Topic Editors

School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110057, China
Dr. Junying Hao
State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Lanzhou 730000, China
Dr. Xudong Sui
State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Lanzhou 730000, China
College of Automobile and Mechanical Engineering, Changsha University of Science and Technology, Changsha, China

Advanced Manufacturing and Surface Technology

Abstract submission deadline
20 October 2024
Manuscript submission deadline
30 December 2024
Viewed by
32113

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

Advanced manufacturing is a series of general manufacturing technologies that continuously adopt the latest achievements in the fields of mechanics, electronics, information and materials in the manufacturing industry and apply them to the whole process of product design, manufacturing and operation to produce products with high quality, high efficiency, low consumption, which are clean and capable of flexible production and obtain the best technical and economic benefits. Advanced manufacturing includes additive manufacturing, special machining, precision and ultra-precision cutting, etc.

Surface technology, as a marginal, cross-cutting, comprehensive and composite discipline, which involves the fields of materials science, chemistry, physics, tribology, microelectronics, information science, nanotechnology, biomedicine and other disciplines, is one of the important frontiers of modern high-tech fields and advanced manufacturing. In recent years, the research into surface technology has achieved good results, and it is developing towards automation and intelligence.

This topic aims to integrate and present the latest advances to inspire and inform relevant researchers in the field of advanced manufacturing and surface technology, and to promote the application of surface technology. The topics of interest for this Special Issue include (but are not restricted to):

  • Additive Manufacturing, including arc additive manufacturing, laser additive manufacturing, electron beam additive manufacturing, plasma additive manufacturing and others.
  • Specialty Processing, including EDM, laser, electron beam, ion beam, electromachining, ultrasonic, CNC and other specialty processing.
  • Extreme Manufacturing, including micro/nano-manufacturing, materials and devices with extreme functionalities, surface technology in extreme environments, etc.
  • Precision and ultra-precision machining, including precision cutting, grinding processes, polishing, microfabrication.
  • Surface functionalization, including spraying, plating, heat treatment, physical/chemical vapour deposition, femtosecond laser processing, nano-etching, and promising methods and processes for surface functionalization.
  • Biomanufacturing, including bionic manufacturing, biomaterials additive manufacturing, biomaterials and devices, etc.
  • Laser manufacturing, including laser welding, laser cladding, laser hardening, laser remelting, laser cutting, etc.
  • Corrosion and protection.
  • Frictional wear and lubrication.
  • Any other aspects of advanced manufacturing and surface technology.

Dr. Dingding Xiang
Dr. Junying Hao
Dr. Xudong Sui
Dr. Kaiming Wang
Topic Editors

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Journal of Functional Biomaterials
jfb
4.8 5.0 2010 13.3 Days CHF 2700 Submit
Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
jmmp
3.2 5.5 2017 14.2 Days CHF 1800 Submit
Lubricants
lubricants
3.5 4.1 2013 14.8 Days CHF 2600 Submit
Machines
machines
2.6 2.1 2013 15.6 Days CHF 2400 Submit
Materials
materials
3.4 5.2 2008 13.9 Days CHF 2600 Submit

Preprints.org is a multidiscipline platform providing preprint service that is dedicated to sharing your research from the start and empowering your research journey.

MDPI Topics is cooperating with Preprints.org and has built a direct connection between MDPI journals and Preprints.org. Authors are encouraged to enjoy the benefits by posting a preprint at Preprints.org prior to publication:

  1. Immediately share your ideas ahead of publication and establish your research priority;
  2. Protect your idea from being stolen with this time-stamped preprint article;
  3. Enhance the exposure and impact of your research;
  4. Receive feedback from your peers in advance;
  5. Have it indexed in Web of Science (Preprint Citation Index), Google Scholar, Crossref, SHARE, PrePubMed, Scilit and Europe PMC.

Published Papers (27 papers)

Order results
Result details
Journals
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
17 pages, 3630 KiB  
Article
A New Hyaluronic Emulgel of Hesperetin for Topical Application—An In Vitro Evaluation
by Raquel Taléns-Visconti, Yousra Belarbi, Octavio Díez-Sales, Jesus Vicente de Julián-Ortiz, Ofelia Vila-Busó and Amparo Nácher
J. Funct. Biomater. 2024, 15(4), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb15040089 - 01 Apr 2024
Viewed by 393
Abstract
The present study aimed to formulate and characterize a hesperetin formulation to achieve adequate deposition and retention of hesperetin in the epidermis as a target for some cosmetic/dermatological actions. To derive the final emulgel, various formulations incorporating different proportions of Polysorbate 80 and [...] Read more.
The present study aimed to formulate and characterize a hesperetin formulation to achieve adequate deposition and retention of hesperetin in the epidermis as a target for some cosmetic/dermatological actions. To derive the final emulgel, various formulations incorporating different proportions of Polysorbate 80 and hyaluronic acid underwent testing through a Box–Behnken experimental design. Nine formulations were created until the targeted emulgel properties were achieved. This systematic approach, following the principles of a design of experiment (DoE) methodology, adheres to a quality-by-design (QbD) paradigm, ensuring a robust and purposeful formulation and highlighting the commitment to a quality-driven design approach. The emulsions were developed using the phase inversion method, optimizing the emulgel with the incorporation of hyaluronic acid. Physically stable optimized emulgels were evaluated for their globule size, surface charge, viscosity, pH, electrical conductivity, and hesperetin content. These assays, along with the temperature swing test, were used to select the optimal formulation. It was characterized by a droplet size, d[4,3], of 4.02 μm, a Z-potential of −27.8 mV, an O/W sign, a pH of 5.2, and a creamy texture and proved to be stable for at least 2 months at room temperature. Additionally, in vitro release kinetics from the selected emulgel exhibited a sustained release profile of hesperetin. Skin assays revealed adequate retention of hesperetin in the human epidermis with minimum permeation. Altogether, these results corroborate the promising future of the proposed emulgel in cosmetic or dermatological use on healthy or diseased skin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced Manufacturing and Surface Technology)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

