Vibration and Acoustic Analysis of Components and Machines

A special issue of Machines (ISSN 2075-1702). This special issue belongs to the section "Machine Design and Theory".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 February 2024) | Viewed by 11266

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Laboratory of Machine Dynamics, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
Interests: structural dynamics; vibration and control of linear and nonlinear dynamical systems and mechanisms; optimal design and finite element analysis of structures; parametric modal identification, fault detection and finite element model updating techniques in structures and machines; integrated reverse engineering of structures; dynamic analysis, vibration monitoring and fault detection of geared rotor-bearing systems; structural health monitoring and fatigue analysis

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Vibration and acoustic analysis is an interdisciplinary field, incorporating diverse subjects such as computational and numerical dynamic analysis, signal processing and sensor technology. Mechanical vibrations and sounds impact the design and performance of engineered devices and structures. Contemporary applications that cover the fields of structural dynamics, mechanical, aerospace and related engineering fields call for the adoption of advanced numerical simulation and design methods, as well as structural health monitoring schemes for the operation of engineering systems, with the aim of controlling the negative influences of vibration and noise, guiding the scheduling of maintenance actions and diminishing production costs.

The aim of this Special Issue is to gather recent developments in the field, focusing on critical issues and successful applications of vibration and acoustic analysis. The Special Issue welcomes contributions that cover, but are not limited to, theoretical, computational, experimental and practical aspects of vibration and acoustic analysis. Topics relevant to the session include, among others:

  • Analytical, numerical and computational structural dynamics, vibration and acoustics analysis;
  • Machinery dynamics and rotordynamics;
  • Machinery noise and vibration;
  • Fluid–structure interaction, aeroelasticity, flow-induced vibration and noise;
  • Vibration-based structural health monitoring;
  • Prediction of fatigue damage accumulation using monitoring data;
  • Damage detection and localization;
  • Optimal sensor location;
  • Linear and nonlinear vibrations;
  • AI and machine learning methods;
  • Material systems and technologies for noise and vibration control;
  • Experimental testing in vibration and structural acoustics.

Papers regarding experimental-field investigations and the results of long-term monitoring deployments are especially welcomed.

Dr. Dimitrios Giagopoulos
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Machines is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

