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Atmosphere, Volume 15, Issue 2 (February 2024) – 99 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Methane is a key driver of near-term climate change, and studies suggest methane loss from oil and gas production calculated by bottom-up methods may be underestimated. To investigate this, an emissions inventory based on EPA emission factors was compared to an inventory using contemporary/region-specific measurement data. The EPA-based inventory estimated emissions at 315 Gg CH4 y−1, while the updated inventory estimated emissions of 1.5 Tg CH4 y−1. The largest changes resulted from large fugitives (+430 Gg), maintenance activity (+214 Gg), inefficient flares (+174 Gg), and associated gas venting (+136 Gg). This suggests systematic underestimates probably exist in current emissions inventories, and emission factors could be improved through direct comparison with measurement data. View this paper
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16 pages, 10989 KiB  
Article
Study on the Vertical Distribution and Transport of Aerosols in the Joint Observation of Satellite and Ground-Based LiDAR
by Hao Yang, Xiaomeng Zhu, Zhiyuan Fang, Duoyang Qiu, Yalin Hu, Chunyan Tian and Fei Ming
Atmosphere 2024, 15(2), 240; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos15020240 - 19 Feb 2024
Viewed by 632
Abstract
The mechanism of aerosol pollution transport remains highly elusive owing to the myriad of influential factors. In this study, ground station data, satellite data, ground-based LiDAR remote sensing data, sounding data, ERA5 reanalysis and a backward trajectory model were combined to investigate the [...] Read more.
The mechanism of aerosol pollution transport remains highly elusive owing to the myriad of influential factors. In this study, ground station data, satellite data, ground-based LiDAR remote sensing data, sounding data, ERA5 reanalysis and a backward trajectory model were combined to investigate the formation process and optical properties of winter aerosol pollution in Beijing and surrounding areas. The analysis of ground station data shows that compared to 2019 and 2021, the pandemic lockdown policy resulted in a decrease in the total number of pollution days and a decrease in the average concentration of particulate matter in the Beijing area in 2020. The terrain characteristics of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) made it prone to northeast and southwest winds. The highest incidence of aerosol pollution in Beijing occurs in February and March during the spring and winter seasons. Analysis of a typical heavy aerosol pollution process in the Beijing area from 28 February to 5 March 2019 shows that dust and fine particulate matter contributed to the primary pollution; surface air temperature inversion and an average wind speed of less than 3 m/s were conducive to the continuous accumulation of pollutants, which was accompanied by the oxidation reaction of NO2 and O3, forming photochemical pollution. The heavy aerosol pollution was transmitted and diffused towards the southeast, gradually eliminating the pollution. Our results provide relevant research support for the prevention and control of aerosol pollution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Air Quality)
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15 pages, 5414 KiB  
Article
Multi-Scale Analysis of Grain Size in the Component Structures of Sediments Accumulated along the Desert-Loess Transition Zone of the Tengger Desert and Implications for Sources and Aeolian Dust Transportation
by Xinran Yang, Jun Peng, Bing Liu and Yingna Liu
Atmosphere 2024, 15(2), 239; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos15020239 - 19 Feb 2024
Viewed by 601
Abstract
Aeolian sediments accumulated along the desert-loess transition zone of the Tengger Desert include heterogeneous textures and complex component structures in their grain-size distributions (GSD). However, the sources of these aeolian sediments have not been resolved due to the lack of large reference GSD [...] Read more.
Aeolian sediments accumulated along the desert-loess transition zone of the Tengger Desert include heterogeneous textures and complex component structures in their grain-size distributions (GSD). However, the sources of these aeolian sediments have not been resolved due to the lack of large reference GSD sample datasets from adjacent regions that contain various types of sediments; such datasets could be used for fingerprinting based on grain-size properties. This lack of knowledge hinders our understanding of the mechanism of aeolian dust releases in these regions and the effects of forcing of atmospheric circulations on the transportation and accumulation of sediments in this region. In this study, we employed a multi-scale grain-size analysis method, i.e., a combination of the single-sample unmixing (SSU) and the parametric end-member modelling (PEMM) techniques, to resolve the component structures of sediments that had accumulated along the desert-loess transition zone of the Tengger Desert. We have also analyzed the component structures of GSDs of various types of sediments, including mobile and fixed sand dunes, lake sediments, and loess sediments from surrounding regions. Our results demonstrate that the patterns observed in coarser fractions of sediments (i.e., sediments with a mode grain size of >100 μm) from the transition zone match well with the patterns of component structures of several types of sediments from the interior of the Tengger Desert, and the patterns seen in the finer fractions (i.e., fine, medium, and coarse silts with a modal size of <63 μm) were broadly consistent with those of loess sediments from the Qilian Mountains. The deflation/erosion of loess from the Qilian Mountains by wind was the most important mechanism underlying the production of these finer grain-size fractions. The East Asia winter monsoon (EAWM) played a key role in transportation of the aeolian dust from these source regions to the desert-loess transition zone of the desert. Full article
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18 pages, 5720 KiB  
Article
High Gravity-Enhanced Direct Air Capture: A Leap Forward in CO2 Adsorption Technology
by Shufei Wang, Youzhi Liu, Chengqian Zhang, Shuwei Guo and Yuliang Li
Atmosphere 2024, 15(2), 238; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos15020238 - 18 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1192
Abstract
Given the global pressure of climate change and ecological equilibrium, there is an urgent need to develop effective carbon dioxide (CO2) capture technology. Due to its comprehensiveness and flexibility, Direct Air Capture (DAC) technology has emerged as a vital supplement to [...] Read more.
Given the global pressure of climate change and ecological equilibrium, there is an urgent need to develop effective carbon dioxide (CO2) capture technology. Due to its comprehensiveness and flexibility, Direct Air Capture (DAC) technology has emerged as a vital supplement to traditional emission reduction methods. This study aims to innovate Direct Air Capture (DAC) technology by utilizing the ultrasonic impregnation method to load Tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA) onto alumina (Al2O3) as the adsorbent. Furthermore, high gravity adsorption technology is integrated to significantly enhance the efficiency of DAC. Characterization tests, including BET, FTIR, TG, XRD, and SEM-EDS, confirm the structural stability and high capture capacity of the adsorbent. Additionally, this study demonstrates the rapid and efficient capture of CO2 from the air using TEPA-Al2O3 adsorbent under high gravity conditions for the first time. Under optimal conditions with TEPA loading at 15.06%, a high gravity factor of 2.67, and a gas flow rate of 30 L/min, TEPA-Al2O3 achieves a CO2 adsorption capacity of 48.5 mg/g in RAB, which is an improvement of 15.56 mg/g compared to traditional fixed-bed technology. Moreover, it reaches adsorption saturation faster under high gravity conditions, exhibiting a significantly higher adsorption rate compared to traditional fixed-bed systems. Furthermore, the adsorption process better conforms to the Avrami model. Steam stripping regeneration is utilized to regenerate the adsorbent, demonstrating excellent regeneration performance and stable adsorption capacity, thereby proving its feasibility and economic benefits as a DAC technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Air Pollution Control)
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15 pages, 6324 KiB  
Article
Characteristics and Source Apportionment of Volatile Organic Compounds in an Industrial Area at the Zhejiang–Shanghai Boundary, China
by Xiang Cao, Jialin Yi, Yuewu Li, Mengfei Zhao, Yusen Duan, Fei Zhang and Lian Duan
Atmosphere 2024, 15(2), 237; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos15020237 - 18 Feb 2024
Viewed by 732
Abstract
As “fuel” for atmospheric photochemical reactions, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play a key role in the secondary generation of ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5, an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm). To determine the characteristics of VOCs in [...] Read more.
As “fuel” for atmospheric photochemical reactions, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play a key role in the secondary generation of ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5, an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm). To determine the characteristics of VOCs in a high-level ozone period, comprehensive monitoring of O3 and its precursors (VOCs and NOx) was continuously conducted in an industrial area in Shanghai from 18 August to 30 September 2021. During the observation period, the average concentration of VOCs was 47.33 ppb, and alkanes (19.64 ppb) accounted for the highest proportion of TVOCs, followed by oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) (13.61 ppb), alkenes (6.92 ppb), aromatics (4.65 ppb), halogenated hydrocarbons (1.60 ppb), and alkynes (0.91 ppb). Alkenes were the predominant components that contributed to the ozone formation potential (OFP), while aromatics such as xylene, toluene, and ethylbenzene contributed the most to the secondary organic aerosol production potential (SOAFP). During the study period, O3, NOx, and VOCs showed significant diurnal variations. Industrial processes were the main source of VOCs, and the second largest source of VOCs was vehicle exhaust. While the largest contribution to OFP was from vehicle exhaust, the second largest contribution was from liquid petroleum gas (LPG). High potential source contribution function (PSCF) values were observed in western and southeastern areas near the sampling sites. The results of a health risk evaluation showed that the Hazard Index was less than 1 and there was no non-carcinogenic risk, but 1,3-butadiene, benzene, chloroform, 1,2-dibromoethane, and carbon tetrachloride pose a potential carcinogenic risk to the population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Atmospheric Aqueous-Phase Chemistry)
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18 pages, 11338 KiB  
Article
Hydrometeorological Insights into the Forecasting Performance of Multi-Source Weather over a Typical Hill-Karst Basin, Southwest China
by Chongxun Mo, Xiaoyu Wan, Xingbi Lei, Xinru Chen, Rongyong Ma, Yi Huang and Guikai Sun
Atmosphere 2024, 15(2), 236; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos15020236 - 17 Feb 2024
Viewed by 694
Abstract
Reliable precipitation forecasts are essential for weather-related disaster prevention and water resource management. Multi-source weather (MSWX), a recently released ensemble meteorological dataset, has provided new opportunities with open access, fine horizontal resolution (0.1°), and a lead time of up to seven months. However, [...] Read more.
Reliable precipitation forecasts are essential for weather-related disaster prevention and water resource management. Multi-source weather (MSWX), a recently released ensemble meteorological dataset, has provided new opportunities with open access, fine horizontal resolution (0.1°), and a lead time of up to seven months. However, few studies have comprehensively evaluated the performance of MSWX in terms of precipitation forecasting and hydrological modeling, particularly in hill-karst basins. The key concerns and challenges are how precipitation prediction performance relates to elevation and how to evaluate the hydrologic performance of MSWX in hill-karst regions with complex geographic heterogeneity. To address these concerns and challenges, this study presents a comprehensive evaluation of MSWX at the Chengbi River Basin (Southwest China) based on multiple statistical metrics, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), and a multi-site calibration strategy. The results show that all ensemble members of MSWX overestimated the number of precipitation events and tended to have lower accuracies at higher altitudes. Meanwhile, the error did not significantly increase with the increased lead time. The “00” member exhibited the best performance among the MSWX members. In addition, the multi-site calibration-enhanced SWAT had reliable performance (Average Nash–Sutcliffe value = 0.73) and hence can be used for hydrological evaluation of MSWX. Furthermore, MSWX achieved satisfactory performance (Nash–Sutcliffe value > 0) in 22% of runoff event predictions, but the error increased with longer lead times. This study gives some new hydrometeorological insights into the performance of MSWX, which can provide feedback on its development and applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Meteorology)
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18 pages, 7045 KiB  
Article
A Convolutional Neural Network and Attention-Based Retrieval of Temperature Profile for a Satellite Hyperspectral Microwave Sensor
by Xiangyang Tan, Kaixue Ma and Fangli Dou
Atmosphere 2024, 15(2), 235; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos15020235 - 17 Feb 2024
Viewed by 680
Abstract
As numerical weather forecasting advances, there is a growing demand for higher-quality atmospheric data. Hyperspectral instruments can capture more atmospheric information and increase vertical resolution, but there has been limited research into retrieval algorithms for obtaining hyperspectral microwaves in the future. This study [...] Read more.
As numerical weather forecasting advances, there is a growing demand for higher-quality atmospheric data. Hyperspectral instruments can capture more atmospheric information and increase vertical resolution, but there has been limited research into retrieval algorithms for obtaining hyperspectral microwaves in the future. This study proposes an atmospheric temperature profile detection algorithm based on Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) and Local Attention Mechanisms for local feature extraction, applied to hyperspectral microwave sensors. The study utilizes the method of information entropy to extract more effective channels in the vicinities of 60 GHz, 118 GHz, and 425 GHz. The algorithm uses the brightness temperature as the input of the network. The algorithm addresses common issues encountered in conventional networks, such as overfitting, gradient explosion, and gradient vanishing. Additionally, this method isolates the three oxygen-sensitive frequency bands for modularized local feature extraction training, thereby avoiding abrupt changes in brightness temperature between adjacent frequency bands. More importantly, the algorithm considers the correlation between multiple channels and information redundancy, focusing on variations in local information. This enhances the effectiveness of hyperspectral microwave channel information extraction. We simulated the brightness temperatures of the selected channels through ARTS and divided them into training, validation, and test sets. The retrieval capability of the proposed method is validated on a test dataset, achieving a root mean square error of 1.46 K and a mean absolute error of 1.4 K for temperature profile. Detailed comparisons are also made between this method and other commonly used networks for atmospheric retrieval. The results demonstrate that the proposed method significantly improves the accuracy of temperature profile retrieval, particularly in capturing fine details, and is more adaptable to complex environments. The model also exhibits scalability, extending from one-dimensional (pressure level) to three-dimensional space. The error for each pressure level is controlled within 0.7 K and the average error is within 0.4 K, demonstrating effectiveness across different scales with impressive results. The computational efficiency and accuracy have both been improved when handling a large amount of radiation data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Atmospheric Techniques, Instruments, and Modeling)
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15 pages, 5925 KiB  
Article
Topographic Elevation’s Impact on Local Climate and Extreme Rainfall: A Case Study of Zhengzhou, Henan
by Zhi Jin, Jinhua Yu and Kan Dai
Atmosphere 2024, 15(2), 234; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos15020234 - 16 Feb 2024
Viewed by 583
Abstract
The topography significantly influences local climate precipitation and the intensity of precipitation events, yet the specific differences in its elevational effects require further understanding. This study focuses on precipitation in Zhengzhou City, Henan Province, utilizing hourly data and a topographic elevation precipitation increment [...] Read more.
