Ozone Pollution and Effects in China

A special issue of Atmosphere (ISSN 2073-4433). This special issue belongs to the section "Air Quality".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 May 2024 | Viewed by 6427

Special Issue Editor


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai, China
Interests: ground-level ozone; risk assessment; ozone damage; human health; greenhouse gases
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The aim of this Special Issue is to explore the problem of ground-level ozone (O3) pollution and its effects in China. Ground-level O3 is widely recognized as one of the most harmful air pollutants with adverse effects on human health, vegetation, and ecosystems. China is experiencing a rise in O3 concentrations along with a reduction in particulate matter. The scope of this Special Issue includes understanding the sources of O3 precursors, the formation and transport of O3 in the atmosphere, and the impact on human health, agriculture, and the environment.

This Special Issue aims to investigate the primary sources of O3 precursors, such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx), which are released from industrial activities, transportation, and energy production. These pollutants undergo complex chemical reactions in the presence of sunlight to form O3.

Furthermore, this Special Issue examines the meteorological and geographical factors that influence O3 formation and transport within China. O3 can be transported over long distances, leading to regional-scale pollution episodes. Understanding these transport mechanisms is crucial for implementing effective air quality management strategies.

The effects of O3 pollution on human health are a significant concern. Exposure to high levels of O3 can lead to respiratory problems, aggravate existing conditions such as asthma, and increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Vulnerable populations, such as children, the elderly, and individuals with respiratory conditions, are particularly at risk.

Moreover, O3 pollution has detrimental effects on agriculture and ecosystems. It can impair crop growth and reduce agricultural productivity. The impact of O3 on vegetation includes leaf damage, reduced photosynthesis, and altered nutrient uptake, ultimately affecting ecosystem dynamics and biodiversity.

To address these challenges, this Special Issue emphasizes the need for comprehensive air pollution control measures and sustainable development practices. This includes implementing stricter emission standards, promoting clean technologies, enhancing industrial and transportation sector regulations, and adopting measures to reduce O3 precursors.

In conclusion, the aim and scope of this Special Issue on ground-level O3 pollution and its effects in China focus on understanding the sources, formation, transport, and impacts of O3 pollution on human health, agriculture, and the environment. By raising awareness, conducting research, and implementing effective mitigation strategies, it is possible to combat O3 pollution and create a healthier and more sustainable environment in China

Dr. Hui Zhao
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Atmosphere is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • ground-level ozone pollution
  • ozone formation
  • source apportionment
  • ozone precursors
  • health effects
  • ecological risks
  • crop yield loss
  • model predictions