15 pages, 4979 KiB  
Article
Modelling and Optimization of Machined Surface Topography in Ball-End Milling Process
by Renwei Wang, Bin Zhao, Dingzhong Tan and Wenjie Wan
Materials 2024, 17(7), 1533; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17071533 - 27 Mar 2024
Viewed by 329
Abstract
In order to optimize machined surface topography, this paper presents a novel algorithm for simulating the surface topography and predicting the surface roughness of a ball-end milling process. First, a discrete workpiece model was developed using the Z-map method, and the swept surface [...] Read more.
In order to optimize machined surface topography, this paper presents a novel algorithm for simulating the surface topography and predicting the surface roughness of a ball-end milling process. First, a discrete workpiece model was developed using the Z-map method, and the swept surface of a cutter edge was represented using triangular approximation. The workpiece surface was updated (i.e., material removal process) using the intersection between the vertical reference line and the triangular facet under a cutting judgement. Second, the proposed algorithm was verified by comparing the simulated 3D surface topography as well as 2D surface profile and average roughness (Sa) with experimental measurements. Then, numerical simulation examples planed by the Box–Behnken design methods were carried out to investigate the Sa in the ball-end milling operation. The correlations of Sa and cutting parameters were represented by a response surface reduced quadratic model based on the ANOVA results. Finally, the feed per tooth, radial depth of cut, and tilt and lead angles were optimized for improving the machining efficiency under the Sa constraints. This study presents an effective method for simulating surface topography and predicting the Sa to optimize the cutting parameters during ball-end milling process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced Manufacturing and Surface Technology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 18651 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Flame Exposure and Solid Particle Erosion on Tensile Strength of CFRP Substrate with Manufactured Protective Coating
by Przemysław Golewski and Michał Budka
Materials 2024, 17(5), 1203; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17051203 - 05 Mar 2024
Viewed by 558
Abstract
This paper presents the results of laboratory tests for new materials made of a carbon fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite with a single-sided protective coating. The protective coatings were made of five different powders—Al2O3, aluminium, quartz sand, crystalline silica and [...] Read more.
This paper presents the results of laboratory tests for new materials made of a carbon fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite with a single-sided protective coating. The protective coatings were made of five different powders—Al2O3, aluminium, quartz sand, crystalline silica and copper—laminated in a single process during curing of the prepreg substrate with an epoxy matrix. The specimens were subjected to flame exposure and solid particle erosion tests, followed by uniaxial tensile tests. A digital image correlation (DIC) system was used to observe the damage location and deformation of the specimens. All coatings subjected to solid particle erosion allowed an increase in tensile failure force ranging from 5% to 31% compared to reference specimens made of purely CFRP. When exposed to flame, only three of the five materials tested, Al2O3, aluminium, quartz sand, could be used to protect the surface, which allowed an increase in tensile failure force of 5.6%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced Manufacturing and Surface Technology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 5470 KiB  
Article
Design and Study of Machine Tools for the Fly-Cutting of Ceramic-Copper Substrates
by Chupeng Zhang, Jiazheng Sun, Jia Zhou and Xiao Chen
Materials 2024, 17(5), 1111; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17051111 - 28 Feb 2024
Viewed by 397
Abstract
Ceramic-copper substrates, as high-power, load-bearing components, are widely used in new energy vehicles, electric locomotives, high-energy lasers, integrated circuits, and other fields. The service length will depend on the substrate’s copper-coated surface quality, which frequently achieved by utilising an abrasive strip polishing procedure [...] Read more.
Ceramic-copper substrates, as high-power, load-bearing components, are widely used in new energy vehicles, electric locomotives, high-energy lasers, integrated circuits, and other fields. The service length will depend on the substrate’s copper-coated surface quality, which frequently achieved by utilising an abrasive strip polishing procedure on the substrate’s copper-coated surface. Precision diamond fly-cutting processing machine tools were made because of the low processing accuracy and inability to match the production line’s efficiency. An analysis of the fly-cutting machining principle and the structural makeup of the ceramic-copper substrate is the first step in creating a roughness prediction model based on a tool tip trajectory. This model demonstrates that a shift in the tool tip trajectory due to spindle runout error directly impacts the machined surface’s roughness. The device’s structural optimisation design is derived from the above analyses and implemented using finite element software. Modal and harmonic response analysis validated the machine’s gantry symmetrical structural layout, a parametric variable optimisation design optimised the machine tool’s overall dimensions, and simulation validated the fly-cutterring’s constituent parts. Enhancing the machine tool’s stability and motion accuracy requires using the LK-G5000 laser sensor to measure the guideway’s straightness. The result verified the machine tool’s design index, with the Z- and Y-axes’ straightness being better than 2.42 μm/800 mm and 2.32 μm/200 mm, respectively. Ultimately, the device’s machining accuracy was confirmed. Experiments with flying-cut machining on a 190 × 140 mm ceramic-copper substrate yielded a roughness of Sa9.058 nm. According to the experimental results, the developed machine tool can fulfil the design specifications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced Manufacturing and Surface Technology)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

22 pages, 7385 KiB  
Article
Predicting the Dynamic Parameters for Milling Thin-Walled Blades with a Neural Network
by Yu Li, Feng Ding, Dazhen Wang, Weijun Tian and Jinhua Zhou
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2024, 8(2), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp8020043 - 21 Feb 2024
Viewed by 888
Abstract
Accurately predicting the time-varying dynamic parameters of a workpiece during the milling of thin-walled parts is the foundation of adaptively selecting chatter-free machining parameters. Hence, a method for accurately and quickly predicting the time-varying dynamic parameters for milling thin-walled parts is proposed, which [...] Read more.
Accurately predicting the time-varying dynamic parameters of a workpiece during the milling of thin-walled parts is the foundation of adaptively selecting chatter-free machining parameters. Hence, a method for accurately and quickly predicting the time-varying dynamic parameters for milling thin-walled parts is proposed, which is based on the shell FEM and a three-layer neural network. The time-dependent dynamics of the workpiece can be calculated using the FEM by obtaining the geometrical parameters of the arc-faced junctions within the discrete cells of the initial and machined workpiece. It is unnecessary to re-divide the mesh cells of the thin-walled parts at each cutting position, which enhances the computational efficiency of the workpiece dynamics. Meanwhile, in comparison with the three-dimensional cube elements, the shell elements can reduce the number of degrees of freedom of the FEM model by 74%, which leads to the computation of the characteristic equation that is about nine times faster. The results of the modal test show that the maximum error of the shell FEM in predicting the natural frequency of the workpiece is about 4%. Furthermore, a three-layer neural network is constructed, and the results of the shell FEM are used as samples to train the model. The neural network model has a maximum prediction error of 0.409% when benchmarked against the results of the FEM. Furthermore, the three-layer neural network effectively enhances computational efficiency while guaranteeing accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced Manufacturing and Surface Technology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 6772 KiB  
Article
Compensation Method for Correcting the Topography Convolution of the 3D AFM Profile Image of a Diffraction Grating
by Kai Zhang, Yang Bai and Zhimin Zhang
Machines 2024, 12(2), 126; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines12020126 - 10 Feb 2024
Viewed by 943
Abstract
Any 3D AFM image is a convolution of the geometry of the AFM tip and the profile of the scanned sample, especially when the dimensions of the scanned sample are comparable to those of the AFM tip shape. The precise profile of the [...] Read more.
Any 3D AFM image is a convolution of the geometry of the AFM tip and the profile of the scanned sample, especially when the dimensions of the scanned sample are comparable to those of the AFM tip shape. The precise profile of the scanned sample can be extracted from the 3D AFM image if the geometry of the AFM tip is known. Therefore, in order to separate the geometry of the AFM probe tip from the 3D AFM image of a diffraction grating with a rectangular profile and to correct for the topographic convolutions induced by the AFM probe tip, a method is used to quantitatively evaluate the geometry of the AFM probe tip, including the tip radius and the included angle. A model for reconstructing the measured AFM image is proposed to correct topography convolutions caused by the AFM tip shape when scanning a diffraction grating with rectangular profiles. A series of experiments were performed to verify the effectiveness of the proposed AFM tip geometry evaluation method, and comparison experiments were conducted to demonstrate the feasibility and reliability of the proposed reconstruction model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced Manufacturing and Surface Technology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 6225 KiB  
Article
Effect of Duty Cycle on Cutting Force for Ultrasonic Vibration-Assisted Milling Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Laminates
by Yukun Zhang, Junxue Ren and Jinhua Zhou
Materials 2023, 16(23), 7457; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16237457 - 30 Nov 2023
Viewed by 555
Abstract
Cutting force is an important factor that affects the surface quality of machining carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP). High cutting force can lead to surface damage such as the burrs and the delamination in the machining process of CFRP. Ultrasonic vibration-assisted machining (UVAM) can [...] Read more.
Cutting force is an important factor that affects the surface quality of machining carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP). High cutting force can lead to surface damage such as the burrs and the delamination in the machining process of CFRP. Ultrasonic vibration-assisted machining (UVAM) can reduce the cutting force in the machining process. This work is focused on the relationship between the duty cycle and the cutting force in UVAM of CFRP. Based on the kinematics of UVAM, the movement of the cutting tool edge and the tool–workpiece separation in UVAM were analyzed, and a calculation formula for the duty cycle was obtained. The milling experiment of CFRP was conducted to compare the cutting force between UVAM and conventional machining (CM), and the relationship between the reduction in the cutting force in UVAM and the duty cycle was determined. The experimental results showed that when the duty cycle was 0.2916, the cutting force of UVAM was reduced by 7.4% to 27% compared with that of CM. When the duty cycle was 1, the cutting force of UVAM was reduced by −4.5% to 7.5% compared with that of CM. Therefore, the effect of reducing the cutting force of UVAM can be enhanced by adjusting the process parameters to reduce the duty cycle of UVAM, and a lower cutting force can be obtained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced Manufacturing and Surface Technology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 8699 KiB  
Article
Analysis, Modeling and Experimental Study of the Normal Contact Stiffness of Rough Surfaces in Grinding
by Yuzhu Bai, Xiaohong Jia, Fei Guo and Shuangfu Suo
Lubricants 2023, 11(12), 508; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants11120508 - 30 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1070
Abstract
Grinding is the most important method in machining, which belongs to the category of precision machining processes. Many mechanical bonding surfaces are grinding surfaces. Therefore, the contact mechanism of grinding a joint surface is of great significance for predicting the loading process and [...] Read more.
Grinding is the most important method in machining, which belongs to the category of precision machining processes. Many mechanical bonding surfaces are grinding surfaces. Therefore, the contact mechanism of grinding a joint surface is of great significance for predicting the loading process and dynamic characteristics of precision mechanical products. In this paper, based on the collected grinding surface roughness data, the profile parameters and topography characteristics of the asperity were analyzed, the rough surface data were fitted, the asperity profile was reconstructed, and the parabola y = nx2 + mx + l of the cylindrical asperity model was established. After analyzing the rough surface data of the grinding process, the asperity distribution height was fitted with a Gaussian distribution function, which proved that asperity follows the Gaussian distribution law. The validity of this model was confirmed by the non-dimensional processing of the assumed model and the fitting of six plasticity indices. When the pressure is the same, the normal stiffness increases with the decrease in the roughness value of the joint surface. The experimental stiffness values are basically consistent with the fitting stiffness values of the newly established model, which verifies the reliability and effectiveness of the new model established for the grinding surface. In this paper, a new model for grinding joint surface is established, and an experimental platform is set up to verify the validity of the model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced Manufacturing and Surface Technology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 5592 KiB  
Article
Innovative Post-Processing for Complex Geometries and Inner Parts of 3D-Printed AlSi10Mg Devices
by Martí Calvet, Anna Domènech, Sergi Vilaró, Toni Meseguer and Lorenzo Bautista
Materials 2023, 16(21), 7040; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16217040 - 04 Nov 2023
Viewed by 798
Abstract
A new technology consisting of new and sustainable chemical polishing treatment for aluminum components with complex shapes, such as heat exchangers, manifolds, busbars, aerospace devices, etc., manufactured by Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies is described in this paper. This technology will contribute to the [...] Read more.