The topography significantly influences local climate precipitation and the intensity of precipitation events, yet the specific differences in its elevational effects require further understanding. This study focuses on precipitation in Zhengzhou City, Henan Province, utilizing hourly data and a topographic elevation precipitation increment model to assess the impact of topography on local climate precipitation and extreme heavy rainfall events. The results indicate that the daily precipitation attributed to topographic elevation in Zhengzhou in July was 0.21 mm, accounting for 4.9% of the total precipitation. In the extreme heavy rainfall event on 20 July 2021 (“7.20” event), the precipitation due to topographic elevation reaches 48.7 mm, constituting 15.8% of the total precipitation. Additionally, numerical simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model for the 20–21 July 2021 rainfall event in Zhengzhou show that the WRF model effectively reproduces the spatiotemporal characteristics of the precipitation process. The simulated topographic elevation precipitation intensity is 49.8 mm/day, accounting for 16.6% of daily precipitation, closely resembling observational data. Sensitivity experiments further reveal that reducing the heights of the Taihang Mountains and Funiu Mountains weakens the low-level easterly winds around Zhengzhou. Consequently, as the center of the heavy rainfall shifts northward or westward, the intensity of topographic elevation-induced precipitation decreases to 7.3 mm/day and 12.9 mm/day. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Climatology)
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19 pages, 3273 KiB  
Review
Sources, Occurrences, and Risks of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydro-Carbons (PAHs) in Bangladesh: A Review of Current Status
by Mohammad Mazbah Uddin and Fuliu Xu
Atmosphere 2024, 15(2), 233; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos15020233 - 15 Feb 2024
Viewed by 982
Abstract
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pollution has emerged as a significant environmental issue in Bangladesh in the recent years, driven by both economic and population growth. This review aims to investigate the current trends in PAHs pollution research, covering sediments, water, aquatic organisms, air [...] Read more.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pollution has emerged as a significant environmental issue in Bangladesh in the recent years, driven by both economic and population growth. This review aims to investigate the current trends in PAHs pollution research, covering sediments, water, aquatic organisms, air particles, and associated health risks in Bangladesh. A comparative analysis with PAHs research in other countries is conducted, and potential future research directions are explored. This review suggests that the research on PAHs pollution in Bangladesh is less well studied and has fewer research publications compared to other countries. Dominant sources of PAHs in Bangladesh are fossil fuel combustion, petroleum hydrocarbons, urban discharges, industrial emissions, shipbreaking, and shipping activities. The concentrations of PAHs in sediments, water, air particles, and aquatic organisms in Bangladesh were found to be higher than those in most of the other countries around the world. Therefore, coastal sediments showed higher PAHs pollution than urban areas. Health risk assessments reveal both carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks to residents in Bangladesh due to the consumption of aquatic organisms. According to this investigation, it can be concluded that there are considerably higher PAHs concentrations in different environmental compartments in Bangladesh, which have received less research attention compared with other countries of the world. Considering these circumstances, this review recommends that future PAHs pollution research directions should focus on aquatic ecosystems, shipbreaking areas, air particles, and direct exposure to human health risks. Therefore, this study recommends addressing the identification of PAH sources, bioaccumulation, biomagnification in the food web, and biomarker responses of benthic organisms in future PAHs pollution research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Air Quality)
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15 pages, 7339 KiB  
Article
Causes of Summer Ozone Pollution Events in Jinan, East China: Local Photochemical Formation or Regional Transport?
by Baolin Wang, Yuchun Sun, Lei Sun, Zhenguo Liu, Chen Wang, Rui Zhang, Chuanyong Zhu, Na Yang, Guolan Fan, Xiaoyan Sun, Zhiyong Xia, Hongyu Xu, Guang Pan, Zhanchao Zhang, Guihuan Yan and Chongqing Xu
Atmosphere 2024, 15(2), 232; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos15020232 - 15 Feb 2024
Viewed by 558
Abstract
Simultaneous measurements of atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs), conventional gases and meteorological parameters were performed at an urban site in Jinan, East China, in June 2021 to explore the formation and evolution mechanisms of summertime ozone (O3) pollution events. O3 [...] Read more.
Simultaneous measurements of atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs), conventional gases and meteorological parameters were performed at an urban site in Jinan, East China, in June 2021 to explore the formation and evolution mechanisms of summertime ozone (O3) pollution events. O3 Episode Ⅰ, O3 Episode II, and non-O3 episodes were identified based on the China Ambient Air Quality Standards and the differences in precursor concentrations. The O3 concentrations in Episode I and Episode II were 145.4 μg/m3 and 166.4 μg/m3, respectively, which were significantly higher than that in non-O3 episode (90 μg/m3). For O3 precursors, VOCs and NOx concentrations increased by 48% and 34% in Episode I, and decreased by 21% and 27% in Episode II compared to non-O3 episode days. The analysis of the m,p-xylene to ethylbenzene ratio (X/E) and OH exposure demonstrated that the aging of the air masses in Episode II was significantly higher than the other two episodes, and the differences could not be explained by localized photochemical consumption. Therefore, we speculate that the high O3 concentrations in Episode II were driven by the regional transport of O3 and its precursors. Backward trajectory simulations indicated that the air masses during Episode II were concentrated from the south. In contrast, the combination of high precursor concentrations and favorable meteorological conditions (high temperatures and low humidity) led to an excess of O3 in Episode I. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) model results indicated that increased emissions from combustion and gasoline vehicle exhausts contributed to the elevated concentrations of VOCs in Episode I, and solvent usage may be an important contributor to O3 formation. The results of this study emphasize the importance of strengthening regional joint control of O3 and its precursors with neighboring cities, especially in the south, which is crucial for Jinan to mitigate O3 pollution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ozone Pollution and Effects in China)
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15 pages, 27731 KiB  
Article
Yearly Elevation Change and Surface Velocity Revealed from Two UAV Surveys at Baishui River Glacier No. 1, Yulong Snow Mountain
by Leiyu Li, Yuande Yang, Shijin Wang, Chuya Wang, Qihua Wang, Yuqiao Chen, Junhao Wang, Songtao Ai and Yanjun Che
Atmosphere 2024, 15(2), 231; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos15020231 - 14 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 775
Abstract
Glaciers play an important role in understanding the climate, water resources, and surrounding natural change. Baishui River Glacier No. 1, a temperate glacier in the monsoon-influenced Southeastern Qinghai–Tibet Plateau, has experienced significant ablation due to regional warming during the past few decades. However, [...] Read more.
Glaciers play an important role in understanding the climate, water resources, and surrounding natural change. Baishui River Glacier No. 1, a temperate glacier in the monsoon-influenced Southeastern Qinghai–Tibet Plateau, has experienced significant ablation due to regional warming during the past few decades. However, little is known about the yearly changes in Baishui River Glacier No. 1. To investigate how Baishui River Glacier No. 1 has changed in recent years, digital orthophoto maps and digital elevation models were obtained from an unmanned aerial vehicle on 20 October 2018 and 22 July 2021, covering 84% and 47% of the total area, respectively. The results of the Baishui River Glacier No. 1 changes were obtained by differencing the digital elevation models, manual tracking, and terminus-retreat calculation methods. Our results showed that the surveyed area had a mean elevation change of −4.26 m during 2018 and 2021, and the lower area lost more ice than other areas. The terminus of Baishui River Glacier No. 1 has retreated by 16.35 m/a on average, exhibiting spatial variation with latitude. Moreover, we initially found that there was a high correlation between surface velocity and elevation gradient in this high-speed glacier. The surface velocity of Baishui River Glacier No. 1 was derived with the manual feature tracking method and ranged from 10.48 to 32.00 m/a, which is slightly smaller than the seasonal average. However, the snow coverage and ice melting of the two epochs led to the underestimation of our elevation change and velocity results, which need further investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polar Glacier Mass Balance and Climate Change)
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19 pages, 7616 KiB  
Article
Objective Algorithm for Detection and Tracking of Extratropical Cyclones in the Southern Hemisphere
by Carina K. Padilha Reinke, Jeferson P. Machado, Mauricio M. Mata, José Luiz L. de Azevedo, Jaci Maria Bilhalva Saraiva and Regina Rodrigues
Atmosphere 2024, 15(2), 230; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos15020230 - 14 Feb 2024
Viewed by 860
Abstract
In this study, we propose an easy and robust algorithm to identify and track extratropical cyclone events using 850 hPa relative vorticity data, gaussian filter and connected-component labeling technique, which recognize the cyclone as areas under a threshold. Before selecting the events, the [...] Read more.
In this study, we propose an easy and robust algorithm to identify and track extratropical cyclone events using 850 hPa relative vorticity data, gaussian filter and connected-component labeling technique, which recognize the cyclone as areas under a threshold. Before selecting the events, the algorithm can include essential characteristics that are good metrics of intensity, like minimum mean sea level pressure and maximum 10-m winds. We implemented the algorithm in the Southern Hemisphere, using a 41-year high resolution dataset. Sensitivity tests were performed to determine the best parameters for detection and tracking, such as degree of smoothing, thresholds of relative vorticity at 850 hPa and the minimum area within the threshold. Two case studies were used to assess the positive and negative points of the methodology. The results showed that it is efficient in obtaining the position of extratropical cyclones in their most intense stage, but it does not always perform well during cyclolysis. We compare the methodology using 1-h temporal resolution to that using a 6-hours temporal resolution, and their reproducibility regarding the literature. The extratropical cyclone climatology in the Southern Hemisphere is provided and discussed. The algorithm developed here can be applied to datasets with good spacial and temporal resolution, providing a better inventory of extratropical cyclones. Full article
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12 pages, 2923 KiB  
Communication
CO2 Absorption by Solvents Consisting of TMG Protic Ionic Liquids and Ethylene Glycol: The Influence of Hydrogen Bonds
by Bohao Lu, Yixing Zeng, Mingzhe Chen, Shaoze Zhang and Dezhong Yang
Atmosphere 2024, 15(2), 229; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos15020229 - 14 Feb 2024
Viewed by 728
Abstract
Herein, the absorption of CO2 by the TMG-based (TMG: 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidine) ionic liquids (ILs) and the absorbents formed by TMG ILs and ethylene glycol (EG) is studied. The TMG-based ILs used are formed by TMG and 4-fluorophenol (4-F-PhOH) or carvacrol (Car), and their [...] Read more.
Herein, the absorption of CO2 by the TMG-based (TMG: 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidine) ionic liquids (ILs) and the absorbents formed by TMG ILs and ethylene glycol (EG) is studied. The TMG-based ILs used are formed by TMG and 4-fluorophenol (4-F-PhOH) or carvacrol (Car), and their viscosities are low at 25 °C. The CO2 uptake capacities of [TMGH][4-F-PhO] and [TMGH][Car] are low (~0.09 mol CO2/mol IL) at 25 °C and 1.0 atm. However, the mixtures [TMGH][4-F-PhO]-EG and [TMGH][Car]-EG show much higher capacities (~1.0 mol CO2/mol IL) than those of parent ILs, which is unexpected because of the low CO2 capacity of EG (0.01 mol CO2/mol EG) in the same conditions. NMR spectra and theoretical calculations are used to determine the reason for these unexpected absorption behaviors. The spectra and theoretical results show that the strong hydrogen bonds between the [TMGH]+ cation and the phenolate anions make the used TMG-based ILs unreactive to CO2, resulting in the low CO2 capacity. In the Ils-EG mixtures, the hydrogen bonds formed between EG and phenolate anions can weaken the [TMGH]+–anion hydrogen bond strength, so ILs-EG mixtures can react with CO2 and present high CO2 capacities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in CO2 Capture and Absorption)
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15 pages, 5782 KiB  
Article
Pacific Decadal Oscillation Modulation on the Relationship between Moderate El Niño-Southern Oscillation and East Asian Winter Temperature
by Jingwen Ge, Xiaojing Jia and Hao Ma
Atmosphere 2024, 15(2), 228; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos15020228 - 14 Feb 2024
Viewed by 621
Abstract
Based on observation data from 1958 to 2020, the current study explores the interdecadal modulation effects on moderate El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) episodes and East Asian (EA) winter surface air temperature (SAT) through the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). Strong and moderate ENSO episodes [...] Read more.
Based on observation data from 1958 to 2020, the current study explores the interdecadal modulation effects on moderate El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) episodes and East Asian (EA) winter surface air temperature (SAT) through the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). Strong and moderate ENSO episodes are classified by their amplitudes. The current work investigates the influence of moderate ENSO episodes on the EA winter SAT, especially moderate La Niña episodes, which show a close relationship with the EA winter SAT. To explore the PDO modulation effect on the influence of ENSO episodes, these ENSO episodes are further divided into two categories in terms of warm or cold PDO phases. The composite results show that in the warm phase of the PDO, the moderate La Niña signal is relatively strong and stable, with a profound impact on the EA winter SAT variability, whereas in the cold PDO phase, the relationship between the EA winter SAT and moderate La Niña episodes becomes ambiguous. Further studies show that the PDO modulates the moderate La Niña impacts on EA winter SAT primarily through varying the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM). While moderate La Niña episodes take place in a warm PDO phase, positive and negative anomalies of sea level pressure (SLP) are observed in the Eurasian continent and mid–high-latitude North Pacific, respectively, favoring anomalous northerlies along the eastern coast of East Asia and therefore a colder-than-normal EA winter. In contrast, in a moderate La Niña winter during the cold PDO phase, the mid–high-latitude North Pacific is controlled by an anomalous high-pressure system with southerly anomalies along its western flank, and therefore, a weak warm pattern is observed for the EA winter SAT. Full article
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36 pages, 8466 KiB  
Article
A Novel Evaluation Approach for Emissions Mitigation Budgets and Planning towards 1.5 °C and Alternative Scenarios
by Joseph Akpan and Oludolapo Olanrewaju
Atmosphere 2024, 15(2), 227; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos15020227 - 14 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1011
Abstract
Achieving ambitious climate targets, such as the 1.5 °C goal, demands significant financial commitment. While technical feasibility exists, the economic implications of delayed action and differing scenarios remain unclear. This study addresses this gap by analyzing the investment attractiveness and economic risks/benefits of [...] Read more.
Achieving ambitious climate targets, such as the 1.5 °C goal, demands significant financial commitment. While technical feasibility exists, the economic implications of delayed action and differing scenarios remain unclear. This study addresses this gap by analyzing the investment attractiveness and economic risks/benefits of different climate scenarios through a novel emissions cost budgeting model. A simplified model is developed using five global scenarios: announced policies (type 1 and 2), 2.0 °C, and 1.5 °C. A unit marginal abatement cost estimated the monetary value of avoided and unavoided emissions costs for each scenario. Net present value (NPV) and cost–benefit index (BI) were then calculated to compare the scenario attractiveness of the global emission budgets. The model was further applied to emissions budgets for China, the USA, India, and the European Union (EU). Increasing discount rates and gross domestic product (GDP) led to emission increases across all scenarios. The 1.5 °C scenario achieved the lowest emissions, while the baseline scenario showed the highest potential emissions growth (between 139.48% and 146.5%). Therefore, emphasis on the need for further financial commitment becomes important as the emissions’ abatement cost used as best case was estimated at USD 2.4 trillion per unit of 1 Gtons CO2 equivalent (eq.). Policy delays significantly impacted NPV and BI values, showcasing the time value of investment decisions. The model’s behavior aligns with real-world observations, including GDP growth influencing inflation and project costs. The simplified model could be coupled to existing integrated assessment frameworks or models (IAMs) as none offer cost–benefit analysis of climate scenarios to the best of our knowledge. Also, the model may be used to examine the economic attractiveness of carbon reduction programs in various nations, cities, and organizations. Thus, the model and analytical approach presented in this work indicate promising applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Air Pollution Control)
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21 pages, 8578 KiB  
Article
Assessing the Effects of Urban Canopy on Extreme Rainfall over the Lake Victoria Basin in East Africa Using the WRF Model
by Joan Birungi, Jinhua Yu, Abdoul Aziz Saidou Chaibou, Nyasulu Matthews and Emmanuel Yeboah
Atmosphere 2024, 15(2), 226; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos15020226 - 14 Feb 2024
Viewed by 943
Abstract
The model simulation focuses on an extreme rainfall event that triggered a flood hazard in the Lake Victoria basin region of East Africa from June 24th to 26th, 2022. This study investigates the impacts of its urban canopy on the extreme rainfall events [...] Read more.
The model simulation focuses on an extreme rainfall event that triggered a flood hazard in the Lake Victoria basin region of East Africa from June 24th to 26th, 2022. This study investigates the impacts of its urban canopy on the extreme rainfall events over the Lake Victoria basin in East Africa, employing the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model at a convective-permitting resolution. The rapid urbanization of the region has given rise to an urban canopy, which has notable effects on local weather patterns, including the intensity and distribution of rainfall. The model incorporates high-resolution land use and urban canopy parameters to accurately capture the influences of urbanization on local weather patterns. This research comprises three sets of experiments, two with urban areas and one without, using the WRF model; the experiments focus on three days of an extreme rainfall event in the Lake Victoria basin. Satellite-based precipitation products and reanalysis datasets are employed for a synoptic analysis and model evaluation. The results demonstrate the model’s effectiveness in capturing meteorological variables during an extreme event compared to observed data. The synoptic patterns reveal that, during the extreme event, the Mascarene and St. Helena influenced rainfall conditions over the Lake Victoria Basin by directing moist air toward the northwest. This led to increased moisture convergence from the urban–rural interface toward urban areas, enhancing convection and processes that result in extreme rainfall. Moreover, this study indicates that the urban canopy, specifically the building effect parameterization, significantly amplifies the intensity and duration of rainfall in the urban areas of the region. This research also indicates a general increase in air temperature, relative humidity, latent heat flux, and surface sensible heat flux due to the urban canopy. These findings highlight the substantial influence of urbanization on rainfall patterns in the urban environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Weather and Climate Extremes: Observations, Modeling, and Impacts)
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15 pages, 2861 KiB  
Article
Gridded Assessment of Mainland China’s Solar Energy Resources Using the Typical Meteorological Year Method and China Meteorological Forcing Dataset
by Zongpeng Song, Bo Wang, Hui Zheng, Shuanglong Jin, Xiaolin Liu and Shenbing Hua
Atmosphere 2024, 15(2), 225; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos15020225 - 14 Feb 2024
Viewed by 601
Abstract
The National Standard of China has recommended the typical meteorological year (TMY) method for assessing solar energy resources. Compared with the widely adopted multi-year averaging (MYA) methods, the TMY method can consider the year-to-year variations of weather conditions and characterize solar radiation under [...] Read more.
The National Standard of China has recommended the typical meteorological year (TMY) method for assessing solar energy resources. Compared with the widely adopted multi-year averaging (MYA) methods, the TMY method can consider the year-to-year variations of weather conditions and characterize solar radiation under climatological weather conditions. However, there are very few TMY-based solar energy assessments on the scale of China. On the national scale, the difference between the TMY and MYA methods, the requirement of the data record length, and the impacts of the selection of meteorological variables on the TMY-based assessment are still unclear. This study aims to fill these gaps by assessing mainland China’s solar energy resources using the TMY method and China Meteorological Forcing Dataset. The results show that the data record length could significantly influence annual total solar radiation estimation when the record length is shorter than 30 years. Whereas, the estimation becomes stable when the length is greater or equal to 30 years, suggesting a thirty-year data record is preferred. The difference between the MYA and TMY methods is exhibited primarily in places with modest or low abundance of solar radiation. The difference is nearly independent of the examined data record lengths, hinting at the role of regional-specific weather characteristics. The TMY and MYA methods differ more pronounced when assessing the seasonal stability grade. A total of 7.4% of the area of China experiences a downgrade from the TMY relative to the MYA methods, while a 3.15% area experiences an upgrade. The selection of the meteorological variables has a notable impact on the TMY-based assessment. Among the three meteorological variables examined, wind speed has the most considerable impact on both the annual total and seasonal stability, dew point has the second most significant impact, and air temperature has the least. The results are useful for guiding future research on solar energy assessment in China and could be helpful for solar energy development planning. Full article
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27 pages, 11172 KiB  
Article
A Practical Approach for On-Road Measurements of Brake Wear Particles from a Light-Duty Vehicle
by Jon Andersson, Louisa J. Kramer, Michael Campbell, Ian Marshall, John Norris, Jason Southgate, Simon de Vries and Gary Waite
Atmosphere 2024, 15(2), 224; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos15020224 - 13 Feb 2024
Viewed by 830
Abstract
Brake wear particles are generated through frictional contact between the brake disc or brake drum and the brake pads. Some of these particles may be released into the atmosphere, contributing to airborne fine particulate matter (PM2.5). In this study, an onboard [...] Read more.
Brake wear particles are generated through frictional contact between the brake disc or brake drum and the brake pads. Some of these particles may be released into the atmosphere, contributing to airborne fine particulate matter (PM2.5). In this study, an onboard system was developed and tested to measure brake wear particles emitted under real-world driving conditions. Brake wear particles were extracted from a fixed volume enclosure surrounding the pad and disc installed on the front wheel of a light-duty vehicle. Real-time data on size distribution, number concentration, PM2.5 mass, and the contribution of semi-volatiles were obtained via a suite of instruments sub-sampling from the constant volume sampler (CVS) dilution tunnel. Repeat measurements of brake particles were obtained from a 42 min bespoke drive cycle on a chassis dynamometer, from on-road tests in an urban area, and from braking events on a test track. The results showed that particle emissions coincided with braking events, with mass emissions around 1 mg/km/brake during on-road driving. Particle number emissions of low volatility particles were between 2 and 5 × 109 particles/km/brake. The highest emissions were observed under more aggressive braking. The project successfully developed a proof-of-principle measurement system for brake wear emissions from transient vehicle operation. The system shows good repeatability for stable particle metrics, such as non-volatile particle number (PN) from the solid particle counting system (SPCS), and allows for progression to a second phase of work where emissions differences between commercially available brake system components will be assessed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Study of Brake Wear Particle Emission)
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16 pages, 1614 KiB  
Article
Prioritization of Volatile Organic Compound Reduction in the Tire Manufacturing Industry through Speciation of Volatile Organic Compounds Emitted at the Fenceline
by Hyo Eun Lee, Jeong Hun Kim, Daram Seo and Seok J. Yoon
Atmosphere 2024, 15(2), 223; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos15020223 - 13 Feb 2024
Viewed by 616
Abstract
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), with their ubiquitous presence across numerous global industries, pose multifaceted challenges, influencing air pollution and health outcomes. In response, countries such as the United States and Canada have implemented fenceline monitoring systems, enabling real-time tracking of organic solvents, including [...] Read more.
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), with their ubiquitous presence across numerous global industries, pose multifaceted challenges, influencing air pollution and health outcomes. In response, countries such as the United States and Canada have implemented fenceline monitoring systems, enabling real-time tracking of organic solvents, including benzene. Initially, this focus was predominantly placed on the petroleum refining industry, but it has gradually been broadening. This investigation seeks to identify and analyze the specific VOCs produced in the tire manufacturing sector by utilizing both active and passive monitoring methodologies. The findings of the present study aim to recommend prioritized reduction strategies for specific VOCs. Percentage means the ratio of VOCs detected at the research site. At research target facility A, active monitoring demonstrated the presence of Methylene chloride (20.7%) and Carbon tetrachloride (15.3%), whereas passive monitoring identified Carbon tetrachloride (43.4%) and m,p-Xylene (20.8%). After converting these substances to their equivalent concentrations, we found a noteworthy correlation between the active and passive methodologies. At research target facility B, active monitoring detected n-Pentane (45.5%) and Isoprene (11.4%), while passive monitoring revealed Toluene (21.3%) and iso-Hexane (15.8%). Interestingly, even at sites like warehouses and test tracks where VOC concentrations were projected to be low, we observed VOC levels comparable to those in process areas. This underlines the fact that the dispersal of VOCs is considerably influenced by wind direction and speed. Specifically, in the tire manufacturing industry, emissions of Xylene and 3-Methylhexane, both having high photochemical ozone creation potential (POCP), contribute significantly to air pollution. However, the overall detection concentration in the tire manufacturing industry was detected at a low concentration of less than 2 μg/m3. This is less than 9 μg/m3, which is the standard for benzene, which has strong carcinogenicity regulations. This suggests that additional research is needed on synthetic rubber manufacturing rather than tire manufacturing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanisms of Urban Ozone Pollution)
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22 pages, 9756 KiB  
Article
Investigation of the Synoptic and Dynamical Characteristics of Cyclone Shaheen (2021) and Its Influence on the Omani Coastal Region
by Petros Katsafados, Pantelis-Manolis Saviolakis, George Varlas, Haifa Ben-Romdhane, Kosmas Pavlopoulos, Christos Spyrou and Sufian Farrah
Atmosphere 2024, 15(2), 222; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos15020222 - 12 Feb 2024
Viewed by 745
Abstract
Tropical Cyclone Shaheen (TCS), originating in the Arabian Sea on 30 September 2021, followed an east-to-west trajectory and made landfall as a category-1 cyclone in northern Oman on 3 October 2021, causing severe floods and damages before dissipating in the United Arab Emirates. [...] Read more.
Tropical Cyclone Shaheen (TCS), originating in the Arabian Sea on 30 September 2021, followed an east-to-west trajectory and made landfall as a category-1 cyclone in northern Oman on 3 October 2021, causing severe floods and damages before dissipating in the United Arab Emirates. This study aims to analyze the synoptic and dynamical conditions influencing Shaheen’s genesis and evolution. Utilizing ERA5 reanalysis data, SEVIRI-EUMETSAT imagery, and Sorbonne University Atmospheric Forecasting System (SUAFS) outputs, it was found that Shaheen manifested as a warm-core cyclone with moderate vertical wind shear within the eyewall. Distinctive features included a trajectory aligned with rising sea surface temperatures and increased specific humidity levels at 700 hPa in the Arabian Sea. As Shaheen approached the Gulf of Oman, a significant increase in rainfall rates occurred, correlated with variations in sea surface temperatures and vertical wind shear. Comparative analysis between SUAFS and ERA5 data revealed a slight northward shift in the SUAFS track and landfall. Advance warnings highlighted heavy rainfall, rough seas, and strong winds. This study provides valuable insights into the meteorological factors contributing to Shaheen’s formation and impact. Full article
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18 pages, 6188 KiB  
Article
Sensitivity of the Land–Atmosphere Coupling to Soil Moisture Anomalies during the Warm Season in China and its Surrounding Areas
by Lan Wang, Shuwen Zhang, Xinyang Yan and Chentao He
Atmosphere 2024, 15(2), 221; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos15020221 - 12 Feb 2024
Viewed by 673
Abstract
Significant temporal and spatial variability in soil moisture (SM) is observed during the warm season in China and its surrounding regions. Because of the existence of two different evapotranspiration regimes, i.e., soil moisture-limited and energy-limited, averaging the land–atmosphere (L–A) coupling strength for all [...] Read more.
Significant temporal and spatial variability in soil moisture (SM) is observed during the warm season in China and its surrounding regions. Because of the existence of two different evapotranspiration regimes, i.e., soil moisture-limited and energy-limited, averaging the land–atmosphere (L–A) coupling strength for all soil wetness scenarios may result in the loss of coupling signals. This study examines the daytime-only L–A interactions under different soil moisture conditions, by using two-legged metrics in the warm season from May to September 1981–2020, partitioning the interactions between SM and latent heat flux (SM–LH, the land leg) from the interactions between latent heat flux and the lifting condensation level (LH–LCL, the atmospheric leg). The statistical results reveal large regional differences in warm-season daytime L–A feedback in China and its surrounding areas. As the soil becomes wetter, the positive SM–LH coupling strength increases in arid regions (e.g., northwest China, Hetao, and the Great Indian Desert) and the positive feedback shifts to the negative one in semi-arid/semi-humid regions (northeast and northern China). The negative LH–LCL coupling is most pronounced in wet soil months in arid regions, while the opposite is true for the Tibetan Plateau. In terms of intraseasonal variation, the large variability of SM in north China, the Tibetan Plateau, and India due to the influence of the summer monsoon leads to the sign change in the land segment coupling index, comparing pre- and post-monsoon periods. To further examine the impact of SM anomalies on L–A coupling and to explore evapotranspiration regimes in the North China Plain, four sets of sensitivity experiments with different soil moisture levels over a period of 10 years were conducted. Under relatively dry soil conditions, evapotranspiration is dominated by the soil moisture-limited regime with positive L–A coupling, regardless of external moisture inflow. The critical soil moisture value separating a soil moisture-limited and an energy-limited regime lies between 0.24 m3/m3 and 0.29 m3/m3. Stronger positive feedback under negative soil moisture anomalies may increase the risk of drought in the North China Plain. Full article
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22 pages, 27158 KiB  
Article
Growth and Breakdown of Kelvin–Helmholtz Billows in the Stable Atmospheric Boundary Layer
by Qingfang Jiang
Atmosphere 2024, 15(2), 220; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos15020220 - 12 Feb 2024
Viewed by 615
Abstract
The development and breakdown of Kelvin–Helmholtz (KH) waves (billows) in the stable atmospheric boundary layer (SABL) and their impact on vertical transport of momentum and scalars have been examined utilizing large eddy simulations. These simulations are initialized with a vertically uniform geostrophic wind [...] Read more.
The development and breakdown of Kelvin–Helmholtz (KH) waves (billows) in the stable atmospheric boundary layer (SABL) and their impact on vertical transport of momentum and scalars have been examined utilizing large eddy simulations. These simulations are initialized with a vertically uniform geostrophic wind and a constant potential temperature lapse rate. An Ekman type of boundary layer develops, and an inflection point forms in the SABL, which triggers the KH instability (KHI). KHI develops with the kinetic energy (KE) in the KH billows growing exponentially with time. The subsequent onset of secondary shear instability along S-shaped braids leads to the turbulent breakdown of the KH billow cores and braids. The frictional ground surface tends to slow down the growth of KE near the surface, reduce the KH billow core depth, and likely suppress other types of secondary instability. KH billows induce substantial down-gradient transport of momentum and sensible heat, which can be further enhanced by the onset of secondary shear instability. Although the KHI-induced strong transport only lasts for around 10–20 min, it reduces vertical shear and stratification in the SABL, enhances surface winds, and results in a 2–3-fold increase in the SABL depth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Meteorology)
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17 pages, 10031 KiB  
Article
A Case Study of Pc1 Waves Observed at the Polar Cap Associated with Proton Precipitation at Subauroral Latitudes
by Giulia D’Angelo, Patrizia Francia, Marcello De Lauretis, Alexandra Parmentier, Tero Raita and Mirko Piersanti
Atmosphere 2024, 15(2), 219; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos15020219 - 11 Feb 2024
Viewed by 763
Abstract
The importance of ElectroMagnetic Ion Cyclotron (EMIC) ultra-low-frequency (ULF) waves (and their Pc1 counterparts) is connected to their critical role in triggering energetic particle precipitation from the magnetosphere to the conjugated ionosphere via pitch angle scattering. In addition, as a prominent element of [...] Read more.
The importance of ElectroMagnetic Ion Cyclotron (EMIC) ultra-low-frequency (ULF) waves (and their Pc1 counterparts) is connected to their critical role in triggering energetic particle precipitation from the magnetosphere to the conjugated ionosphere via pitch angle scattering. In addition, as a prominent element of the ULF zoo, EMIC/Pc1 waves can be considered a perfect tool for the remote diagnosis of the topologies and dynamic properties of near-Earth plasmas. Based on the availability of a comprehensive set of instruments, operating on the ground and in the top-side ionosphere, the present case study provides an interesting example of the evolution of EMIC propagation to both ionospheric hemispheres up to the polar cap. Specifically, we report observations of Pc1 waves detected on 30 March 2021 under low Kp, low Sym-H, and moderate AE conditions. The proposed investigation shows that high-latitude ground magnetometers in both hemispheres and the first China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite (CSES-01) at a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) detected in-synch Pc1 waves. In strict correspondence to this, energetic proton precipitation was observed at LEO with a simultaneous appearance of an isolated proton aurora at subauroral latitudes. This supports the idea of EMIC wave-induced proton precipitation contributing to energy transfer from the magnetosphere to the ionosphere. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Upper Atmosphere)
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15 pages, 5137 KiB  
Communication
An Ensemble-Based Model for Specific Humidity Retrieval from Landsat-8 Satellite Data for South Korea
by Sungwon Choi, Noh-Hun Seong, Daeseong Jung, Suyoung Sim, Jongho Woo, Nayeon Kim, Sungwoo Park and Kyung-soo Han
Atmosphere 2024, 15(2), 218; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos15020218 - 11 Feb 2024
Viewed by 608
Abstract
Specific humidity (SH) which means the amount of water vapor in 1 kg of air, is used as an indicator of energy exchange between the atmosphere and the Earth’s surface. SH is typically computed using microwave satellites. However, the spatial resolution of data [...] Read more.
Specific humidity (SH) which means the amount of water vapor in 1 kg of air, is used as an indicator of energy exchange between the atmosphere and the Earth’s surface. SH is typically computed using microwave satellites. However, the spatial resolution of data for microwave satellite is too low. To overcome this disadvantage, we introduced new methods that applied data collected by the Landsat-8 satellite with high spatial resolution (30 m), a meteorological model, and observation data for South Korea in 2016–2017 to 4 machine learning techniques to develop an optimized technique for computing SH. Among the 4 machine learning techniques, the random forest-based method had the highest accuracy, with a coefficient of determination (R) of 0.98, Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of 0.001, bias of 0, and Relative Root Mean Square Error (RRMSE) of 11.16%. We applied this model to compute land surface SH using data from 2018 to 2019 and found that it had high accuracy (R = 0.927, RMSE = 0.002, bias = 0, RRMSE = 28.35%). Although the data used in this study were limited, the model was able to accurately represent a small region based on an ensemble of satellite and model data, demonstrating its potential to address important issues related to SH measurements from satellites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Precipitation Monitoring and Databases)
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25 pages, 4117 KiB  
Article
Understanding Rainfall Distribution Characteristics over the Vietnamese Mekong Delta: A Comparison between Coastal and Inland Localities
by Huynh Vuong Thu Minh, Bui Thi Bich Lien, Dang Thi Hong Ngoc, Tran Van Ty, Nguyen Vo Chau Ngan, Nguyen Phuoc Cong, Nigel K. Downes, Gowhar Meraj and Pankaj Kumar
Atmosphere 2024, 15(2), 217; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos15020217 - 10 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 769
Abstract
This study examines the changing rainfall patterns in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta (VMD) utilizing observational data spanning from 1978 to 2022. We employ the Mann–Kendall test, the sequential Mann–Kendall test, and innovative trend analysis to investigate trends in annual, wet, and dry season [...] Read more.
This study examines the changing rainfall patterns in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta (VMD) utilizing observational data spanning from 1978 to 2022. We employ the Mann–Kendall test, the sequential Mann–Kendall test, and innovative trend analysis to investigate trends in annual, wet, and dry season rainfall, as well as daily rainfall events. Our results show significant spatial variations. Ca Mau, a coastal province, consistently showed higher mean annual and seasonal rainfall compared to the further inland stations of Can Tho and Moc Hoa. Interestingly, Ca Mau experienced a notable decrease in annual rainfall. Conversely, Can Tho, showed an overall decrease in some months of the wet season and an increase in dry season rainfall. Furthermore, Moc Hoa showed an increase in the number of rainy days, especially during the dry season. Principal component analysis (PCA) further revealed strong correlations between annual rainfall and extreme weather events, particularly for Ca Mau, emphasizing the complex interplay of geographic and climatic factors within the region. Our findings offer insights for policymakers and planners, thus aiding the development of targeted interventions to manage water resources and prepare for changing climate conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Climatology)
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13 pages, 799 KiB  
Article
Long-Term Exposure to PM10 Air Pollution Exaggerates Progression of Coronary Artery Disease
by Tomasz Urbanowicz, Krzysztof Skotak, Anna Olasińska-Wiśniewska, Krzysztof J. Filipiak, Jakub Bratkowski, Michał Wyrwa, Jędrzej Sikora, Piotr Tyburski, Beata Krasińska, Zbigniew Krasiński, Andrzej Tykarski and Marek Jemielity
Atmosphere 2024, 15(2), 216; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos15020216 - 09 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 868
Abstract
(1) Background: The increase in cardiovascular risk related to air pollution has been a matter of interest in recent years. The role of particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) has been postulated as a possible factor for premature death, including cardiovascular death. The role of [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The increase in cardiovascular risk related to air pollution has been a matter of interest in recent years. The role of particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) has been postulated as a possible factor for premature death, including cardiovascular death. The role of long-term exposure to PM10 is less known. The aim of the study was to assess the individual relationship between air pollution in habitation and the development of coronary artery disease. (2) Methods: Out of 227 patients who underwent coronary angiography, 63 (38 men and 25 women) with a mean age of 69 (63–74) years, with nonsignificant atherosclerotic changes at the initial examination, were included in the study. The baseline and repeated coronary angiography were compared to reveal patients with atherosclerotic progression and its relation to demographic and clinical factors and exposure to air pollution in the habitation place. (3) Results: In the performed analysis, we found a significant correlation between Syntax score in de novo lesions and BMI (Spearman’s rho −0.334, p = 0.008). The significant and strong correlation between median annual PM10 values of 20 µg/m3 and at least 25 µg/m3 in air pollution and the risk of de novo coronary disease was noticed (Spearman’s rho = 0.319, p = 0.011 and Spearman’s rho = 0.809, p < 0.001, respectively). (4) Conclusions: There is a positive correlation between long-term exposure to PM10 air pollution and coronary artery disease progression, demonstrated by the increase in Syntax score. The presented analysis revealed increased morbidity at lower PM10 concentrations than generally recommended thresholds. Therefore, further investigations concerning air pollution’s influence on cardiovascular risk should be accompanied by promoting lifestyle changes in the population and revisiting the needs for environmental guidelines. Full article
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12 pages, 21031 KiB  
Article
UV Exposure during Cycling as a Function of Solar Elevation and Orientation
by Philipp Weihs, Sarah Helletzgruber, Sofie Kranewitter, Lara Langer, Zacharias Lumerding, Viktoria Luschin, Philipp Schmidt, Jakob Heydenreich and Alois W. Schmalwieser
Atmosphere 2024, 15(2), 215; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos15020215 - 09 Feb 2024
Viewed by 758
Abstract
Although cycling is the most prevalent means of locomotion in the world, little research has been done in evaluating the ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure of cyclists. In this study, a volunteer using a men’s bike was equipped with 10 miniature UV-meters at different [...] Read more.
Although cycling is the most prevalent means of locomotion in the world, little research has been done in evaluating the ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure of cyclists. In this study, a volunteer using a men’s bike was equipped with 10 miniature UV-meters at different body sites. Besides erythemally effective irradiance, the ratio of personal UV exposure to ambient UV radiation was determined for solar elevations up to 65°, taking into account different orientations with respect to the sun. This method provides a universal model that allows for the calculation of UV exposure whenever ambient UV radiation and solar elevation are available. Our results show that the most exposed body sites are the back, forearm, upper arm, and anterior thigh, receiving between 50% and 75% of ambient UV radiation on average. For certain orientations, this percentage can reach 105% to 110%. However, the risk of UV overexposure depends on ambient UV radiation. At lower solar elevations (<40°), the risk of UV overexposure clearly decreases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solar UV Radiation)
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19 pages, 3475 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Outdoor Thermal Comfort in a Hot Summer Region of Europe
by José Luis Sánchez Jiménez and Manuel Ruiz de Adana
Atmosphere 2024, 15(2), 214; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos15020214 - 09 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1041
Abstract
Heat waves are increasingly frequent in Europe, especially in South European countries during the summer season. The intensity and frequency of these heat waves have increased significantly in recent years. Spain, as one of the southern European countries most affected by these recurring [...] Read more.
Heat waves are increasingly frequent in Europe, especially in South European countries during the summer season. The intensity and frequency of these heat waves have increased significantly in recent years. Spain, as one of the southern European countries most affected by these recurring heat waves, particularly experiences this phenomenon in touristic cities such as Cordoba. The aim of this study was to perform an experimental assessment of outdoor thermal comfort in a typical three-hour tourist walkable path of the historical center of Cordoba. The experimental study was carried out in the three-hour period of higher temperatures from 16:30 to 19:30 h CEST (UTC+2) on a normal summer day (6 July 2023), a day with a heat wave (28 June 2023) and a day with a higher heat intensity, called a super heat wave (10 August 2023). Environmental conditions such as a radiant temperature, ambient temperature, wet bulb temperature, air velocity and relative humidity were measured at three different heights corresponding to 0.1 (ankles), 0.7 (abdomen) and 1.7 (head) m. The results show extremely high levels of heat stress in all bioclimatic indices throughout the route. Cumulative heat stress ranged from “very hot” conditions at the beginning of the route to becoming “highly sweltering” at the end of the route. The average temperature excess over the thermal comfort threshold was very high and increased with the heat intensity. In addition, a correlation analysis was carried out between the bioclimatic indices studied, with the UTCI index standing out for its strong correlation with other thermal comfort indices. The findings emphasize the need for interventions to improve the urban environment and promote better outdoor thermal comfort for city dwellers through measures such as green infrastructure, UHI mitigation and increasing public awareness. Full article
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20 pages, 24035 KiB  
Article
Composition and Reactivity of Volatile Organic Compounds and the Implications for Ozone Formation in the North China Plain
by Saimei Hao, Qiyue Du, Xiaofeng Wei, Huaizhong Yan, Miao Zhang, Youmin Sun, Shijie Liu, Lianhuan Fan and Guiqin Zhang
Atmosphere 2024, 15(2), 213; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos15020213 - 09 Feb 2024
Viewed by 787
Abstract
Enhanced ozone (O3) pollution has emerged as a pressing environmental concern in China, particularly for densely populated megacities and major city clusters. However, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), the key precursors to O3 formation, have not been routinely measured. In this [...] Read more.
Enhanced ozone (O3) pollution has emerged as a pressing environmental concern in China, particularly for densely populated megacities and major city clusters. However, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), the key precursors to O3 formation, have not been routinely measured. In this study, we characterize the spatial and temporal patterns of VOCs and examine the role of VOCs in O3 production in five cities (Dongying (DY), Rizhao (RZ), Yantai (YT), Weihai (WH), and Jinan (JN)) in the North China Plain (NCP) for two sampling periods (June and December) in 2021 through continuous field observations. Among various VOC categories, alkanes accounted for the largest proportion of VOCs in the cities. For VOCs, chemical reactivities, aromatic hydrocarbons, and alkenes were dominant contributors to O3 formation potential (OFP). Unlike inland regions, the contribution to OFP from OVOCs increased greatly at high O3 concentrations in coastal regions (especially YT). Model simulations during the O3 episode show that the net O3 production rates were 27.87, 10.24, and 10.37 ppbv/h in DY, RZ, and JN. The pathway of HO2 + NO contributed the most to O3 production in JN and RZ, while RO2 + NO was the largest contributor to O3 production in DY. The relative incremental reactivity (RIR) revealed that O3 formation in DY was the transitional regime, while it was markedly the VOC-limited regime in JN and RZ. The O3 production response is influenced by NOx concentration and has a clear daily variation pattern (the sensitivity is greater from 15:00 to 17:00). The most efficiencies in O3 reduction could be achieved by reducing NOx when the NOx concentration is low (less than 20 ppbv in this study). This study reveals the importance of ambient VOCs in O3 production over the NCP and demonstrates that a better grasp of VOC sources and profiles is critical for in-depth O3 regulation in the NCP. Full article
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27 pages, 9447 KiB  
Review
Salt Lake Aerosol Overview: Emissions, Chemical Composition and Health Impacts under the Changing Climate
by Muhammad Subtain Abbas, Yajuan Yang, Quanxi Zhang, Donggang Guo, Ana Flavia Locateli Godoi, Ricardo Henrique Moreton Godoi and Hong Geng
Atmosphere 2024, 15(2), 212; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos15020212 - 08 Feb 2024
Viewed by 878
Abstract
Salt Lakes, having a salt concentration higher than that of seawater and hosting unique extremophiles, are predominantly located in drought-prone zones worldwide, accumulating diverse salts and continuously emitting salt dust or aerosols. However, knowledge on emission, chemical composition, and health impacts of Salt [...] Read more.
Salt Lakes, having a salt concentration higher than that of seawater and hosting unique extremophiles, are predominantly located in drought-prone zones worldwide, accumulating diverse salts and continuously emitting salt dust or aerosols. However, knowledge on emission, chemical composition, and health impacts of Salt Lake aerosols under climate change is scarce. This review delves into the intricate dynamics of Salt Lake aerosols in the context of climate change, pointing out that, as global warming develops and weather patterns shift, Salt Lakes undergo notable changes in water levels, salinity, and overall hydrological balance, leading to a significant alteration of Salt Lake aerosols in generation and emission patterns, physicochemical characteristics, and transportation. Linked to rising temperatures and intensified evaporation, a marked increase will occur in aerosol emissions from breaking waves on the Salt Lake surface and in saline dust emission from dry lakebeds. The hygroscopic nature of these aerosols, coupled with the emission of sulfate aerosols, will impart light-scattering properties and a cooling effect. The rising temperature and wind speed; increase in extreme weather in regard to the number of events; and blooms of aquatic microorganisms, phytoplankton, and artemia salina in and around Salt Lakes, will lead to the release of more organic substances or biogenic compounds, which contribute to the alteration of saline aerosols in regard to their quantitative and chemical composition. Although the inhalation of saline aerosols from Salt Lakes and fine salt particles suspended in the air due to salt dust storms raises potential health concerns, particularly causing respiratory and cardiovascular disease and leading to eye and skin discomfort, rock salt aerosol therapy is proved to be a good treatment and rehabilitation method for the prevention and treatment of pneumoconiosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It is implied that the Salt Lake aerosols, at a certain exposure concentration, likely can delay the pathogenesis of silicosis by regulating oxidative stress and reducing interstitial fibrosis of the lungs. It emphasizes the interconnectedness of climate changes, chemical composition, and health aspects, advocating for a comprehensive and practical approach to address the challenges faced by Salt Lake aerosols in an ever-changing global climate. Full article
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0 pages, 6116 KiB  
Article
The Intermittency of Turbulence in Magneto-Hydodynamical Simulations and in the Cosmos
by Pierre Lesaffre, Edith Falgarone and Pierre Hily-Blant
Atmosphere 2024, 15(2), 211; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos15020211 - 08 Feb 2024
Viewed by 601
Abstract
Turbulent dissipation is a central issue in the star and galaxy formation process. Its fundamental property of space–time intermittency, well characterised in incompressible laboratory experiments, remains elusive in cosmic turbulence. Progress requires the combination of state-of-the-art modelling, numerical simulations and observations. The power [...] Read more.
Turbulent dissipation is a central issue in the star and galaxy formation process. Its fundamental property of space–time intermittency, well characterised in incompressible laboratory experiments, remains elusive in cosmic turbulence. Progress requires the combination of state-of-the-art modelling, numerical simulations and observations. The power of such a combination is illustrated here, where the statistical method intended to locate the extrema of velocity shears in a turbulent field, which are the signposts of intense dissipation extrema, is applied to numerical simulations of compressible magneto-hydrodynamical (MHD) turbulence dedicated to dissipation scales and to observations of a turbulent molecular cloud. We demonstrate that increments of several observables computed at the smallest lags can detect coherent structures of intense dissipation. We apply this statistical method to the observations of a turbulent molecular cloud close to the Sun in our galaxy and disclose a remarkable structure of extremely large velocity shear. At the location of the largest velocity shear, this structure is found to foster 10× more carbon monoxide molecules than standard diffuse molecular gas, an enrichment supported by models of non-equilibrium warm chemistry triggered by turbulent dissipation. In our simulations, we also compute structure functions of various synthetic observables and show that they verify Extended Self-Similarity. This allows us to compute their intermittency exponents, and we show how they constrain some properties of the underlying three-dimensional turbulence. The power of the combination of modelling and observations is also illustrated by the observations of the CH+ cation that provide unique quantitative information on the kinetic energy trail in the massive, multi-phase and turbulent circum-galactic medium of a galaxy group at redshift z=2.8. Full article
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