Published Papers (9 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

15 pages, 5435 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Effects of Elevated Ozone Concentration on Physiological Processes in Summer Maize in North China Based on Exposure–Response Relationships
by Mansen Wang, Shuyang Xie, Xiaoxiu Lun, Zhouming He, Xin Liu, Wenjun Lv, Luxi Wang, Tian Wang and Junfeng Liu
Atmosphere 2024, 15(6), 639; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos15060639 - 26 May 2024
Viewed by 246
Abstract
As the predominant pollutant in North China during the summer months, ozone (O3) exhibits strong oxidizing capabilities. Long-term exposure of crops to ozone will cause a decrease in various physiological indicators, affect crop yields, and pose a serious threat to food [...] Read more.
As the predominant pollutant in North China during the summer months, ozone (O3) exhibits strong oxidizing capabilities. Long-term exposure of crops to ozone will cause a decrease in various physiological indicators, affect crop yields, and pose a serious threat to food security. The North China Plain, the primary region for summer maize production in China, is afflicted by ozone pollution. In order to explore the effects of increasing O3 concentration on the physiological characteristics and photosynthetic characteristics of summer maize, this study took summer-sown maize as the research object and carried out the ozone exposure experiment with open-top chamber (OTCs). The response of maize to O3 exposure was studied by measuring the damage, physiological indexes and photosynthetic indexes in the silking stage (late July to late August) and filling stage (late August to mid-September). The results indicated the following: (1) Prolonged exposure to high O3 concentrations exacerbated leaf chlorosis and damage. (2) The increase in O3 concentration caused lipid peroxidation. The content of malondialdehyde was significantly increased by 32.6%~122.56%. At the same time, chlorophyll was destroyed and decreased by 2.17% to 4.86%. Under ozone exposure, ascorbic acid content was significantly increased by 7.58%~35.69%. The antioxidant indexes of maize were more sensitive during the filling stage. (3) Under O3 exposure, photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and intercellular carbon dioxide concentration decreased significantly, indicating that the influence of O3 on maize was mainly due to stomatal limitation. Water use efficiency and transpiration rate decreased significantly. The water use efficiency decreased by 12.84%~35.62%, which led to the weakening of the carbon fixation ability of maize and affected the normal growth and development of maize. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ozone Pollution and Effects in China)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 2047 KiB  
Article
Observation and Simulation of CO2 Fluxes in Rice Paddy Ecosystems Based on the Eddy Covariance Technique
by Jinghan Wang, Jiayan Wang, Hui Zhao and Youfei Zheng
Atmosphere 2024, 15(5), 517; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos15050517 - 24 Apr 2024
Viewed by 573
Abstract
As constituents of one of the vital agricultural ecosystems, paddy fields exert significant influence on the global carbon cycle. Therefore, conducting observations and simulations of CO2 flux in rice paddy is of significant importance for gaining deeper insights into the functionality of [...] Read more.
As constituents of one of the vital agricultural ecosystems, paddy fields exert significant influence on the global carbon cycle. Therefore, conducting observations and simulations of CO2 flux in rice paddy is of significant importance for gaining deeper insights into the functionality of agricultural ecosystems. This study utilized an eddy covariance system to observe and analyze the CO2 flux in a rice paddy field in Eastern China and also introduced and parameterized the Jarvis multiplicative model to predict the CO2 flux. Results indicate that throughout the observation period, the range of CO2 flux in the paddy field was −0.1 to −38.4 μmol/(m2·s), with a mean of −12.9 μmol/(m2·s). The highest CO2 flux occurred during the rice flowering period with peak photosynthetic activity and maximum CO2 absorption. Diurnal variation in CO2 flux exhibited a “U”-shaped curve, with flux reaching its peak absorption at 11:30. The CO2 flux was notably higher in the morning than in the afternoon. The nocturnal CO2 flux remained relatively stable, primarily originating from respiratory CO2 emissions. The rice canopy CO2 flux model was revised using boundary line analysis, elucidating that photosynthetically active radiation, temperature, vapor pressure deficit, phenological stage, time, and concentration are pivotal factors influencing CO2 flux. The simulation of CO2 flux using the parameterized model, compared with measured values, reveals the efficacy of the established parameter model in simulating rice CO2 flux. This study holds significant importance in comprehending the carbon cycling process within paddy ecosystems, furnishing scientific grounds for future climate change and environmental management endeavors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ozone Pollution and Effects in China)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 9127 KiB  
Article
Impact of a New Radiation Scheme on Simulated Climate in the Global–Regional Integrated SysTem Model under Varying Physical Parameterization Schemes
by Chang Yuan, Hua Zhang, Xianwen Jing, Shuyun Zhao and Xiaohan Li
Atmosphere 2024, 15(4), 501; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos15040501 - 19 Apr 2024
Viewed by 490
Abstract
In this study, the radiation scheme BCC-RAD (Beijing Climate Center RADiative transfer model) developed for global climate models is implemented into the Global–Regional Integrated SysTem (GRIST) model as an alternative to the default RRTMG (general circulation model (GCM) version of the Rapid Radiative [...] Read more.
In this study, the radiation scheme BCC-RAD (Beijing Climate Center RADiative transfer model) developed for global climate models is implemented into the Global–Regional Integrated SysTem (GRIST) model as an alternative to the default RRTMG (general circulation model (GCM) version of the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model) scheme. Its impact on the simulated climate is comprehensively evaluated under different physics parametrization packages, in comparison with both the CERES (partly from ERA5 reanalysis) observations and multi-model results from CMIP6. The results indicate that under the default physics parameterization package of GRIST (PhysC), BCC-RAD improved the simulated global mean cloud cover by ~3% and the clear-sky outgoing longwave radiation by ~5.6 W/m2. Upon the inclusion of the PhysCN parameterization package, BCC-RAD exhibited further improvement in simulated cloud cover and radiative forcing (particularly longwave radiative forcing, the bias of which decreases from −9.2 W/m2 to −1.8 W/m2), leading it to be closer to observations than RRTMG. Additionally, BCC-RAD improved the simulation of atmospheric temperature and hence notably diminished the apparent overestimation of atmospheric humidity seen in RRTMG. This study demonstrates the advantages of BCC-RAD over RRTMG in certain aspects of the GRIST-simulated climate, verifying its capability for the climate-oriented configuration of GRIST. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ozone Pollution and Effects in China)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 1140 KiB  
Article
An Intermittent Exposure Regime Did Not Alter the Crop Yield and Biomass Responses to an Elevated Ozone Concentration
by Xiaoke Wang, Danhong Zhang, Sisi Tong, Binbin Huang, Shuai Zhang, Xu Sun, Hongxing Zhang, Wuxing Wan and Feixiang Zheng
Atmosphere 2024, 15(4), 464; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos15040464 - 9 Apr 2024
Viewed by 413
Abstract
The intermittent ozone (O3) exposure of crops to alternating high and low concentrations is common in fields, but its impact on crop production has not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, two widely planted and O3-sensitive crops, winter wheat [...] Read more.
The intermittent ozone (O3) exposure of crops to alternating high and low concentrations is common in fields, but its impact on crop production has not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, two widely planted and O3-sensitive crops, winter wheat and soybean, were intermittently exposed to elevated O3 concentrations in open-top chambers. The results showed that the winter wheat and soybean yields significantly decreased with O3 exposure (AOT40, cumulative hourly O3 concentration above 40 ppb) (p < 0.001). The relative yield losses were 0.99% per AOT40 for winter wheat and 1.2% per AOT40 for soybean, respectively. The responses of the crop biomasses to elevated O3 concentrations were lower than that of crop yield. Although the O3-induced crop yield and biomass losses under continuous O3 exposure were greater than those under intermittent O3 exposure, the differences were not statistically significant. Therefore, we can conclude that the effects of elevated O3 concentrations on crops are closely related to the exposure dose but not significantly related to the temporal distribution of elevated O3 concentrations. This study improves our understanding of how crop production responds to intermittent O3 exposure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ozone Pollution and Effects in China)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 7339 KiB  
Article
Causes of Summer Ozone Pollution Events in Jinan, East China: Local Photochemical Formation or Regional Transport?
by Baolin Wang, Yuchun Sun, Lei Sun, Zhenguo Liu, Chen Wang, Rui Zhang, Chuanyong Zhu, Na Yang, Guolan Fan, Xiaoyan Sun, Zhiyong Xia, Hongyu Xu, Guang Pan, Zhanchao Zhang, Guihuan Yan and Chongqing Xu
Atmosphere 2024, 15(2), 232; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos15020232 - 15 Feb 2024
Viewed by 740
Abstract
Simultaneous measurements of atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs), conventional gases and meteorological parameters were performed at an urban site in Jinan, East China, in June 2021 to explore the formation and evolution mechanisms of summertime ozone (O3) pollution events. O3 [...] Read more.
Simultaneous measurements of atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs), conventional gases and meteorological parameters were performed at an urban site in Jinan, East China, in June 2021 to explore the formation and evolution mechanisms of summertime ozone (O3) pollution events. O3 Episode Ⅰ, O3 Episode II, and non-O3 episodes were identified based on the China Ambient Air Quality Standards and the differences in precursor concentrations. The O3 concentrations in Episode I and Episode II were 145.4 μg/m3 and 166.4 μg/m3, respectively, which were significantly higher than that in non-O3 episode (90 μg/m3). For O3 precursors, VOCs and NOx concentrations increased by 48% and 34% in Episode I, and decreased by 21% and 27% in Episode II compared to non-O3 episode days. The analysis of the m,p-xylene to ethylbenzene ratio (X/E) and OH exposure demonstrated that the aging of the air masses in Episode II was significantly higher than the other two episodes, and the differences could not be explained by localized photochemical consumption. Therefore, we speculate that the high O3 concentrations in Episode II were driven by the regional transport of O3 and its precursors. Backward trajectory simulations indicated that the air masses during Episode II were concentrated from the south. In contrast, the combination of high precursor concentrations and favorable meteorological conditions (high temperatures and low humidity) led to an excess of O3 in Episode I. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) model results indicated that increased emissions from combustion and gasoline vehicle exhausts contributed to the elevated concentrations of VOCs in Episode I, and solvent usage may be an important contributor to O3 formation. The results of this study emphasize the importance of strengthening regional joint control of O3 and its precursors with neighboring cities, especially in the south, which is crucial for Jinan to mitigate O3 pollution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ozone Pollution and Effects in China)
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 2962 KiB  
Article
Characteristics and Sensitivity Analysis of Ozone Pollution in a Typical Inland City in China
by Xiaohui Hua, Meng Wang, Zhen Yao, Run Hao and Hailin Wang
Atmosphere 2024, 15(2), 160; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos15020160 - 25 Jan 2024
Viewed by 891
Abstract
In this research, long-term monitoring data from 2020 to 2023 were used to characterize O3 pollution in a typical inland city in northwest China (34°21′ N 109°30′ E), which indicated that ozone pollution yielded typical regular fluctuations and high ozone concentrations from [...] Read more.
In this research, long-term monitoring data from 2020 to 2023 were used to characterize O3 pollution in a typical inland city in northwest China (34°21′ N 109°30′ E), which indicated that ozone pollution yielded typical regular fluctuations and high ozone concentrations from April to September were observed. Ozone varied in the range of 16–176 μg/m3, and maximum peaks were found usually at 14:00–17:00 in June and July. Correlation analysis showed a significant positive relationship between ozone and temperature, with correlation coefficients of 0.93. The wind speed exhibits a similar variation as ozone. Meanwhile, negative correlations were not so notably observed among ozone, humidity, VOCs, and NOx. Finally, the empirical kinetic model OZIPR (Ozone Isopleth Plotting Program for Research) was employed to analyze the sensitivity relationship among ozone and precursor compounds by calculating EMKA (Empirical Kinetics Modeling Approach) curves. The EKMA analysis results showed that during the whole ozone pollution period, ozone formation is mainly dominated by VOCs due to all the ratios of VOCs/NOx which fell in the VOCs control region. Therefore, VOCs should be priority controlled and more measures should be taken for better ozone pollution control abatement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ozone Pollution and Effects in China)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 5836 KiB  
Article
Seasonal Variations in Anthropogenic and Natural Particles Induced by Rising CO2 Levels
by Dongdong Yang, Hua Zhang and Jiangnan Li
Atmosphere 2024, 15(1), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos15010105 - 15 Jan 2024
Viewed by 797
Abstract
Using an aerosol–climate coupled model, this paper has investigated the changes in distributions of anthropogenic and natural particles due to 4 × CO2-induced global warming, under the low emission scenario of Representative Concentration Pathway 4.5 (RCP4.5). Special attention is paid to [...] Read more.
Using an aerosol–climate coupled model, this paper has investigated the changes in distributions of anthropogenic and natural particles due to 4 × CO2-induced global warming, under the low emission scenario of Representative Concentration Pathway 4.5 (RCP4.5). Special attention is paid to the seasonal variations of aerosol size modes. With rising CO2 levels, surface warming, and changes in atmospheric circulations and hydrologic cycles are found during both summer (JJA) and winter (DJF). For anthropogenic particles, changes in fine anthropogenic particulate matter (PM2.5, particles with diameters smaller than 2.5 μm) decrease over high-latitude regions and increase over the tropics in both DJF and JJA. Global mean column concentrations of PM2.5 decrease by approximately 0.19 mg m−2, and concentrations of coarse anthropogenic particles (CPM, particles with diameters larger than 2.5 μm) increase by 0.005 mg m−2 in JJA. Changes in anthropogenic particles in DJF are similar to those in JJA, but the magnitudes of maximum regional changes are much smaller than those in JJA. The coarse anthropogenic particles (CPM, particles with diameters larger than 2.5 μm) increase over northern Africa and the Arabian Peninsula during JJA, whereas changes in anthropogenic CPM during DJF are minimal. During both JJA and DJF, changes in anthropogenic CPM are about two orders of magnitude smaller than those of anthropogenic PM2.5. Enhanced wet deposition by large-scale precipitation under rising CO2-induced surface warming is the critical factor affecting changes in anthropogenic particles. For natural particles, the distribution of change in the natural PM2.5 burden is similar to that of natural CPM, but much larger than natural CPM during each season. Both natural PM2.5 and CPM burdens increase over northern Africa and the Arabian Peninsula during JJA, but decrease over most of the continental regions during DJF. Changes in surface wind speed, divergence/convergence of surface wind, and precipitation are primary reasons for the variation of natural particles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ozone Pollution and Effects in China)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 8069 KiB  
Article
Source Attribution and Process Analysis of Summertime Ozone Pollution in Guanzhong Basin, Northwestern China
by Yu Yan, Wenbin Shi, Cong Wang and Youfan Chen
Atmosphere 2023, 14(12), 1742; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos14121742 - 26 Nov 2023
Viewed by 788
Abstract
The adverse effects of the transportation of O3 and its precursors on local air quality under certain meteorological conditions has long been recognized. Previous studies covered the effects of their transport without distinguishing specific forms (direct transport, via air pollutants originating from [...] Read more.
The adverse effects of the transportation of O3 and its precursors on local air quality under certain meteorological conditions has long been recognized. Previous studies covered the effects of their transport without distinguishing specific forms (direct transport, via air pollutants originating from emissions outside the target regions; indirect transport, via air pollutants generated from chemical reactions between local and outside precursors) and processes (chemical and physical). This study aimed to figure out the effects of different scales of emissions on O3 pollution in the Guanzhong basin (GZB) by quantifying the forms and processes of transport using the CAMx model. The results showed that the emissions on different scales had various pathways for influencing O3 formation under two polluted, synoptic circulation types (southeast high and northeast ridge). Under the southeast high type, the meteorological conditions favored the chemical production of O3, which led to the highest local O3 contributions from the GZB. The prominent cross-regional transport was positive for indirect transport from south Shaanxi, implying the synergistic impacts of biogenic VOCs and urban pollutants in the GZB. With the southerly winds in the GZB, the downwind cities of Xi’an were impacted by positive direct and indirect transport from the emissions of Xi’an. These impacts occurred through the processes of gas-phase chemistry (especially O3P + O2 and O3 + NO) and vertical advection. For the northeast ridge type, positive direct transport from the emissions of Henan Province was important for O3 pollution in the GZB, as there were remarkable easterly airflows. From the east to the west of the GZB, the impacts from the emissions from Henan Province on cities in the GZB were reduced, which occurred through the processes of horizontal advection and vertical dispersion. This work highlights significant differences in the forms and processes of O3 formation in downwind areas impacted by the emissions from different-scale emissions, and advances our knowledge of atmospheric pollutant transport and its impact on O3 pollution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ozone Pollution and Effects in China)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 4641 KiB  
Article
Impact of Economic and Environmental Factors on O3 Concentrations in the Yangtze River Delta Region of China
by Lei Hong, Xuewei Hou, Dong Liu and Changxin Zou
Atmosphere 2023, 14(10), 1487; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos14101487 - 26 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 731
Abstract
The concentration of atmospheric ozone (O3) pollution is showing a rapid growing tendency, and O3 pollution has become one of the bottleneck issues that restrict the continuous improvement of air quality in China. In this study, we first identified the [...] Read more.
The concentration of atmospheric ozone (O3) pollution is showing a rapid growing tendency, and O3 pollution has become one of the bottleneck issues that restrict the continuous improvement of air quality in China. In this study, we first identified the primary factors based on the source apportionment of O3, then used factor analysis to divide these selected factors into economic and environmental categories. The geographical detector model was used to analyze the impact of factors and their interactions on O3 concentration in 41 cities in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region in 2020. The results showed that forest coverage ranked first among all the detected factors, suggesting a strong relationship between the regional O3 concentration and forest coverage. The driving factors of economic activity were ranked as follows: actual utilization of foreign capital (0.400) > gross domestic product (GDP) per capita (0.387) > proportion of tertiary industry (0.360) > urbanization rate (0.327) > per capita consumption expenditure (0.194) > research and development (R&D) of full-time equivalents of industrial enterprises above designated size (0.182) > number of industrial enterprises (0.126). The interaction between any two factors enhanced their influence on O3 concentration more than any single factor, indicating that the variability of regional O3 concentration was an outcome of a combination of multiple factors. This study could provide recommendations for the prevention and control of O3 pollution and the development of ecological integration in the YRD region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ozone Pollution and Effects in China)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop