance and Hybrid Manufacturing Processes)
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14 pages, 5830 KiB  
Article
Grasping of Solid Industrial Objects Using 3D Registration
by Monica Sileo, Domenico Daniele Bloisi and Francesco Pierri
Machines 2023, 11(3), 396; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines11030396 - 17 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1184
Abstract
Robots allow industrial manufacturers to speed up production and to increase the product’s quality. This paper deals with the grasping of partially known industrial objects in an unstructured environment. The proposed approach consists of two main steps: (1) the generation of an object [...] Read more.
Robots allow industrial manufacturers to speed up production and to increase the product’s quality. This paper deals with the grasping of partially known industrial objects in an unstructured environment. The proposed approach consists of two main steps: (1) the generation of an object model, using multiple point clouds acquired by a depth camera from different points of view; (2) the alignment of the generated model with the current view of the object in order to detect the grasping pose. More specifically, the model is obtained by merging different point clouds with a registration procedure based on the iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm. Then, a grasping pose is placed on the model. Such a procedure only needs to be executed once, and it works even in the presence of objects only partially known or when a CAD model is not available. Finally, the current object view is aligned to the model and the final grasping pose is estimated. Quantitative experiments using a robot manipulator and three different real-world industrial objects were conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Full article
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16 pages, 3335 KiB  
Article
Wear Parameter Diagnostics of Industrial Milling Machine with Support Vector Regression
by Teemu Mäkiaho, Henri Vainio and Kari T. Koskinen
Machines 2023, 11(3), 395; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines11030395 - 17 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1277
Abstract
Modern industrial machine applications often contain data collection functions through automation systems or external sensors. Yet, while the different data collection mechanisms might be effortless to construct, it is advised to have a well-balanced consideration of the possible data inputs based on the [...] Read more.
Modern industrial machine applications often contain data collection functions through automation systems or external sensors. Yet, while the different data collection mechanisms might be effortless to construct, it is advised to have a well-balanced consideration of the possible data inputs based on the machine characteristics, usage, and operational environment. Prior consideration of the collected data parameters reduces the risk of excessive data, yet another challenge remains to distinguish meaningful features significant for the purpose. This research illustrates a peripheral milling machine data collection and data pre-processing approach to diagnose significant machine parameters relevant to milling blade wear. The experiences gained from this research encourage conducting pre-categorisation of data significant for the purpose, those being manual setup data, programmable logic controller (PLC) automation system data, calculated parameters, and measured parameters under this study. Further, the results from the raw data pre-processing phase performed with Pearson Correlation Coefficient and permutation feature importance methods indicate that the most dominant correlation to recognised wear characteristics in the case machine context is perceived with vibration excitation monitoring. The root mean square (RMS) vibration signal is further predicted by using the support vector regression (SVR) algorithm to test the SVR’s overall suitability for the asset’s health index (HI) approximation. It was found that the SVR algorithm has sufficient data parameter behaviour forecast capabilities to be used in the peripheral milling machine prognostic process and its development. The SVR with Gaussian radial basis function (RBF) kernel receives the highest scoring metrics; therefore, outperforming the linear and polynomial kernels compared as part of the study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Advanced Manufacturing)
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15 pages, 1386 KiB  
Article
Thrust Vector Controller Comparison for a Finless Rocket
by Laura Sopegno, Patrizia Livreri, Margareta Stefanovic and Kimon P. Valavanis
Machines 2023, 11(3), 394; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines11030394 - 17 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4300
Abstract
The paper focuses on comparing applicability, tuning, and performance of different controllers implemented and tested on a finless rocket during its boost phase. The objective was to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of each controller, such that the most appropriate one would then [...] Read more.
The paper focuses on comparing applicability, tuning, and performance of different controllers implemented and tested on a finless rocket during its boost phase. The objective was to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of each controller, such that the most appropriate one would then be developed and implemented in real-time in the finless rocket. The compared controllers were Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR), Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG), and Proportional Integral Derivative (PID). To control the attitude of the rocket, emphasis is given to the Thrust Vector Control (TVC) component (sub-system) through the gimballing of the rocket engine. The launcher is commanded through the control input thrust gimbal angle δ, while the output parameter is expressed in terms of the pitch angle θ. After deriving a linearized state–space model, rocket stability is addressed before controller implementation and testing. The comparative study showed that both LQR and LQG track pitch angle changes rapidly, thus providing efficient closed-loop dynamic tracking. Tuning of the LQR controller, through the Q and R weighting matrices, illustrates how variations directly affect performance of the closed-loop system by varying the values of the feedback gain (K). The LQG controller provides a more realistic profile because, in general, not all variables are measurable and available for feedback. However, disturbances affecting the system are better handled and reduced with the PID controller, thus overcoming steady-state errors due to aerodynamic and model uncertainty. Overall controller performance is evaluated in terms of overshoot, settling and rise time, and steady-state error. Full article
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25 pages, 5556 KiB  
Article
An Investigation of Factors Influencing Tool Life in the Metal Cutting Turning Process by Dimensional Analysis
by Sara M. Bazaz, Juho Ratava, Mika Lohtander and Juha Varis
Machines 2023, 11(3), 393; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines11030393 - 17 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2873
Abstract
This article uses dimensional analysis to formulate the tool life in the turning process of metal cutting for small-lot production by considering the impacts of the most important parameters. The estimation of tool life specifies process efficiency, machining productivity, resource consumption, machining time, [...] Read more.
This article uses dimensional analysis to formulate the tool life in the turning process of metal cutting for small-lot production by considering the impacts of the most important parameters. The estimation of tool life specifies process efficiency, machining productivity, resource consumption, machining time, and cost. Many parameters influence tool life on the real shop floor in small-lot production. This literature review studies 29 parameters affecting tool life directly or indirectly. The results of this research are represented as a graph-based analysis in the form of a web of interdependencies and a relationship matrix. The relationship matrix illustrates the direct and indirect interdependencies of the parameters which influence tool life in the turning process. The graph visualizes the weight of the parameters for the estimation of tool life in small-lot production. A cause-and-effect diagram is extracted from the relationship matrix to study the parameters affecting tool life in small-lot production. A dimensional analysis is executed based on the cause-and-effect diagram in order to calculate the tool life. The functions of tool life involve the cutting conditions, tool and workpiece hardness, cutting force, and cutting temperature. The dimensional analysis shows that the cutting speed, feed rate, and workpiece hardness are the most effective factors impacting tool life in the turning process. Full article
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20 pages, 4677 KiB  
Article
A Digital Twin-Based System to Manage the Energy Hub and Enhance the Electrical Grid Resiliency
by Gholamreza Nasiri and Abdollah Kavousi-Fard
Machines 2023, 11(3), 392; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines11030392 - 17 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1345
Abstract
This article addresses a digital twin-based real-time analysis (DTRA) to meditate the power system vulnerability whenever cascading failures and blackouts occur for any reason, and thus, to improve the resiliency. In addition to this, a water-power package is proposed to enhance the vulnerable [...] Read more.
This article addresses a digital twin-based real-time analysis (DTRA) to meditate the power system vulnerability whenever cascading failures and blackouts occur for any reason, and thus, to improve the resiliency. In addition to this, a water-power package is proposed to enhance the vulnerable percentage of the system by promptly syringing energy to the grid under line/generator outage contingencies. To this end, in the first place, we will develop a digital twin model along with a cloud platform derived from the Amazon Cloud Service (ACS) into the Amazon Web in order to scrutinize the online vulnerability data arising from the equivalent physical twin in real-time. Indeed, such a DTRA model can help us check the real grid’s behavior and determine how to meet the needs of the energy hub system to prevent blackouts. Additionally, a modified bat-based optimization algorithm is matched to settle the energy between the hub system and the electrical grid in furtherance of real-time analysis. To raise awareness, we will first compile how the hub system interactions can be effective in declining the vulnerability indices, and afterward, we will map out the ACS-based digital twin model on the studied case. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Electric Power Systems and Microgrids)
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14 pages, 2318 KiB  
Article
Explainable Machine Learning Approach for Hepatitis C Diagnosis Using SFS Feature Selection
by Ali Mohd Ali, Mohammad R. Hassan, Faisal Aburub, Mohammad Alauthman, Amjad Aldweesh, Ahmad Al-Qerem, Issam Jebreen and Ahmad Nabot
Machines 2023, 11(3), 391; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines11030391 - 16 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2266
Abstract
Hepatitis C is a significant public health concern, resulting in substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. Early diagnosis and effective treatment are essential to prevent the disease’s progression to chronic liver disease. Machine learning algorithms have been increasingly used to develop predictive models for [...] Read more.
Hepatitis C is a significant public health concern, resulting in substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. Early diagnosis and effective treatment are essential to prevent the disease’s progression to chronic liver disease. Machine learning algorithms have been increasingly used to develop predictive models for various diseases, including hepatitis C. This study aims to evaluate the performance of several machine learning algorithms in diagnosing chronic liver disease, with a specific focus on hepatitis C, to improve the cost-effectiveness and efficiency of the diagnostic process. We collected a comprehensive dataset of 1801 patient records, each with 12 distinct features, from Jordan University Hospital. To assess the robustness and dependability of our proposed framework, we conducted two research scenarios, one with feature selection and one without. We also employed the Sequential Forward Selection (SFS) method to identify the most relevant features that can enhance the model’s accuracy. Moreover, we investigated the effect of the synthetic minority oversampling technique (SMOTE) on the accuracy of the model’s predictions. Our findings indicate that all machine learning models achieved an average accuracy of 83% when applied to the dataset. Furthermore, the use of SMOTE did not significantly affect the accuracy of the model’s predictions. Despite the increasing use of machine learning models in medical diagnosis, there is a growing concern about their interpretability. As such, we addressed this issue by utilizing the Shapley Additive Explanations (SHAP) method to explain the predictions of our machine learning model, which was specifically developed for hepatitis C prediction in Jordan. This work provides a comprehensive evaluation of various machine learning algorithms in diagnosing chronic liver disease, with a particular emphasis on hepatitis C. The results provide valuable insights into the cost-effectiveness and efficiency of the diagnostic process and highlight the importance of interpretability in medical diagnosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Automation and Control Systems)
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14 pages, 3408 KiB  
Article
Novel Partitioned Stator Flux-Switching Permanent Magnet Linear Machine: Design, Analysis, and Optimization
by Saira Tariq, Faisal Khan, Basharat Ullah, Niaz Muhammad and Baheej Alghamdi
Machines 2023, 11(3), 390; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines11030390 - 16 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1371
Abstract
Over the past few decades, flux-switching permanent magnet (FSPM) machines have gained more attention. A novel flux-switching permanent magnet linear machine with a partitioned stator (FSPMLM-PS), which has the advantages of high thrust force density and high cost efficiency for short-stroke applications, is [...] Read more.
Over the past few decades, flux-switching permanent magnet (FSPM) machines have gained more attention. A novel flux-switching permanent magnet linear machine with a partitioned stator (FSPMLM-PS), which has the advantages of high thrust force density and high cost efficiency for short-stroke applications, is presented and analyzed in this article. Firstly, the twelve mover slots and seven stator poles (12s/7p) structure of FSPMLM-PS is introduced, and the fundamental principle of operation is investigated. The partitioned stator helps with the reduction in iron losses and the overall cost of the proposed FSPMLM-PS. One of the frequent issues in linear machines is the end effect, which is compensated for by setting assistant teeth at both ends of the mover. The proposed machine’s main design specifications are globally optimized through a multiobjective genetic optimization algorithm using JMAG software ver. 16.1, although the volumes of the PM and the magnetic and electric loadings are kept the same. The peak-to-peak flux linkage, thrust force, thrust ripples, and detent force are improved by 26.98%, 27.98%, 22.03%, and 68.33%, respectively, after optimization. The comparison results show that the proposed FSPMLM-PS is preferable to the conventional FSPMLM given in the literature. Under the same PM volume, the proposed machine provides 27.95% higher thrust force density. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends of Permanent Magnet Machines)
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16 pages, 9236 KiB  
Article
Effect of the Stiffness of the Turntable Bearing Joint on the Dynamic Characteristics of the Five-Axis Machine Tool Rotary System
by Shi Wu, Weijie Lei, Tai Yu, Zeyu Dong and Taorui Liu
Machines 2023, 11(3), 389; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines11030389 - 16 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1221
Abstract
The positioning accuracy and machining performance of the five-axis machine tool are significantly impacted by the dynamic characteristics of the rotary system of the two-axis rotary table machine. In this study, first, the stiffness of the joint bearing of the rotary table system [...] Read more.
The positioning accuracy and machining performance of the five-axis machine tool are significantly impacted by the dynamic characteristics of the rotary system of the two-axis rotary table machine. In this study, first, the stiffness of the joint bearing of the rotary table system is calculated, and the effect of bearing clearance and external load on the stiffness is analyzed. Second, considering the stiffness characteristics of the joint, the natural frequency and mode shapes of the turntable system are calculated. Finally, the influence of turntable angle and bearing stiffness on the dynamic characteristics of the turntable system is analyzed. The results show that the natural frequency of the rotary table system does not change obviously with the axial stiffness of the turntable bearing joint, but increases significantly with the increase in the radial stiffness. The first order natural frequency of the turntable decreases with the increase in the swing angle, and the change in the first order natural frequency is 77.43 Hz. The research results provide theoretical basis and guidance for machine tool design and use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Advanced Manufacturing)
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14 pages, 4185 KiB  
Article
Detection for Disc Cutter Wear of TBM Using Magnetic Force
by Jialin Han, Hongjiang Xiang, Qiuyue Feng, Jiangbo He, Rong Li and Wensheng Zhao
Machines 2023, 11(3), 388; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines11030388 - 15 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1336
Abstract
To replace the worn-out cutter of tunnel boring machines timely, it is crucial to inspect the cutter’s wear. In this work, a novel detection method based on magnetic force is proposed to overcome the drawback of nonlinearity in current detecting technology. The principle [...] Read more.
To replace the worn-out cutter of tunnel boring machines timely, it is crucial to inspect the cutter’s wear. In this work, a novel detection method based on magnetic force is proposed to overcome the drawback of nonlinearity in current detecting technology. The principle is that the magnetic force between the cutter and the permanent magnet linearly decreases with increasing wear. Firstly, the magnetic force is investigated by the finite element simulation to find the optimal placement of the permanent magnet to realize both high linearity and sensitivity. Secondly, a highly-sensitive force sensor with an S shape is designed to measure the magnetic force. The four strain gauges in the force sensor are combined into a Wheatstone bridge to suppress the common-mode effect, such as temperature. Experimental testing on the magnetic force is performed to verify the feasibility of the detection method. The testing result shows that the magnetic force linearly decreases with the increasing wear loss at a rate of −793 mN/mm. The accuracy of the detecting method approaches 1 mm, which is of the same order of magnitude as those in previous studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tool Wear in Machining)
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17 pages, 26284 KiB  
Article
Online O-Ring Stress Prediction and Bolt Tightening Sequence Optimization Method for Solid Rocket Motor Assembly
by Jiachuan Zhang, Yuanyu Wang, Junyi Wang, Runan Cao and Zhigang Xu
Machines 2023, 11(3), 387; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines11030387 - 15 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1806
Abstract
Solid rocket motors (SRMs) are widely used as propulsion devices in the aerospace industry. The SRM nozzle and combustion chamber are connected with a plugged-in structure, which makes it difficult to use the existing technology to investigate the internal conditions of the SRM [...] Read more.
Solid rocket motors (SRMs) are widely used as propulsion devices in the aerospace industry. The SRM nozzle and combustion chamber are connected with a plugged-in structure, which makes it difficult to use the existing technology to investigate the internal conditions of the SRM during docking and assembly. The unknown deformation of the O-ring inside the groove caused by different assembly conditions will prevent the engine assembly quality from being accurately predicted. Algorithms such as machine learning can be used to fit mechanical simulation data to create a model that can be used to make predictions during assembly. In this paper, the prediction method uses the sampled parameters as boundary conditions and applies the finite element method (FEM) to calculate the stresses and strains of the O-ring under different assembly conditions. The simulation data are fitted using the gradient-enhanced Kriging (GEK) model, which is more suitable for high-dimensional data than the ordinary Kriging model. A genetic algorithm (GA) and conditional tabular generative adversarial networks (CTGAN) are used to optimize the prediction model and improve its accuracy as new data are incorporated. The proposed method is not only accurate but also efficient, allowing for a significant reduction in assembly time. The use of the surrogate model and FEM makes it possible to predict the stresses and strains of the O-ring in real-time, making the assembly process smoother and more efficient. In conclusion, the proposed method provides a promising solution to the challenges associated with the assembly process of SRM in the aerospace industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Electrical Machines and Drives)
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3 pages, 200 KiB  
Editorial
New Frontiers in Parallel Robots
by Zhufeng Shao, Dan Zhang and Stéphane Caro
Machines 2023, 11(3), 386; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines11030386 - 15 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1333
Abstract
In the field of parallel robots, marked by the birth and application of the Gough–Stewart parallel mechanism [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Frontiers in Parallel Robots)
39 pages, 22173 KiB  
Article
Monitoring the Current Provided by a Hall Sensor Integrated in a Drive Wheel Module of a Mobile Robot
by George Constantin, Iosif-Adrian Maroșan, Mihai Crenganiș, Corina Botez, Claudia-Emilia Gîrjob, Cristina-Maria Biriș, Anca-Lucia Chicea and Alexandru Bârsan
Machines 2023, 11(3), 385; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines11030385 - 15 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2781
Abstract
This article describes a method for the real-time monitoring of the current consumed by a Dynamixel MX 64 AT servomotor used in the actuation system of modular mobile robotic platforms having differential locomotion and conventional wheels. The data acquisition method is based on [...] Read more.
This article describes a method for the real-time monitoring of the current consumed by a Dynamixel MX 64 AT servomotor used in the actuation system of modular mobile robotic platforms having differential locomotion and conventional wheels. The data acquisition method is based on an Arduino Mega 2560 development board interfaced with Matlab Simulink and the ASC712-5A hall sensor for current detection. A Simulink model is presented that performs the detection of a sensor reference voltage, which needs to be calibrated for a correct reading of the current. Due to the low resolution of the analog-to-digital converter with which the Arduino Mega is equipped, current monitoring is difficult to achieve, having large fluctuations and a lower resolution than the current absorbed by the servomotor. The solution to this problem is achieved by implementing, in the hardware construction, an ADS115 conversion module with 16-bit resolution, which leads to an increase in the measurement range of the ASC712-5A sensor. The current acquisition model with the Hall sensor is experimentally validated using measurements on the physical model of the drive wheel. This article further deals with the CAD and digital block modeling of mobile platforms with four and two wheels. The dynamic model of the robot is created in the Simulink–Simscape–Multibody environment and is used to determine the servomotor torques when the robot is moving along the predefined path. The torque variations are entered as variables in the Simulink digital block model of the robot. The Simulink model is simulated when moving along a square path, which determines the variation in the current absorbed by the motors. Experimental validation of the model is carried out using measurements on the functional models that operate in real conditions. A power consumption method is further proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design and Control of Industrial Robots)
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32 pages, 11416 KiB  
Article
A Coyote Optimization-Based Residual Attention Echo State Reactive Controller for Improving Power Quality in Grid-PV Systems
by Rathinam Marimuthu Sekar, Sankar Murugesan, Ghanta Devadasu and Surender Reddy Salkuti
Machines 2023, 11(3), 384; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines11030384 - 14 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1276
Abstract
Improving the power quality and reactive injection capability of grid-PV systems represent the most demanding and crucial tasks in power systems. In the conventional works, many types of converters and regulating approaches have been designed for this goal. The multi-level inverter (MLI) is [...] Read more.
Improving the power quality and reactive injection capability of grid-PV systems represent the most demanding and crucial tasks in power systems. In the conventional works, many types of converters and regulating approaches have been designed for this goal. The multi-level inverter (MLI) is the best solution for grid-PV systems since it helps to improve power quality while reducing losses. However, the existing works face the key problems of the complex system model, increased components utilization, computational burden, presence of harmonics, and high switching frequency. Therefore, the proposed work aims to develop novel and advanced controlling techniques for improving the reactive power compensation ability and power quality of grid-PV systems. The original contribution of this paper is to implement an advanced soft-computing methodologies for developing the controlling mechanisms. At first, an ATOM search optimization (AOS) based MPPT controlling technique is used to extract the maximum electrical energy from the PV panels under changing climatic situations. Then, the output voltage of PV is effectively regulated with the help of a non-isolated high voltage gain DC-DC converter, which also supports the reduction of the switching loss and frequencies. In order to generate the switching pulses for operating the converter, a novel coyote optimized converter control (COCC) mechanism is developed in this work. Moreover, a residual attention echo state reactive controller (RaERC) is implemented for generating the controlling signals to actuate the switching components of the nine-level inverter. This kind of controlling mechanism could highly improve the power quality of grid system with less processing time. For assessment, the simulation and comparison results of the proposed controlling mechanisms are validated and tested using various parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Electrical Machines and Drives)
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3 pages, 169 KiB  
Editorial
Editorial: Social Manufacturing on Industrial Internet
by Pingyu Jiang, Gang Xiong, Timo R. Nyberg, Zhen Shen, Maolin Yang and Guangyu Xiong
Machines 2023, 11(3), 383; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines11030383 - 14 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1088
Abstract
The fast development of the industrial internet is boosting the evolution of the manufacturing industry to a new stage of socialization, servitization, universal interaction and connection, and platformization [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Manufacturing on Industrial Internet)
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