28 pages, 9713 KiB  
Article
The Reduction of Rotating Conveyor Roller Vibrations via the Use of Plastic Brackets
by Leopold Hrabovský, Eliška Nováková, Štěpán Pravda, Daniel Kurač and Tomáš Machálek
Machines 2023, 11(12), 1070; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines11121070 - 06 Dec 2023
Viewed by 998
Abstract
This paper presents the basic structural parts, a 3D model, and the overall design of a laboratory machine, which was created to detect vibrations generated by the casing of a conveyor roller rotating at different speeds. The intention of the authors was to [...] Read more.
This paper presents the basic structural parts, a 3D model, and the overall design of a laboratory machine, which was created to detect vibrations generated by the casing of a conveyor roller rotating at different speeds. The intention of the authors was to verify whether plastic brackets inserted into the structurally modified trestles of a fixed conveyor idler can reduce the vibration values transmitted from the rotating conveyor roller to the trestle of a fixed idler. Experimental vibration measurements taken on the non-rotating parts of conveyor rollers, performed on a laboratory machine according to ISO 10816, are suitable for characterizing their operating conditions with regard to trouble-free operation. The aim of this paper is to detect the vibrations of a rotating conveyor roller on a laboratory machine in the defined places of a fixed conveyor idler and also on the steel frame of a laboratory machine that represents the supporting track of a belt conveyor. Vibrations detected by piezoelectric acceleration sensors were recorded by a measuring apparatus and displayed in the environment of Dewesoft X software (version 10). The measurements show that the vibration values grow with the increasing speed of the conveyor roller rotation. Experimental measurements have proven the correctness of the assumption that the vibrations transmitted to the trestle of a fixed conveyor idler are lower by up to 40% when using plastic brackets into which the axle of the conveyor roller is attached, compared to the solution where the axle of the conveyor roller is inserted into the notches of a steel trestle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vibration and Acoustic Analysis of Components and Machines)
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25 pages, 42721 KiB  
Article
On-Board Random Vibration-Based Robust Detection of Railway Hollow Worn Wheels under Varying Traveling Speeds
by Nikolaos Kaliorakis, John S. Sakellariou and Spilios D. Fassois
Machines 2023, 11(10), 933; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines11100933 - 28 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1150
Abstract
The problem of the prompt detection of early-stage hollow worn wheels in railway vehicles via on-board random vibration measurements under normal operation and varying speeds is investigated. This is achieved based on two unsupervised statistical time series (STS) methods which are founded on [...] Read more.
The problem of the prompt detection of early-stage hollow worn wheels in railway vehicles via on-board random vibration measurements under normal operation and varying speeds is investigated. This is achieved based on two unsupervised statistical time series (STS) methods which are founded on a multiple-model (MM) framework for the representation of healthy vehicle dynamics. The unsupervised MM power spectral density (U-MM-PSD) method employs Welch-based PSD estimates for wheel wear detection and the unsupervised MM autoregressive (U-MM-AR) method for the parameter vectors of multiple AR models. Both methods are assessed via two case studies using thousands of test cases. The first case study includes Monte Carlo simulations using a SIMPACK-based detailed railway vehicle model, while the second is based on field tests with an Athens Metro train. Wheel wear detection is pursued using lateral or vertical vibration signals from the bogie or the carbody of a trailed vehicle traveling with three different speeds (60, 70, 80 km/h) using wheels under healthy conditions or with early stage hollow wear. Both methods exhibit remarkable performance with the U-MM-AR method to achieve the best overall results, reaching correct detection rates of even 100% with false alarm rates below 5% based on a single accelerometer either on the carbody or bogie. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vibration and Acoustic Analysis of Components and Machines)
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21 pages, 6492 KiB  
Article
Drivetrain Response Prediction Using AI-Based Surrogate and Multibody Dynamics Model
by Josef Koutsoupakis and Dimitrios Giagopoulos
Machines 2023, 11(5), 514; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines11050514 - 28 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1371
Abstract
Numerical models, such as multibody dynamics ones, are broadly used in various engineering applications, either as an integral part of the preliminary design of a product or simply to analyze its behavior. Aiming to increase the accuracy and potential of these models, complex [...] Read more.
Numerical models, such as multibody dynamics ones, are broadly used in various engineering applications, either as an integral part of the preliminary design of a product or simply to analyze its behavior. Aiming to increase the accuracy and potential of these models, complex mechanisms are constantly being added to existing methods of simulation, leading to powerful modelling frameworks that are able to simulate most mechanical systems. This increase in accuracy and flexibility, however, comes at a great computational cost. To mitigate the issue of high computation times, surrogates, such as reduced order models, have traditionally been used as cheaper alternatives, allowing for much faster simulations at the cost of introducing some error to the overall process. More recently, advancements in Artificial Intelligence have also allowed for the introduction of Artificial Intelligence-based models in the field of surrogates. While still undergoing development, these Artificial Intelligence based methodologies seem to be a potentially good alternative to the high-fidelity/burden models. To this end, an Artificial Intelligence-based surrogate comprised of Artificial Neural Networks as a means of predicting the response of dynamic mechanical systems is presented in this work, with application to a non-linear experimental gear drivetrain. The model utilizes Recurrent Neural Networks to accurately capture the system’s response and is shown to yield accurate results, especially in the feature space. This methodology can provide an alternative to the traditional model surrogates and find application in multiple fields such as system optimization or data mining. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vibration and Acoustic Analysis of Components and Machines)
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27 pages, 9634 KiB  
Article
Dynamic Service Mechanism of Double-Row Spherical Roller Bearings Due to Self-Aligning Behavior
by Yu Xing, Yifei Zhang, Yin Zhang, Daoyun Qiao, Yuxia Pei and Yuan Xiao
Machines 2023, 11(3), 400; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines11030400 - 19 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1435
Abstract
Spherical roller bearings (SRBs) are widely used under self-aligning operating conditions, such as rotor bending or an angular misalignment between inner and outer rings due to their self-aligning function. However, the characterization of SRBs’ self-aligning function is often ignored in the present models. [...] Read more.
Spherical roller bearings (SRBs) are widely used under self-aligning operating conditions, such as rotor bending or an angular misalignment between inner and outer rings due to their self-aligning function. However, the characterization of SRBs’ self-aligning function is often ignored in the present models. The reason for this is that the self-aligning condition is essentially a fault condition, and many scholars have assumed SRBs are in an ideal operating condition. Although there is nothing wrong with this analysis theoretically, it is incapable of characterizing SRBs’ service behavior comprehensively. In this work, the Lagrange equation was introduced to model the relationship among the rollers and the inner and outer rings. The contact region in particular was characterized in detail in order to solve the problems of undetermined contact status (UCS) and the varying law of the self-aligning contact angle (SAC angle). For the experiment, a novel SRBs pedestal with a self-aligning operating condition was designed, and the relevant self-aligning function testing was carried out. A good agreement was shown between the theoretical and experimental results. The results pointed out that, if taking no account of the self-aligning function, SRBs can be regarded as angular contact ball bearings or cylinder roller bearings. The amplitude of the inner-ring motion orbit is determined by the external load, but the shape is influenced by the direction and magnitude of the SAC angle. In the example of this paper, the values of the main frequency equal 136.8 Hz. Some additional frequencies are clearly aroused under the self-aligning operating condition, whose value is approximately equal to 8.3 Hz or its integer multiples. The dynamic performance of SRBs will be substantially improved by a light axial load plus an anticlockwise self-aligning contact angle rather than a large axial preload. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vibration and Acoustic Analysis of Components and Machines)
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24 pages, 13039 KiB  
Article
Load Distribution and Dynamic Response in Torque Split Applications
by Süleyman Emre Civan and Cihan Demir
Machines 2022, 10(12), 1218; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10121218 - 15 Dec 2022
Viewed by 2471
Abstract
This study consists of constructing and analyzing gear mathematical models of torque split systems for contact pressure distribution and dynamic transmission error at different gear positions concerning phase angles. According to the method specified in the AGMA 927 standard, load distribution is calculated [...] Read more.
This study consists of constructing and analyzing gear mathematical models of torque split systems for contact pressure distribution and dynamic transmission error at different gear positions concerning phase angles. According to the method specified in the AGMA 927 standard, load distribution is calculated by considering shaft torsion and bending deformations. Partial contact loss may occur as a result of shaft bending with asymmetric gear positioning on a long shaft. The contact separation can be decreased by reaction force balancing if the driven gears are in the opposite position with respect to the drive gear. In the calculation of the dynamic transmission error of the torque split model, a parametric phase difference for the gear positions is proposed using gear geometry parameters. The variation of the dynamic response according to the change in the parametric phase angle in the torque split system is analyzed for the same values of each gear. Small changes in the phase values change the system response significantly. To obtain lower dynamic transmission error amplitude, the phase difference and gear positions are examined. The contact pressure distribution is validated by the finite element method, and the dynamic transmission error is compared with the experimental study in the literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vibration and Acoustic Analysis of Components and Machines)
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23 pages, 5834 KiB  
Article
A New Modeling Approach for Parameter Design of Stewart Vibration Isolation System Integrated into Complex Systems
by Tianqing Zhang, Xiaoxue Gong, Lei Zhang and Yang Yu
Machines 2022, 10(11), 1005; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10111005 - 31 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1077
Abstract
A possible application for multi-dimensional vibration isolation is the Stewart vibration isolation system (SVIS). An innovative parameter design method is provided in this research, in which the SVIS is equated to an elastic node with stiffness-damping characteristics of six degrees of freedom. This [...] Read more.
A possible application for multi-dimensional vibration isolation is the Stewart vibration isolation system (SVIS). An innovative parameter design method is provided in this research, in which the SVIS is equated to an elastic node with stiffness-damping characteristics of six degrees of freedom. This paper addresses parameter design as a crucial issue for the SVIS integrated in large and complex systems. Two levels make up most of the content. First, the stiffness synthesis and deconstruction processes of the SVIS are inferred and demonstrated, suggesting that the elastic node may be used to quickly and effectively identify the stiffness-dumping of the SVIS. A system of parameter design flow for the SVIS integrated into complex systems is suggested based on the theory. A Stewart platform prototype is next created. To validate the hypothesis, FEM simulations and dynamics tests are carried out sequentially. The simulation findings demonstrate that the prototype’s six natural frequencies depart from the theory within 1%, and the frequency response curves closely match the theory. According to test results, the Z-directional resonant frequency falls 1.7% below predictions. The X/Y-direction frequency response curves include certain poor characteristics caused by structural clearances, but overall trends support the notion. The study offers theoretical direction for SVIS-integrated optimization design in complex systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vibration and Acoustic Analysis of Components and Machines)
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19 pages, 8520 KiB  
Article
Vibration Propagation Characteristics of Micro-Milling Tools
by Binghui Jia
Machines 2022, 10(10), 946; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10100946 - 18 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1651
Abstract
Micro-milling tools are usually used for the 3D precision processing of micro metal parts under ultra-high speed. However, due to the structural characteristics of small scale, variable cross-section, and weak stiffness, the vibration of micro-milling tools is weak and easily mutates, which can [...] Read more.
Micro-milling tools are usually used for the 3D precision processing of micro metal parts under ultra-high speed. However, due to the structural characteristics of small scale, variable cross-section, and weak stiffness, the vibration of micro-milling tools is weak and easily mutates, which can potential cause great harm to the stability and machining accuracy of machine tools. To reveal the transfer law of micro-milling tool vibration, guiding the method selection of tool vibration measurement and providing new means for mechanical model verification; firstly, the vibration mechanics model and vibration transfer matrix of the micro-milling tool were established. The vibration propagation characteristics of the micro-milling tool were analysed in contrast with the time domain and frequency domain, taking two representative micro-milling tools, Tool A and Tool B, as examples which with different cross-sections and structural parameters. Secondly, a micro-milling tool vibration measurement experimental system was set up and a sensor array with four optical fibre displacement sensors was used to obtain the vibration displacements at different positions of the tool under pulse and start-stop excitation. Finally, the results show the following: for Tool A, the max vibration displacement of the measurement of point 1 is about 3.5 times of measurement point 2 but near 18 times the measurement of point 3; meanwhile, compared with measurement point 1, the 16.8 kHz signal disappeared in measurement point 2, measurement point 3 and measurement point 4. However, for Tool B, the max vibration displacement of measurement point 1 is about 11.24 times the measurement of point 2; in contrast, the signal strength of the measurement of point 3 and point 4 is too weak to compare and analyse, although there are three resonant frequencies (10.2 kHz, 17.6 kHz, and 26.7 Hz) of Tool B based on the signal of measurement point 1, the 26.7 kHz signal disappeared in measurement point 2. The vibration amplitude of the tool tip decreases rapidly in the process of tool transfer, a bigger ratio cross-section with bigger attenuation of vibration amplitude and smaller size will aggravate this process. This study provides a reference for the selection of measuring points of micro-milling tool vibration displacement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vibration and Acoustic Analysis of Components and Machines)
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