A new technology consisting of new and sustainable chemical polishing treatment for aluminum components with complex shapes, such as heat exchangers, manifolds, busbars, aerospace devices, etc., manufactured by Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies is described in this paper. This technology will contribute to the development of a more efficient manufacturing process driven by AM, reinforcing the main idea of AM, which is based on reducing the amount of material and achieving cost savings through smart and improved designs. The present study shows a significant reduction in the surface roughness of consolidated AlSi10Mg metal parts manufactured by the SLM technique after carrying out the new chemical polishing post-process investigated in this work. Roughness values have been measured by mechanical and optical profilometry. The results obtained demonstrate the effectiveness of the chemical polishing, decreasing the roughness by up to 40%, being a reproducible and repeatable post-process. The presence of smut as solid residues on such types of chemical treatments has been also analyzed with XRF and ICP-MS techniques. The results obtained show that Si and Mg precipitates are removed from the metal surface at the last step of the investigated post-process. The percentages of the elements decrease from 25.0% to 8.09% Si and from 0.86% to 0.42% Mg, achieving the alloy smut-free composition on the metal surface. Tensile strength measurements have shown that the post-process described not only maintains the mechanical properties of the bulk material but, in comparison with non-post-processed parts, a slight improvement is observed with respect to the initial values, Young modulus (61.1 GPa to final 62.2 GPa), yield strength (from 236.8 to 246.7 MPa), and tensile strength (from 371.9 to 382.5 MPa) is observed, suggesting that the post-process has positive impact on the printed metal part. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced Manufacturing and Surface Technology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 5991 KiB  
Article
Wire Electrical Discharge Machining of AISI304 and AISI316 Alloys: A Comparative Assessment of Machining Responses, Empirical Modeling and Multi-Objective Optimization
by Mona A. Aboueleaz, Noha Naeim, Islam H. Abdelgaliel, Mohamed F. Aly and Ahmed Elkaseer
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2023, 7(6), 194; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp7060194 - 03 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1302
Abstract
This research investigates the multi-response of both material removal rate (MRR) and surface roughness (Ra) for the wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) of two stainless steel alloys: AISI 304 and AISI 316. Experimental results are utilized to compare the machining responses obtained for [...] Read more.
This research investigates the multi-response of both material removal rate (MRR) and surface roughness (Ra) for the wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) of two stainless steel alloys: AISI 304 and AISI 316. Experimental results are utilized to compare the machining responses obtained for AISI 316 with those obtained for AISI 304, as previously reported in the literature. The experimental work is conducted through a full factorial experimental design of five running parameters with different levels: applied voltage, transverse feed, pulse-on/pulse-off times and current intensity. The machined workpieces are analyzed using an image processing technique in order to evaluate the size of cut slots to allow the calculation of the MRR. Followed by the characterization of the surface roughness along the side walls of the slots. Different mathematical regression techniques were developed to represent the multi-response of both materials using the MATLAB regression toolbox. It was found that WEDM process parameters have a fuzzy influence on the responses of both material models. This allowed for multi-objective optimization of the regression models using four different techniques: multi-objective genetic algorithm (MOGA), multi-objective pareto search algorithm (MOPSA), weighted value grey wolf optimizer (WVGWO) and osprey optimization algorithm (OOA). The optimization results reveal that the optimal WEDM parameters of each response are inconsistent to the others. Hence, the optimal results are considered a compromise between the best results of different responses. Noteworthily, the multi-objective pareto search algorithm outperformed the other candidates. Eventually, the optimal results of both materials share the high voltage, high transverse feed rate and low pulse-off time parameters; however, AISI 304 requires low pulse-on time and current intensity levels while AISI 316 optimal results entail higher pulse-on time and current levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced Manufacturing and Surface Technology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 11189 KiB  
Article
Evolution of CrCx Ceramic Induced by Laser Direct Energy Deposition Multilayered Gradient Ni204-dr60 Coating
by Yu Zhao, Ruobing Wang, Jian Zhang, Muhammad Imran Farid, Wenzheng Wu and Tianbiao Yu
Materials 2023, 16(21), 6865; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16216865 - 26 Oct 2023
Viewed by 694
Abstract
The manufacturing process for many large components of machines leads to a difference in their properties and performances based on changes in location. Functionally graded materials can meet these requirements and address the issue of generation and expansion of interface cracks. Ni204–dr60 gradient [...] Read more.
The manufacturing process for many large components of machines leads to a difference in their properties and performances based on changes in location. Functionally graded materials can meet these requirements and address the issue of generation and expansion of interface cracks. Ni204–dr60 gradient coatings were successfully fabricated using laser direct energy deposition (LDED). Microstructure mechanism evolution and microhardness of the gradient coating were comprehensively investigated. The change in the precipitated phase at the grain boundary and the intergranular zones resulted in a change in microstructural characteristics and also affected the microhardness distribution. The reinforced phase of the Ni204 → dr60 gradient zone from Ni204 to dr60 gradually precipitated and was rich in Mo and Nb phase, lath-shaped CrCx phase, network-shaped CrCx phase, block shape (Ni, Si) (C, B) phase, block CrCx phase, and block Cr (B, C) phase. The gradient coating thus acts as a potential candidate to effectively solve the problem of crack generation at the interface of dr60 and the substrate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced Manufacturing and Surface Technology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 5189 KiB  
Article
Biological Performance of Duplex PEO + CNT/PCL Coating on AZ31B Mg Alloy for Orthopedic and Dental Applications
by Morteza Daavari, Masoud Atapour, Marta Mohedano, Endzhe Matykina, Raul Arrabal and Dobrila Nesic
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(9), 475; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14090475 - 16 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1264
Abstract
To regulate the degradation rate and improve the surface biocompatibility of the AZ31B magnesium alloy, three different coating systems were produced via plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO): simple PEO, PEO incorporating multi-walled carbon nanotubes (PEO + CNT), and a duplex coating that included a [...] Read more.
To regulate the degradation rate and improve the surface biocompatibility of the AZ31B magnesium alloy, three different coating systems were produced via plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO): simple PEO, PEO incorporating multi-walled carbon nanotubes (PEO + CNT), and a duplex coating that included a polycaprolactone top layer (PEO + CNT/PCL). Surfaces were characterized by chemical content, roughness, topography, and wettability. Biological properties analysis included cell metabolism and adhesion. PEO ± CNT resulted in an augmented surface roughness compared with the base material (BM), while PCL deposition produced the smoothest surface. All surfaces had a contact angle below 90°. The exposure of gFib-TERT and bmMSC to culture media collected after 3 or 24 h did not affect their metabolism. A decrease in metabolic activity of 9% and 14% for bmMSC and of 14% and 29% for gFib-TERT was observed after 3 and 7 days, respectively. All cells died after 7 days of exposure to BM and after 15 days of exposure to coated surfaces. Saos-2 and gFib-TERT adhered poorly to BM, in contrast to bmMSC. All cells on PEO anchored into the pores with filopodia, exhibited tiny adhesion protrusions on PEO + CNT, and presented a web-like spreading with lamellipodia on PEO + CNT/PCL. The smooth and homogenous surface of the duplex PEO + CNT/PCL coating decreased magnesium corrosion and led to better biological functionality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced Manufacturing and Surface Technology)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

18 pages, 11701 KiB  
Article
Dynamic Analysis of the Thermo-Deformation Treatment Process of Flat Surfaces of Machine Parts
by Volodymyr Gurey, Pavlo Maruschak, Ihor Hurey, Volodymyr Dzyura, Tetyana Hurey and Weronika Wojtowicz
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2023, 7(3), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp7030101 - 20 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1159
Abstract
Thermo-deformation treatment refers to methods of strengthening during which strengthened layers with a nanocrystalline structure are formed in the surface layers by modifying the metal surface layer, which changes its phase and structural and chemical compositions, reduces grain size, and improves performance. Grinding [...] Read more.
Thermo-deformation treatment refers to methods of strengthening during which strengthened layers with a nanocrystalline structure are formed in the surface layers by modifying the metal surface layer, which changes its phase and structural and chemical compositions, reduces grain size, and improves performance. Grinding of the metal structure was achieved by combining two methods simultaneously during this treatment: the action of a highly concentrated energy source on the surface layer and intense plastic deformation. The source of highly concentrated energy was generated in the contact zone of the tool-disc, which rotates at high speed during friction on the treated surface. Intense deformation was achieved due to the grooves on the tool’s working surface. Dynamic analysis of the thermo-deformation treatment process of flat surfaces of machine parts and a calculation scheme of the surface grinder machine’s elastic system, which is the three-mass model, were developed. When the groove width increased from 4 mm to 8 mm, the force amplitude in the contact zone increased from 10 N to 75 N. Accordingly, the thickness of the nanocrystalline layer increased from 190–220 μm to 250–260 μm, and its hardness increased from 9.3 GPa to 11.1 GPa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced Manufacturing and Surface Technology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 3142 KiB  
Article
Determination of the Cutting-Edge Microgeometry Based on Process Forces during Peripheral Milling of Ti-6Al-4V Using Machine Learning
by Matthias Wimmer, Roman Hartl and Michael F. Zaeh
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2023, 7(3), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp7030100 - 19 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1543
Abstract
The residual stress state of the machined sub-surface influences the service quality indicators of a component, such as fatigue life, tribological properties, and distortion. During machining, the radius of the cutting edge changes due to tool wear. The cutting-edge rounding significantly affects the [...] Read more.
The residual stress state of the machined sub-surface influences the service quality indicators of a component, such as fatigue life, tribological properties, and distortion. During machining, the radius of the cutting edge changes due to tool wear. The cutting-edge rounding significantly affects the residual stress state in the part and the occurring process forces. This paper presents a tool wear prediction model based on in-process measured cutting forces. The effects of the cutting-edge geometry on the force behavior and the machining-induced residual stresses were examined experimentally. The resulting database was used to realize a Machine Learning algorithm to calculate the hidden value of tool wear. The predictions were validated by milling experiments using rounded cutting edges for different process parameters. The microgeometry of the cutting edge could be determined with a Root Mean Square Error of 8.94 μm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced Manufacturing and Surface Technology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 4498 KiB  
Article
Engineered Cross-Linked Silane with Urea Polymer Thin Durable Coatings onto Polymeric Films for Controlled Antiviral Release of Activated Chlorine and Essential Oils
by Elisheva Sasson, Omer Agazani, Eyal Malka, Meital Reches and Shlomo Margel
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(5), 270; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14050270 - 12 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1465
Abstract
In March 2020, the World Health Organization announced a pandemic attributed to SARS-CoV-2, a novel beta-coronavirus, which spread widely from China. As a result, the need for antiviral surfaces has increased significantly. Here, the preparation and characterization of new antiviral coatings on polycarbonate [...] Read more.
In March 2020, the World Health Organization announced a pandemic attributed to SARS-CoV-2, a novel beta-coronavirus, which spread widely from China. As a result, the need for antiviral surfaces has increased significantly. Here, the preparation and characterization of new antiviral coatings on polycarbonate (PC) for controlled release of activated chlorine (Cl+) and thymol separately and combined are described. Thin coatings were prepared by polymerization of 1-[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl] urea (TMSPU) in ethanol/water basic solution by modified Stöber polymerization, followed by spreading the formed dispersion onto surface-oxidized PC film using a Mayer rod with appropriate thickness. Activated Cl-releasing coating was prepared by chlorination of the PC/SiO2-urea film with NaOCl through the urea amide groups to form a Cl-amine derivatized coating. Thymol releasing coating was prepared by linking thymol to TMSPU or its polymer via hydrogen bonds between thymol hydroxyl and urea amide groups. The activity towards T4 bacteriophage and canine coronavirus (CCV) was measured. PC/SiO2-urea-thymol enhanced bacteriophage persistence, while PC/SiO2-urea-Cl reduced its amount by 84%. Temperature-dependent release is presented. Surprisingly, the combination of thymol and chlorine had an improved antiviral activity, reducing the amount of both viruses by four orders of magnitude, indicating synergistic activity. For CCV, coating with only thymol was inactive, while SiO2-urea-Cl reduced it below a detectable level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced Manufacturing and Surface Technology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 5175 KiB  
Article
Effect of CH4 Flow Rate on the Tribological Behaviors of TiCN Films against Si3N4 Ceramic and Steel Ball
by Yanhong Lyu, Jianyun Zheng, Huilian Sun, Xinrong Deng, Yang Liu and Qiaoyu Zhang
Lubricants 2023, 11(5), 209; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants11050209 - 08 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1288
Abstract
Control of the structural, mechanical and tribological properties of TiCN films play an important role in its numerous applications, including the cutting tools, mechanical components, aeronautical and biomedical engineering industries. Direct-current magnetron sputtering (DCMS) system was applied to deposit TiCN films onto n-type [...] Read more.
Control of the structural, mechanical and tribological properties of TiCN films play an important role in its numerous applications, including the cutting tools, mechanical components, aeronautical and biomedical engineering industries. Direct-current magnetron sputtering (DCMS) system was applied to deposit TiCN films onto n-type silicon (100) at room temperature. The Ti-TiN interlayer was used to enhance the adhesive strength between the coating and the substrate. The composition and microstructure of the TiCN films were studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and field-emitted scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The mechanical properties of the films as a function of methane (CH4) flow ratio were then characterized using nano-indentation measurements. The tribological behavior of TiCN films was investigated by UMT-2MT tribometer against a Si3N4 ceramic and AISI52100 steel ball. After the tribological tests, the wear rate of the films was obtained by the 3D surface profiler and the component content of wear debris was evaluated by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The results show that the tribological properties of TiCN films are a function of CH4 flow rates. The film obtained at a 10 sccm CH4 flow rate possesses a minimum average COF value of 0.1964 and reaches 72,000 cycles against a Si3N4 ball over the test duration. Furthermore, the wear rate was only 2.076 × 10−6 mm3/N·m. Furthermore, the TiCN films exhibited longer lifespan against the Si3N4 ball than against the steel ball under the normal load of 1 N, indicating that the TiCN films present better lubricative properties when against low-hardness counterparts than high-hardness counterparts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced Manufacturing and Surface Technology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 3734 KiB  
Article
Process Map Definition for Laser Metal Deposition of VDM Alloy 780 on the 316L Substrate
by Pascal Paulus, Yannick Ruppert, Michael Vielhaber and Juergen Griebsch
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2023, 7(3), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp7030086 - 26 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1524
Abstract
VDM Alloy 780 is a novel Ni-based superalloy that allows for approximately 50 °C higher operating temperatures, compared to Inconel 718, without a significant decrease in mechanical properties. The age hardenable NiCoCr Alloy combines increased temperature strength with oxidation resistance, as well as [...] Read more.
VDM Alloy 780 is a novel Ni-based superalloy that allows for approximately 50 °C higher operating temperatures, compared to Inconel 718, without a significant decrease in mechanical properties. The age hardenable NiCoCr Alloy combines increased temperature strength with oxidation resistance, as well as improved microstructural stability due to γ′-precipitation. These advantages make it suitable for wear- and corrosion-resistant coatings that can be used in high temperature applications. However, VDM Alloy 780 has not yet been sufficiently investigated for laser metal deposition applications. A design of experiments with single tracks on 316L specimens was carried out to evaluate the influence of the process parameters on clad quality. Subsequently, the quality of the clads was evaluated by means of destructive and non-destructive testing methods, in order to verify the suitability of VDM Alloy 780 for laser metal deposition applications. The single-track experiments provide a basis for coating or additive manufacturing applications. For conveying the results, scatter plots with regression lines are presented, which illustrate the influence of specific energy density on the resulting porosity, dilution, powder efficiency, aspect ratio, width and height. Finally, the clad quality, in terms of porosity, is visualized by two process maps with different mass per unit lengths. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced Manufacturing and Surface Technology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 6858 KiB  
Article
Influence of Laser Surface Texture on the Anti-Friction Properties of 304 Stainless Steel
by Xiashuang Li, Guifeng Li, Yuesui Lei, Lei Gao, Lin Zhang and Kangkang Yang
Machines 2023, 11(4), 473; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines11040473 - 12 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1312
Abstract
To enhance the anti-friction properties of 304 stainless steel, friction experiments were conducted on it after laser surface texturing. The influences of laser scanning speed, repetition frequency, processing times, laser beam line spacing, and lattice spacing on the friction properties of 304 stainless [...] Read more.
To enhance the anti-friction properties of 304 stainless steel, friction experiments were conducted on it after laser surface texturing. The influences of laser scanning speed, repetition frequency, processing times, laser beam line spacing, and lattice spacing on the friction properties of 304 stainless steel were investigated by contrast tests under annular filling mode. The results revealed that laser texturing improved the anti-friction properties of 304 stainless steel. The friction coefficient of the sample surface decreased first and then increased with the increase in scanning speed, repetition frequency, processing times, laser beam line spacing, and lattice spacing. Based on this, process optimization found that a stainless steel surface with good anti-friction properties could be obtained when the laser power was 0.3 W, the repetition frequency was 50 kHz, the scanning speed was 80 mm/s, the laser beam line spacing was 1 μm, the lattice spacing was 200 μm, and the number of processing times was two. Finally, scanning electron microscope (SEM) characterization of wear morphology on the sample surface showed that the laser textured surface could collect debris during effective friction, which reduced the occurrence of abrasive and adhesive wear. Meanwhile, the actual contact area of the friction pair was effectively reduced, thereby reducing friction force and wear. This study provided experimental data and a theoretical basis for improving the friction properties of the 304 stainless steel surface and laid the foundation for its reliable use under friction and wear conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced Manufacturing and Surface Technology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 5744 KiB  
Article
Effect of Coated Composite Micro–Texture Tool on Cutting Shape and Cutting Force during Aluminum Alloy Cutting
by Qinghua Li, Chunlu Ma, Lintao Xie, Baizhong Wang and Shihong Zhang
Machines 2023, 11(4), 439; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines11040439 - 29 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1100
Abstract
Aluminum alloy materials are very difficult to break in the processing process; chip accumulation leads to poor processing stability. In this paper, a coated composite micro–textured tool is presented. The influence of coated composite micro–textured tool on chip shape and cutting force under [...] Read more.
Aluminum alloy materials are very difficult to break in the processing process; chip accumulation leads to poor processing stability. In this paper, a coated composite micro–textured tool is presented. The influence of coated composite micro–textured tool on chip shape and cutting force under the same cutting parameters is studied. Firstly, the combination of cutting force and cutting temperature is optimized based on cutting test. Secondly, combined with the finite element simulation technology, three kinds of composite micro–texture tools are tested to determine the same cutting parameters, tools and workpiece materials, and optimize the composite micro–texture combination from the angle of chip shape, cutting temperature and cutting force. Finally, on the basis of optimizing the microstructure combination, the optimization of the cutting performance of aluminum alloy by coating material is studied. It was found that the chip was more easily broken in the composite microstructure when two tools were used. The cutting force decreased by 25% and the cutting temperature decreased by 9.09% compared with the non–micro–texture tools. The cutting temperature and cutting force decreased by 3% and 4.99% compared with those of uncoated composite microstructure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced Manufacturing and Surface Technology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 9742 KiB  
Article
Conical Grinding Wheel Ultrasonic-Assisted Grinding Micro-Texture Surface Formation Mechanism
by Jiaying Han, Yiqi Jiang, Xinrui Li and Qing Li
Machines 2023, 11(4), 428; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines11040428 - 27 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1366
Abstract
The rotating ultrasonic-assisted grinding (RUAG) experiment of the conical grinding wheel generated the intermittent pit-shaped micro-texture on the surface of the workpiece, reducing thermal damage and improving the lubrication characteristics compared with conventional grinding (CG). To further optimize the surface properties, this paper [...] Read more.
The rotating ultrasonic-assisted grinding (RUAG) experiment of the conical grinding wheel generated the intermittent pit-shaped micro-texture on the surface of the workpiece, reducing thermal damage and improving the lubrication characteristics compared with conventional grinding (CG). To further optimize the surface properties, this paper studied the formation mechanism of micro-texture. This study used as basis the theory that micro-debris volume equals the macroscopic material removal one to establish the mathematical equation of grinding depth. Thereafter, formulas of micro-texture feature parameters, including pit length, pit depth, and texture spacing were deduced. The solved microscopic grinding depth was alternatingly positive and negative, indicating that the alternating separation between the grinding grain and workpiece caused intermittent pits in the grinding. Through response surface analysis (RSA), this paper analyzed the relationships among macroscopic grinding depth, micro-texture feature parameters, and machining parameters (i.e., amplitude, feed rate, and rotational speed). Single-factor experiments of machining parameters, with finite element simulation and experiment methods, were performed to verify the theoretical micro-texture features. The simulated program formed three-dimensional surfaces with micro-textures. Their measurement results were consistent with the theoretical ones. Experimental results proved that the range of pit length covers the theoretical ones, further verifying the accuracy of the grinding depth model. For this grinding wheel, the 8–10 μm amplitude was optimal for better roughness, lubrication, and thermal damage. Roughness was improved when increasing the rotational speed or reducing the feed rate based on the experiment. If the rotational speed and feed rate exceed the limiting values, then continuous grinding will break down the abrasive grains and even damage the cubic boron nitride (CBN) coating. Experimental results likewise showed that the pit shape was closely related to the surface properties, which deserves further investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced Manufacturing and Surface Technology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 9003 KiB  
Article
Investigation on White Layer Formation in Dry High-Speed Milling of Nickel-Based Superalloy GH4169
by Jiamao Zhang, Jin Du, Binxun Li and Guosheng Su
Machines 2023, 11(3), 406; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines11030406 - 21 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1542
Abstract
To investigate the formation mechanism of the white layer on the machined surface during high-speed milling of nickel-based superalloy GH4169, several cutting parameters were selected for milling experiments. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) were employed to [...] Read more.
To investigate the formation mechanism of the white layer on the machined surface during high-speed milling of nickel-based superalloy GH4169, several cutting parameters were selected for milling experiments. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) were employed to characterize element distribution, phase transformation, and microstructure changes in the machined surface of the superalloy and then reveal the formation mechanism of the white layer on the machined surface. The results show that the white layer appears on the machined surface of GH4169, which is dense and has no obvious structural features. The total amount of elements in the white layer remains unchanged, but the distribution of elements such as C, N, O, Fe, and Ni changes due to phase change. The formation mechanism of the white layer is due to the dynamic recovery and dynamic recrystallization caused by the heat–force coupling effect, which leads to the grain refinement of the material and thus forms the white layer. This investigation can provide theoretical support to improve the service life of the parts in actual machining. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced Manufacturing and Surface Technology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 3766 KiB  
Article
Effect of Interbody Implants on the Biomechanical Behavior of Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion: A Finite Element Study
by Hangkai Shen, Jia Zhu, Chenhui Huang, Dingding Xiang and Weiqiang Liu
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(2), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14020113 - 17 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1494
Abstract
Porous titanium interbody scaffolds are growing in popularity due to their appealing advantages for bone ingrowth. This study aimed to investigate the biomechanical effects of scaffold materials in both normal and osteoporotic lumbar spines using a finite element (FE) model. Four scaffold materials [...] Read more.
Porous titanium interbody scaffolds are growing in popularity due to their appealing advantages for bone ingrowth. This study aimed to investigate the biomechanical effects of scaffold materials in both normal and osteoporotic lumbar spines using a finite element (FE) model. Four scaffold materials were compared: Ti6Al4V (Ti), PEEK, porous titanium of 65% porosity (P65), and porous titanium of 80% porosity (P80). In addition, the range of motion (ROM), endplate stress, scaffold stress, and pedicle screw stress were calculated and compared. The results showed that the ROM decreased by more than 96% after surgery, and the solid Ti scaffold provided the lowest ROM (1.2–3.4% of the intact case) at the surgical segment among all models. Compared to solid Ti, PEEK decreased the scaffold stress by 53–66 and the endplate stress by 0–33%, while porous Ti decreased the scaffold stress by 20–32% and the endplate stress by 0–32%. Further, compared with P65, P80 slightly increased the ROM (<0.03°) and pedicle screw stress (<4%) and decreased the endplate stress by 0–13% and scaffold stress by approximately 18%. Moreover, the osteoporotic lumbar spine provided higher ROMs, endplate stresses, scaffold stresses, and pedicle screw stresses in all motion modes. The porous Ti scaffolds may offer an alternative for lateral lumbar interbody fusion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced Manufacturing and Surface Technology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 16399 KiB  
Article
Simulation Study on Bearing Lubrication Mechanism and Friction Characteristics of the Biomimetic Non-Smooth Surface of a Cross-Scale, Second-Order Compound Microstructure
by Yingna Liang, Cunyuan Wang, Zongyi Zhang, Zhepeng Zhang, Wei Wang, Hao Xing, Tianyuan Guan and Dianrong Gao
Lubricants 2023, 11(2), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants11020077 - 11 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1174
Abstract
The reasonable design of biomimetic non-smooth surfaces is a novel and effective way to solve problems such as the poor lubricity and serious friction and wear of friction pairs of seawater axial piston pumps. Inspired by cross-scale, second-order compound microstructures on the surfaces [...] Read more.
The reasonable design of biomimetic non-smooth surfaces is a novel and effective way to solve problems such as the poor lubricity and serious friction and wear of friction pairs of seawater axial piston pumps. Inspired by cross-scale, second-order compound microstructures on the surfaces of some living organisms, a hydrodynamic lubrication model of a slipper pair with a surface featuring spherical pits containing spherical convex hulls was built. This study analyzed the bearing lubrication mechanism and friction characteristics of cross-scale, second-order compound microstructure from the microflow perspective via the CFD method and optimized the working and geometric parameters using a hybrid orthogonal test scheme. The study’s results show that the cross-scale, second-order compound microstructure can produce a superimposed hydrodynamic pressure effect to improve the bearing capacity of the lubrication film of a slipper pair, reducing the friction coefficient. The orders of factors (the working parameter and geometric parameters) under multiple indices (the total pressure-bearing capacity and the friction coefficient) were found. The optimal combination is a spherical pit with a first order diameter of 0.7 mm, a first order depth-to-diameter ratio of 0.1, an area rate of 20%, an arrangement angle of α/3 and a spherical convex hull with a second order diameter of 0.13 mm, and a second order depth-to-diameter ratio of 0.3. Compared to a smooth surface and a first-order, non-smooth microstructure, the cross-scale, second-order compound microstructure has an 11.0% and 8.9% higher total pressure-bearing capacity, respectively, and the friction coefficient decreased by 9.5% and 5.4%, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced Manufacturing and Surface Technology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 9716 KiB  
Article
Novel Tool Path Generation Method for Pocket Machining Using Sound Field Synthesis Theory
by Xuefeng Yang, Xulin Cai, Wenan Yang and Youpeng You
Machines 2023, 11(2), 131; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines11020131 - 18 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1438
Abstract
Contour parallel tool paths have been proved to be a preferred machining strategy for their advantage of less tool retractions and less sharp turns. The traditional geometrical algorithm-based tool path generation method often makes it hard to simply and simultaneously solve the problems [...] Read more.
Contour parallel tool paths have been proved to be a preferred machining strategy for their advantage of less tool retractions and less sharp turns. The traditional geometrical algorithm-based tool path generation method often makes it hard to simply and simultaneously solve the problems of self-intersection, no residual, and smoothness at the same time due to their contradictions. To address this issue, a contoured parallel tool path generation method for pocket machining is developed in this study. It is based on sound field synthesis theory inspired by the phenomenon of sound wave propagation. Firstly, the simplified medial axis (SMA) tree of the pocket is extracted and the propagation direction of each SMA segment is calculated on account of the geometric characteristics of the pocket boundary. Secondly, the final tool path is obtained through the synthesis of the sound field. Finally, the novel method is verified on five different pockets to generate a contoured parallel milling tool path. After machining these pockets and measuring the machining time, roughness, and cutting force, the experimental results demonstrate that the tool path obtained by the novel method has advantages in improving machining quality and efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced Manufacturing and Surface Technology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 2108 KiB  
Article
Effect of Microstructure of TiN /TiCN Layer on the Structural, Mechanical and Tribological Properties of the Ti/TiN/TiCN Films
by Yanhong Lyu, Qiaoyu Zhang, Yang Liu, Xinrong Deng, Huilian Sun and Min Mo
Lubricants 2023, 11(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants11010021 - 05 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1378
Abstract
A direct current magnetron sputtering (DCMS) system at room temperature was applied to deposit the Ti/TiN/TiCN films. In order to research the effect of the microstructure of the TiN/TiCN layer on the Ti/TiN/TiCN films, the deposition time ratio of the TiN/TiCN layer ranged [...] Read more.
A direct current magnetron sputtering (DCMS) system at room temperature was applied to deposit the Ti/TiN/TiCN films. In order to research the effect of the microstructure of the TiN/TiCN layer on the Ti/TiN/TiCN films, the deposition time ratio of the TiN/TiCN layer ranged from 28.57 to 200%, and the whole deposition time of the films and the deposition time of Ti layer were constant. In this work, the relationship between structure and mechanical properties of films were investigated. The research results showed that the composition and structure of the films only slightly changed, while the crystalline orientation of the TiCN layer was of significant variation with the deposition time of the TiN layer. It is shown that the adhesion strength and internal stresses were 18.6 ± 1.5 N and 140 MPa when the deposition time ratio was 50%. By adjusting the deposition time ratio, the films displayed significant improvement in tribological behaviors. The coefficients of friction (COF) for the films deposited under deposition time ratio of 50% were about only 0.139 when the value of COF was stabilized. This work can provide a good wear-resisting film prepared approach at room temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced Manufacturing and Surface Technology)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

9 pages, 5308 KiB  
Article
Fretting Wear Characteristics of SLM-Formed 316L Stainless Steel in Seawater
by Mingji Huang, Ping Chen and Xiaoxi Qiao
Lubricants 2023, 11(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants11010007 - 26 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1265
Abstract
The fretting wear characteristics of two different energy density 316L stainless steels formed by selective laser melting (SLM) under different friction conditions are studied. The image method was used to study the porosity of two samples with different energy densities (46.88 J/mm3 [...] Read more.
The fretting wear characteristics of two different energy density 316L stainless steels formed by selective laser melting (SLM) under different friction conditions are studied. The image method was used to study the porosity of two samples with different energy densities (46.88 J/mm3, 98.96 J/mm3) formed by SLM. The dynamic wear test, respectively, evaluates its wear morphology and wear depth under three conditions: dry friction, distilled water, and an 3.5% NaCl solution. The porosity of the samples with SLM forming an energy density of 46.88 J/mm3 and 98.96 J/mm3 are 7.66% and 1.00%, respectively. Under the three conditions, the friction coefficient and wear depth of the samples with high energy density are smaller than those of the samples with low energy density; the friction of the samples with two energy densities in aqueous solution is faster than dry friction in air and tends to be stable. The friction coefficient in 3.5% NaCl solution is the smallest; when the energy density is constant, the wear depth of the fretting wear is the largest under dry friction and the smallest in distilled water. Under dry-friction conditions, the wear mechanisms of fretting wear are mainly oxidative wear and adhesive wear. In the fretting wear in the distilled water and the 3.5% NaCl solution, both wear mechanisms are abrasive wear and fatigue wear. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced Manufacturing and Surface Technology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 5585 KiB  
Article
Effect of Process Parameters on Stress Field of Laser Additive Manufacturing
by Yulin Liu, Qi Li, Zhaohui Ren, Zeyu Jiang, Hengfa Luo and Xingwen Zhang
Machines 2022, 10(12), 1197; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10121197 - 11 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1357
Abstract
In order to optimize the additive manufacturing process and find the process parameters affecting the mechanical properties of the parts, an additive manufacturing simulation model of Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy was established, and the effects of ambient temperature, substrate thickness and wire temperature on [...] Read more.
In order to optimize the additive manufacturing process and find the process parameters affecting the mechanical properties of the parts, an additive manufacturing simulation model of Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy was established, and the effects of ambient temperature, substrate thickness and wire temperature on the stress field and residual stress field were analyzed. The results show that the ambient temperature is inversely proportional to the residual stress of the cladding layer, while the substrate thickness and wire temperature are positively correlated to the residual stress of the cladding layer. When the ambient temperature increases from 0 °C to 600 °C, the maximum residual stress decreases by 36.0%, the maximum residual stress increases by 10.0% when the substrate thickness increases from 25 mm to 55 mm and the maximum residual stress increases by 7.48% when the temperature increases from 0 °C to 600 °C. The influence of the three parameters on the maximum residual stress is as follows: ambient temperature > substrate thickness > wire temperature. The research results can provide reference for stress control during actual manufacturing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced Manufacturing and Surface Technology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop