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Forests, Volume 13, Issue 10 (October 2022) – 215 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Two common tree species in Norway, Picea abies L. Karst (Norway spruce) and Pinus sylvestris L. (Scots pine), differ in their susceptibility to the fungus Heterobasidion spp., converting at least parts of the rot-infested spruce stands to pine pays-off economically in some cases. Applying the Value of Information (VoI) concept, we assessed the value of pixel-level information on rot levels and site indexes (SI) when choosing between planting spruce and pine on a clear-cut spruce stand. The VoIs were highest for the stands of medium–low dominant SI. Additionally, planting densities are more often adjusted to the pixel SI in these dominant SIs. Given that the stand’s dominant SI is known, information on rot levels alone is more valuable than information on SI alone. View this paper
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11 pages, 2449 KiB  
Article
Plant Growth and Microbiota Structural Effects of Rhizobacteria Inoculation on Mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King [Meliaceae]) under Nursery Conditions
Forests 2022, 13(10), 1742; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13101742 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1789
Abstract
Swietenia macrophylla is a tropical timber species of ecological and economic importance. However, its slow vegetative growth and root development in nurseries strongly limit its production. This study evaluated the effect of 10 rhizobacteria strains during the early stages of production of S. [...] Read more.
Swietenia macrophylla is a tropical timber species of ecological and economic importance. However, its slow vegetative growth and root development in nurseries strongly limit its production. This study evaluated the effect of 10 rhizobacteria strains during the early stages of production of S. macrophylla. Superficially disinfected seeds were inoculated with rhizobacteria under commercial nursery conditions. Inoculation was complemented by initial fertilization without growth regulators, fungicides, or bactericides. The results indicate that the rhizobacteria strains induce different responses in plants. Significant differences in plant biomass and root architecture were found. Treatments inoculated with Bacillus sp., Bacillus polyfermenticus, and Bacillus siamensis strains; showed an increase of up to 41% (dry weight). Plants increased root biomass by 30% when inoculated with S. siamensis. All inoculated strains were identified as members of the genus Bacillus spp., and their presence three months after inoculation was assessed by 16S rRNA gene-based amplicon massive sequencing. We found that Bacillus sp. genus was only present in inoculated treatments, suggesting that inoculated bacteria could establish themselves successfully as part of the microbiota. These results support the advantages of using PGPRs in commercial tropical tree production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Production in Forest Nurseries and Field Performance of Seedlings)
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22 pages, 5754 KiB  
Article
Log Construction Practices and Future Outlook: Perspectives of Finnish Experts
Forests 2022, 13(10), 1741; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13101741 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1385
Abstract
This paper analyzed practices and future outlooks of log construction from the perspective of Finnish experts through interviews. Key findings highlighted that: (1) interviewed experts emphasized the environmental benefits of log construction; (2) moving log buildings from one place to another was considered [...] Read more.
This paper analyzed practices and future outlooks of log construction from the perspective of Finnish experts through interviews. Key findings highlighted that: (1) interviewed experts emphasized the environmental benefits of log construction; (2) moving log buildings from one place to another was considered a natural way to reuse logs, but several challenges regarding wet areas and incompatibility of different producer profiles were reported; (3) single-material construction of log was stated to have many advantages such as ease of application during erection and relatively long service life; (4) log structures were mostly associated with health, safety, coziness, beauty, and warmth; (5) increasing trend in the use of log construction in large-scale public projects was reported; (6) experts stated that the use of logs in high-rise buildings in Finland is underdeveloped, but hybrid applications using engineered wood products can provide a solution to this issue; (7) modern log cities can be designed with proper solutions, paying attention to several issues e.g., large glass-faced facades; (8) cost competitiveness, familiarity, fire safety, and facade cladding were assessed among the biggest challenges of log construction; (9) issues such as increasing number of contractors specializing in log buildings, robotics in production automation, digitization of manufacturing control were on the future agenda of log construction. It is thought that this study will support the use of logs by contributing to log structures that will be diversified and developed in the Finnish construction market. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Wood Science and Forest Products)
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17 pages, 2431 KiB  
Article
Effects of Tree Species Diversity on Fine Root Morphological Characteristics, Productivity and Turnover Rates
Forests 2022, 13(10), 1740; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13101740 - 21 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1291
Abstract
Fine roots (φ ≤ 2 mm) play an important role in the process of material and nutrient cycling in forest ecosystems, but the effect of tree species diversity on the functional characteristics of fine roots is unclear. In this study, 1−7 subtropical communities [...] Read more.
Fine roots (φ ≤ 2 mm) play an important role in the process of material and nutrient cycling in forest ecosystems, but the effect of tree species diversity on the functional characteristics of fine roots is unclear. In this study, 1−7 subtropical communities with different species richness were selected to study the morphological characteristics, productivity (PRO), and turnover rate (TUR) of fine roots by continuous soil core extraction, ingrowth soil core method, and root analysis system. The effects of tree species diversity on fine root morphological characteristics, PRO, and TUR are also analyzed. The results showed that with the increase in tree species diversity in the community, the effect of fine root morphological characteristics including specific root length (SRL) and specific surface area (SSA) of each community was not significant, but the fine root PRO in the community increased from 71.63 g·m−2·a−1 (Ligustrum lucidum pure forest) to 232.95 g·m−2·a−1 (Cinnamomum camphora mixed forest with seven species richness communities), and the fine root TUR increased from 0.539 times·a−1 to 0.747 times·a−1. Correlation analysis and redundancy analysis showed that species richness, root functional traits, and soil physicochemical properties were important driving factors affecting root characteristics. The increase in tree species diversity did not change the morphological characteristics of fine roots but increased the PRO and TUR of fine roots. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Forest Ecophysiology and Biology)
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17 pages, 2991 KiB  
Article
Synergetic Roles of Mangrove Vegetation on Sediment Accretion in Coastal Mangrove Plantations in Central Thailand
Forests 2022, 13(10), 1739; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13101739 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3447
Abstract
Mangrove plantations can potentially restore the vegetation structures protecting coastal areas. In Avicennia alba plantations in central Thailand, we investigated the vegetation structures (trees, seedlings, pneumatophores, and belowground roots), sedimentation rates, and elevation changes over one year across the shore. The results showed [...] Read more.
Mangrove plantations can potentially restore the vegetation structures protecting coastal areas. In Avicennia alba plantations in central Thailand, we investigated the vegetation structures (trees, seedlings, pneumatophores, and belowground roots), sedimentation rates, and elevation changes over one year across the shore. The results showed a heterogeneous vegetation structure with an increasing tree basal area (BA) and seedling density towards the interior. The pneumatophore quantitative characteristics decreased towards the interior in association with the topographic gradient and inundation period. The sedimentation rates, which were greater in the plantation than on the mudflat, showed a negative correlation with the height, total surface area, and total volume of the pneumatophores. This indicates that the pneumatophores facilitated the transportation of fine sediments into the interior. Our results suggest that an optimal complexity of the aboveground vegetation structure might enhance the sedimentation rates. According to the gradient of tree BA and seedling density, the fine root density increased towards the interior. The monthly elevation changes in the plantation showed less fluctuation than those on the mudflat. The net elevation changes indicated sediment accretion within the plantation and erosion on the mudflat. Our results demonstrate the synergetic roles of mangrove plantations in which the aboveground structures facilitate sediment redeposition and the belowground roots stabilize sediment accretion in coastal areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodiversity, Health, and Ecosystem Services of Mangroves)
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18 pages, 5535 KiB  
Article
Ignition of Wood-Based Boards by Radiant Heat
Forests 2022, 13(10), 1738; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13101738 - 20 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1399
Abstract
Particleboards (PB) and oriented strand boards (OSB) are commonly used materials in building structures or building interiors. The surface of boards may hence become directly exposed to fire or radiant heat. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the behaviour of uncoated [...] Read more.
Particleboards (PB) and oriented strand boards (OSB) are commonly used materials in building structures or building interiors. The surface of boards may hence become directly exposed to fire or radiant heat. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the behaviour of uncoated particleboards and OSB exposed to radiant heat. The following ignition parameters were used to observe the process of particleboard and OSB ignition: heat flux intensity (from 43 to 50 kW.m-2) and ignition temperature. The time-to-ignition and mass loss of particleboards and OSB with thicknesses of 12, 15 and 18 mm were monitored and compared. The experiments were conducted on a modified device in accordance with ISO 5657: 1997. Results confirmed thermal degradation of samples. Heat flux had a significant effect on mass loss (burning rate) and time-to-ignition. OSB had higher ignition time than particleboards and the thermal degradation of OSB started later, i.e., at a higher temperature than that of particleboards, but OSB also had higher mass loss than particleboards. The samples yielded the same results above 47 kW.m−2. Thermal analysis also confirmed a higher thermal decomposition temperature of OSB (179 °C) compared to particleboards (146 °C). The difference in mass loss in both stages did not exceed 1%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Eco-Friendly Wood-Based Composites II)
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10 pages, 1247 KiB  
Article
Prediction of Road Transport of Wood in Uruguay: Approach with Machine Learning
Forests 2022, 13(10), 1737; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13101737 - 20 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1359
Abstract
Among the activities that burden capital in the supply chain of forest-based industries, the activity of road transport of wood deserves to be highlighted. Machine learning techniques are applied the knowledge extracted from real data, and support strategies that aim to maximize the [...] Read more.
Among the activities that burden capital in the supply chain of forest-based industries, the activity of road transport of wood deserves to be highlighted. Machine learning techniques are applied the knowledge extracted from real data, and support strategies that aim to maximize the resources destined for it. Based on variables inherent to the wood transport activity, we verified whether machine learning models can act as predictors of the volume of wood to be transported and support strategic decision-making. The database came from companies in the pulp and paper segments, which totaled 26,761 data instances. After the data wrangling process, machine learning algorithms were used to build models, which were optimized from the hyperparameter adjustment and selected to compose the blended learning hierarchy. In addition to belonging to different methodological basis, a CatBoost Regressor, Decision Tree Regressor, and K Neighbors Regressor were selected mainly for providing minimal values to errors metrics and maximal values to determination coefficient. The learning by stack stands out, with a coefficient of determination of 0.70 and an average absolute percentage error of 6% in the estimation of the volume of wood to be transported. Based on variables inherent to the wood transport process, we verified that machine learning models can act in the prediction of the volume of wood to be transported and support strategic decision-making. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest Operations and Forest Road Networks Design)
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23 pages, 5745 KiB  
Article
Occurrence Prediction of Pine Wilt Disease Based on CA–Markov Model
Forests 2022, 13(10), 1736; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13101736 - 20 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1334
Abstract
Pine wilt disease (PWD) has become a devastating disease that impacts China’s forest management. It is of great significance to accurately predict PWD on a geospatial scale to prevent its spread. Using the Cellular Automata (CA)–Markov model, this study predicts the occurrence area [...] Read more.
Pine wilt disease (PWD) has become a devastating disease that impacts China’s forest management. It is of great significance to accurately predict PWD on a geospatial scale to prevent its spread. Using the Cellular Automata (CA)–Markov model, this study predicts the occurrence area of PWD in Anhui Province in 2030 based on PWD-relevant factors, such as weather, terrain, population, and traffic. Using spatial autocorrelation analysis, direction analysis and other spatial analysis methods, we analyze the change trend of occurrence data of PWD in 2000, 2010, 2020 and 2030, reveal the propagation law of PWD disasters in Anhui Province, and warn for future prevention and control direction and measures. The results show the following: (1) the overall accuracy of the CA–Markov model for PWD disaster prediction is 93.19%, in which the grid number accuracy is 95.19%, and the Kappa coefficient is 0.65. (2) In recent 20 years and the next 10 years, the occurrence area of PWD in Anhui Province has a trend of first decreasing and then increasing. From 2000 to 2010, the occurrence area of disasters has a downward trend. From 2010 to 2020, the disaster area has increased rapidly, with an annual growth rate of 140%. In the next 10 years, the annual growth rate of disasters will slow down, and the occurrence area of PWD will reach 270,632 ha. (3) In 2000 and 2010, the spatial aggregation and directional distribution characteristics of the map spots of the PWD pine forest were significant. In 2020 and 2030, the spatial aggregation is still significant after the expansion of the susceptible area, but the directional distribution is no longer significant. (4) The PWD center in Anhui Province shows a significant trend of moving southward. From 2010 to 2020, the PWD center moved from Chuzhou to Anqing. (5) PWD mainly occurs in the north slope area below 700 m above sea level and below 20° slope in Anhui Province. The prediction shows that the PWD disaster will break through the traditional suitable area in the next 10 years, and the distribution range will spread to high altitude, high slope, and sunny slope. The results of this study can provide scientific support for the prevention and control of PWD in the region and help the effective control of PWD in China. Full article
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15 pages, 3332 KiB  
Article
Studying What Influences the Effects of Environmental Education on Visitors of Fuzhou National Park in China—The Mediating Role of Place Attachment
Forests 2022, 13(10), 1735; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13101735 - 20 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1616
Abstract
With the rapid and vigorous growth of forest tourism, the irresponsible environmental behavior of tourists has caused enormous strain on forests’ ecological systems. Carrying out environmental education in forest parks is conducive to promoting the sustainable development of forest tourism. To explore the [...] Read more.
With the rapid and vigorous growth of forest tourism, the irresponsible environmental behavior of tourists has caused enormous strain on forests’ ecological systems. Carrying out environmental education in forest parks is conducive to promoting the sustainable development of forest tourism. To explore the impact of human–place emotion on environmental education effects, this study took Fuzhou National Forest Park as an example to construct a structural equation model composed of landscape perception, environment interpretation, place attachment, and the effects of environmental education (EEE). The relationship between the four elements and the mechanism of action was clarified. A questionnaire was used with 480 visitors. Statistical analysis showed that: (1) The value of scientific research and education (0.774) influences landscape perception. Reliability (0.770) and tangibility (0.718) contribute to environmental interpretation. Place identification and dependence are represented by environmental identity (0.771) and are activity-dependent (0.792), respectively. Knowledge (0.860) and behavior (0.869) are essential factors in driving the EEE. (2) Place attachment and environment interpretation had a significant positive impact on the environmental education effect (p < 0.001), and there was no direct effect between landscape perception and EEE. (3) Landscape perception and environmental interpretation indirectly influence EEE with place attachment as full and partial mediators, respectively. This paper aims to provide theoretical support for better synergistic growth of forest park ecology, economy, and environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Forest Economics, Policy, and Social Science)
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17 pages, 1781 KiB  
Article
Study on Farmers’ Willingness to Maintain the Sloping Land Conversion Program in Ethnic Minority Areas under the Background of Subsidy Expiration
Forests 2022, 13(10), 1734; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13101734 - 20 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1188
Abstract
The sloping land conversion program (SLCP) is one of the most important payment for ecosystem services (PESs) in the world, as direct stakeholders and the final implementers of the SLCP, farmers’ willingness to maintain the achievements is the basis for the consolidation and [...] Read more.
The sloping land conversion program (SLCP) is one of the most important payment for ecosystem services (PESs) in the world, as direct stakeholders and the final implementers of the SLCP, farmers’ willingness to maintain the achievements is the basis for the consolidation and sustainable operation of the SLCP. Based on a survey of 975 farmers in Hunan Province, Gansu Province, and the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, this study used the elastic net model to accurately select the influencing factors of farmers’ willingness to maintain the SLCP and the logit model to measure these factors. Finally, combined with the interpretative structural model (ISM), we further analyzed the hierarchical structure of each significant influencing factor. The main results are as follows. Firstly, off-farm employment, whether the head of the household is a village cadre, labor number, land area, income level, subjective norms from the organization, altruistic rationality, active ability, and policy perception had significant and positive impacts on farmers’ willingness to maintain the SLCP. In contrast, whether the head of the household is an ethnic minority and the expiration of the SLCP subsidy had significant and negative impacts on farmers’ willingness to maintain the SLCP. Secondly, the factors affecting farmers’ willingness to maintain the SLCP are at different levels, being both independent and interrelated. Among them, the deep-rooted factors are whether the head of the household is an ethnic minority, the expiration of the SLCP subsidy, the labor number, and whether the head of the household is a village cadre. Based on the above results, government departments should broaden the income channels of farmers in ethnic minority areas, strengthen the publicity to maintain the SLCP in ethnic minority areas, and improve the SLCP’s follow-up policy to enhance the farmers’ willingness to maintain the SLCP and ensure the program’s sustainability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Forest Economics, Policy, and Social Science)
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13 pages, 1783 KiB  
Article
Phenotypic Variation and Diversity in Fruit, Leaf, Fatty Acid, and Their Relationships to Geoclimatic Factors in Seven Natural Populations of Malania oleifera Chun et S.K. Lee
Forests 2022, 13(10), 1733; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13101733 - 20 Oct 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1461
Abstract
Malania oleifera Chun et S.K. Lee is an endangered woody oil tree that produces nervonic acid, which is closely related to brain development. The phenotypic variation and diversity in some representative traits in natural populations are poorly understood. To investigate phenotypic variation, diversity [...] Read more.
Malania oleifera Chun et S.K. Lee is an endangered woody oil tree that produces nervonic acid, which is closely related to brain development. The phenotypic variation and diversity in some representative traits in natural populations are poorly understood. To investigate phenotypic variation, diversity and their relationship with geoclimatic factors, we evaluated 21 traits of 97 sampled individuals from seven natural populations. Coefficient of variation for 21 traits widely ranged from 0.05 (shape index of fruit) to 0.62 (water content of dry kernel), with an average of 0.18. The Shannon–Wiener indices ranged from 1.91 (water content of dry kernel) to 2.06 (leaf length and leaf width), with an average of 1.94. The variation of 20 traits was significantly influenced by the population effect (p < 0.05). The 21 traits were reduced to six principal components, which collectively accounted for 86.64% of the total phenotypic variation. The seven population was mainly divided into two groups: Group I, which included four populations distributed throughout the southern region and having wider and shorter leaves, larger fruit transverse diameters, and higher content of fatty acid and nervonic acid in the kernel, and Group II included the left populations with relative opposite characteristics to those in Group I. Trees with shorter leaves tend to produce oblate shape and heavier dried kernel, yielding more fatty acid and nervonic acids, and population-level pairwise kernel morphological distance were positively correlated with fatty acid distance (Mantel r = 0.39, p < 0.05). Annual average humidity was strongly positively correlated with leaf index (length/width, r = 0.78) but had a negative correlation with the kernel dry weight (r = −0.84). The shape of the kernel gradually altered from oblate to globose as longitude and rainfall increased. The environment became colder as latitude increased, resulting in a steady decrease in fatty acid content. No significant isolation by climatic and geographical distance was found for morphological and fatty acid variability. These results can have an important implication for genetic improvement, diversity conservation and resource management of the species in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Forest Biodiversity)
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25 pages, 5862 KiB  
Article
Bat Assemblages Are Shaped by Land Cover Types and Forest Age: A Case Study from Eastern Ukraine
Forests 2022, 13(10), 1732; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13101732 - 20 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1948
Abstract
Eastern European broadleaved forests north of the 50th degree of latitude serve as a core breeding area for most migratory bat species wintering in Eastern and Central Europe. The southern border of this region has faced an increase in clear-cutting intensity in recent [...] Read more.
Eastern European broadleaved forests north of the 50th degree of latitude serve as a core breeding area for most migratory bat species wintering in Eastern and Central Europe. The southern border of this region has faced an increase in clear-cutting intensity in recent decades. We conducted a standardized mist-netting survey on eleven heterogeneous oak forest plots in order to assess how land cover types and forest age affect abundance, diversity and the breeding of bats. We found that abundance indices and species richness increased from upland plots surrounded by agricultural lands to riverine or waterside plots with high forest cover. Particularly large mature forests older than 90 years positively affected the breeding activity of bats, their abundance indices and overall species richness. Regarding species associations with specific habitats, we found that Myotis brandtii, Nyctalus leisleri and Pipistrellus pygmaeus were mainly found in mature deciduous forest stands, while Plecotus auritus appeared to be the only species tolerating clearcuts and young stands. Forest-dwelling species such as Nyctalus noctula and Pipistrellus nathusii were additionally associated with water habitats. Thus, the combination of mature forests and water sources is essential in shaping Eastern European assemblages of forest bat species. Full article
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22 pages, 5421 KiB  
Article
Assessment of the Effects of Artificial Fungi Inoculations on Agarwood Formation and Sap Flow Rate of Aquilaria malaccensis Lam. Using Sonic Tomography (SoT) and Sap Flow Meter (SFM)
Forests 2022, 13(10), 1731; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13101731 - 20 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1983
Abstract
Agarwood is a valuable aromatic resinous wood that is biosynthesised when a fungal attack injures the healthy wood tissue of the Aquilaria tree. The magnitude of infection related to sap flow (SF) is one of the most critical functional traits to [...] Read more.
Agarwood is a valuable aromatic resinous wood that is biosynthesised when a fungal attack injures the healthy wood tissue of the Aquilaria tree. The magnitude of infection related to sap flow (SF) is one of the most critical functional traits to evaluate the tree’s response to various adverse conditions. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the reliability of sonic tomography (SoT) and sap flow meter (SFM) in studying the influence of inoculation fungi Pichia kudriavzevii Boidin, Pignal and Besson, and Paecilomyces niveus Stolk and Samson, on deteriorated wood (Dt) and SF rate in Aquilaria malaccensis Lam. A. malaccensis trees with small, medium, and large diameters were inoculated with each fungus separately at the bottom, middle, and top positions of the tree and the area of sapwood was measured after 6, 12, and 24 months to stimulate the agarwood formation. Furthermore, the SF rate was assessed using SFM in the position of the selected trees. There was a significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) in Dt% and SF rate between inoculated and uninoculated trees. The Dt percentage in trees inoculated with P. kudriavzevii, P. niveus, and control trees was 25.6%, 25.7%, and 15.0%, respectively. The SF rate was lower in P. kudriavzevii, with 207.7 cm3/h, than in the control trees, with 312.9 cm3/h in the small-diameter class. In summary, the results of this study emphasise the importance of inoculation duration (24 months) and the effects of water conductivity, especially tree diameter class (small), on the biosynthetic response of resinous substance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal–Plant Interactions: Latest Advances and Prospects)
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11 pages, 4930 KiB  
Article
Forest Management, Barred Owls, and Wildfire in Northern Spotted Owl Territories
Forests 2022, 13(10), 1730; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13101730 - 20 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2504
Abstract
The Northern Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) (NSO) was listed as federally threatened in 1992 due to widespread logging of its old-growth forest habitat. The NSO recovery plan in 2011 elevated competition with Barred Owls (Strix varia) (BO) and [...] Read more.
The Northern Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) (NSO) was listed as federally threatened in 1992 due to widespread logging of its old-growth forest habitat. The NSO recovery plan in 2011 elevated competition with Barred Owls (Strix varia) (BO) and wildfires as primary NSO threats based partly on the assumption that severely burned forests were no longer NSO nesting and roosting habitat. We quantified amount of logging before and/or after wildfire and opportunistic detections of BOs within two home range scales (0.8 and 2.09 km) at 105 NSO sites that experienced severe wildfire from 2000–2017. Logging affected 87% of severely burned NSO sites, with BO recorded at 22% of burned-and-logged sites. Most (60%) severely burned NSO sites had evidence of logging both before and after fires while only 12% of severely burned sites had no logging or BO detections, indicating rarity of NSO territories subjected to severe fire without the compounding stressors of logging and invasive BOs. We recommend changes to NSO habitat modeling that assume nesting and roosting habitat is no longer viable if severely burned, and to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s practice of granting incidental take permits for NSOs in logging operations within severely burned owl sites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Extinction Crisis: How Bad, What Can Be Done?)
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18 pages, 3859 KiB  
Article
Environmental Factors Driving the Transpiration of a Betula platyphylla Sukaczev Forest in a Semi-arid Region in North China during Different Hydrological Years
Forests 2022, 13(10), 1729; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13101729 - 20 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1275
Abstract
More and more droughts happened during the last decades, threatening natural forests in the semi-arid regions of North China. The increase in drought pressure may have an impact on stand transpiration (T) in semi-arid regions due to rising temperature and changes in precipitation. [...] Read more.
More and more droughts happened during the last decades, threatening natural forests in the semi-arid regions of North China. The increase in drought pressure may have an impact on stand transpiration (T) in semi-arid regions due to rising temperature and changes in precipitation. It is unclear how the transpiration of natural forest in semi-arid regions respond to drought, which is regulated by environmental factors. In this study, a relatively simple but mechanism-based forest stand T model that couples the effects of the reference T, solar radiation (Rn), vapor pressure deficit (VPD), and relative extractable water (REW) in the 0–80 cm soil layer was developed to quantify the independent impacts of Rn, VPD, and REW on T. The model was established based on the observed sap flow of four sample trees, and environmental factors were observed from May to September in different hydrological years (2015, 2017, 2018, and 2021) in a pure white birch (Betula platyphylla Sukaczev) forest stand in the southern section of the Greater Khingan Mountains, northeastern China. The sap flow data were used to calculate tree transpiration (Tt) and T to calibrate the T model. The results indicated that (1) The Tt sharply declined in the ‘dry’ year compared with that in the ‘wetter’ year. The daily Tt for small trees in the ‘dry’ year was only one-fifth of that in the ‘wetter’ year, and the daily Tt of large trees was 48% lower than that in the ‘normal’ year; (2) Large trees transpired more water than small trees, e.g., the daily Tt of small trees was 89% lower than that of the large trees in the ‘normal’ year; (3) Daily T increased with the increase in Rn, and the response conformed to a binomial function. Daily T responded to the rise of VPD and REW in an exponential function, first increasing rapidly, gradually reaching the threshold or peak value, and then stabilizing; (4) The driving factors for the T shift in different hydrological years were the REW in the ‘dry’ year, but the Rn and REW in the ‘wet’, ‘normal’, and ‘wetter’ years. The REW in the ‘wet’ and ‘wetter’ years exerted positive effects on T, but in the ‘normal’ and ‘dry’ year, exerted negative effects on T. Thus, the environmental factors affecting T were not the same in different hydrological years. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Hazards and Risk Management)
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12 pages, 1934 KiB  
Article
Prediction of Static Bending Properties of Eucalyptus Clones Using Stress Wave Measurements on Standing Trees, Logs and Small Clear Specimens
Forests 2022, 13(10), 1728; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13101728 - 20 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1083
Abstract
In this study, we used both nondestructive and destructive methods for assessing solid wood properties in six Vietnamese grown Eucalyptus clones at 6 years after planting. We measured stress wave velocity in standing sample trees (SWVT), logs (SWVL), and [...] Read more.
In this study, we used both nondestructive and destructive methods for assessing solid wood properties in six Vietnamese grown Eucalyptus clones at 6 years after planting. We measured stress wave velocity in standing sample trees (SWVT), logs (SWVL), and small clear specimens (SWVS) obtained from the trees and logs, and to measure static properties, we used MOE—modulus of elasticity and MOR—modulus of rupture. The highest average MOE and MOR were detected in clones 3 and 5, suggesting that these clones might be more appropriate for breeding programs focused on improving wood quality of Eucalyptus grown in Vietnam. Mean MOE and MOR of the lumber had significant (p < 0.001) relationships with SWVT (r = 0.61 and 0.53, respectively) and SWVL (r = 0.76 and 0.71, respectively). Stress wave velocity measurements of both standing trees and logs can be useful for further segregating Vietnam’s Eucalyptus timber resource based on MOE and MOR. For the small clear specimens, the best prediction of stiffness (dynamic modulus of elasticity (MOEd)) was obtained when both SWVS and air-dry density (AD) were used. The coefficient of correlation between MOE and MOEd was 0.93. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Wood Science and Forest Products)
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18 pages, 3396 KiB  
Article
Remote Sensing-Based Land Suitability Analysis for Forest Restoration in Madagascar
Forests 2022, 13(10), 1727; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13101727 - 20 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1709
Abstract
Tropical forest loss has been a prominent concern in Madagascar, portrayed by a highly fragmented landscape of forests surrounded by small-scale agricultural patches along the northwestern and eastern regions. This paper seeks to identify priority areas for forest landscape restoration at a landscape [...] Read more.
Tropical forest loss has been a prominent concern in Madagascar, portrayed by a highly fragmented landscape of forests surrounded by small-scale agricultural patches along the northwestern and eastern regions. This paper seeks to identify priority areas for forest landscape restoration at a landscape scale using a geospatial land suitability analysis approach. The study area is the watershed of Mahavavy, home to one of the most biodiverse ecosystems in the island but also an important agriculture region. The suitability analysis method comprises five major steps: (1) the identification of a set of restoration criteria, (2) the acquisition of available environmental datasets for each criterion, (3) generating suitability maps for each criterion, (4) the conception of a suitability analysis model, and (5) the design of potential sites for restoration. The specific suitability criteria combine both landscape composition and soil characteristics, including (i) distance from protected sites and forest patches, (ii) land cover classes, (iii) distance from settlements, (iv) distance from roads, (v) risk of soil erosion. We found 143,680 ha (27.9%) that were highly suitable areas for forest landscape restoration, 159127 (30.9%) moderately suitable and138031 ha (26.6%) not suitable areas. High potential suitable areas are observed in close proximity of forest patches and protected areas, and low restoration feasibility in all areas that are easily accessible and thus subjected to exploitation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Forest Inventory, Modeling and Remote Sensing)
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14 pages, 1427 KiB  
Review
The Formation of Shapes: Interplay of Genes during Leaf Development Processes
Forests 2022, 13(10), 1726; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13101726 - 20 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1916
Abstract
Leaf shape, as one of the clearest manifestations of plant morphology, shows considerable variation owing to genetics and the environment. Leaf initiation occurs in the peripheral zone of the SAM and goes through the three overlapping phases of leaf primordium initiation, leaf dorsiventral [...] Read more.
Leaf shape, as one of the clearest manifestations of plant morphology, shows considerable variation owing to genetics and the environment. Leaf initiation occurs in the peripheral zone of the SAM and goes through the three overlapping phases of leaf primordium initiation, leaf dorsiventral development, and leaf marginal meristem establishment. Transcription factors, such as KNOX, WOX, and CUC; hormone-regulating genes, such as GA2ox, GA20ox, and PIN1; and miRNAs such as miR164/165 are tightly involved in leaf shaping through the generation of intricate cooperative networks in different temporal phases and specific tissue zones. Here, we briefly discuss the critical interplay occurring between certain genes and the pivotal role these play in the leaf developmental network and phytohormone regulation, including AS1/AS2KNOXGA20ox–GA, miR164NAM/CUCPIN1–auxin, and CUCBAS1/CYP734A–BR, and we attempt to summarize several basic insights into the mechanisms of leaf shape regulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Population Genetic and Morphological Diversity of Woody Plants)
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14 pages, 2099 KiB  
Article
Biomass Estimation and Carbon Storage of Taxodium Hybrid Zhongshanshan Plantations in the Yangtze River Basin
Forests 2022, 13(10), 1725; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13101725 - 19 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1243
Abstract
As a pivotal wetland tree, Taxodium hybrid Zhongshanshan has been widely planted in the region of Yangtze River for multipurpose of ecological restoration, field shelter, landscape aesthetics as well as carbon sequestration. However, the carbon allocation patterns across distinct stages of stand development [...] Read more.
As a pivotal wetland tree, Taxodium hybrid Zhongshanshan has been widely planted in the region of Yangtze River for multipurpose of ecological restoration, field shelter, landscape aesthetics as well as carbon sequestration. However, the carbon allocation patterns across distinct stages of stand development of T. Zhongshanshan are poorly documented. Using a sample of 30 trees which were destructively harvested, this study compared 3 models for assessing aboveground biomass. Furthermore, a linear seemingly unrelated regression (SUR) approach was introduced to fit the system of the best selected model that ensured the additivity property. On this basis, biomass and carbon storage of T. Zhongshanshan stands in the Yangtze River Basin (YRB) were fairly estimated. Specifically, the study developed height-diameter at breast (H-DBH) function. The results showed that the selected 3-parameter polynomial model performed better, and the SUR approach provided more accurate estimates of leaf and stem fractions. The total tree biomass was 53.43, 84.87, 140.67, 192.71 and 156.65 t ha−1 in the 9-, 11-, 13-, 15-, and 22-year-old T. Zhongshanshan stands, and contributed averagely 94.40% of the ecosystem biomass accumulation. The current T. Zhongshanshan stands in the YRB area can store 124.76 to 217.64 t ha−1 carbon, of which total tree ranges from 25.32 to 90.89 t ha−1, with 55.19% to 77.66% storing in the soil. The T. Zhongshanshan had continuous potential for carbon storage during its growth, particularly in the incipient stages. The findings of this research are firsthand information for forest managers for the sustainable management of T. Zhongshanshan in the YRB and similar subtropical areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest Ecological Management and Sustainable Development)
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12 pages, 1302 KiB  
Article
The Application of Copper and Silver Nanoparticles in the Protection of Fagus sylvatica Wood against Decomposition by Fomes fomentarius
Forests 2022, 13(10), 1724; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13101724 - 19 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1388
Abstract
Wood technology is constantly looking for environmentally friendly technological solutions. It seems that nanotechnology can provide green and environmentally friendly alternatives for wood protection. In this study, the antifungal activity of silver and copper nanoparticles against the white rot fungus Fomes fomentarius was [...] Read more.
Wood technology is constantly looking for environmentally friendly technological solutions. It seems that nanotechnology can provide green and environmentally friendly alternatives for wood protection. In this study, the antifungal activity of silver and copper nanoparticles against the white rot fungus Fomes fomentarius was investigated under in vitro conditions and with respect to the protection of Fagus sylvatica wood. In both experiments, 5, 25 and 50 ppm of nanoparticles were used. The results of the in vitro test showed selective antifungal activity of the nanoparticles. All concentrations of copper nanoparticles stimulated mycelial growth. The stimulation was inversely proportional to the concentration. Silver nanoparticles inhibited fungal colony growth at the highest concentration (50 ppm) and did not affect growth at concentrations of 5 and 25 ppm. Silver nanoparticles increased the rot resistance of beech wood, but only at the highest concentration. Decay caused by F. fomentarius was stimulated by copper nanoparticles at the highest concentration. Probably, the fungus used copper as a micronutrient for better growth and increased the activity of extracellular enzymes. Our results from in vitro tests are consistent with those obtained on beech wood specimens, showing that the concentrations of the two nanoparticles used were too low to protect the beech wood from decomposition by xylophagous fungus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Control in Forests Protection)
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16 pages, 3232 KiB  
Article
Lower Light Intensities Increase Shoot Germination with Improved Leaf Biosynthesis in Ma Bamboo (Dendrocalamus latiflorus Munro)
Forests 2022, 13(10), 1723; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13101723 - 19 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1314
Abstract
Ma bamboo (Dendrocalamus latiflorus Munro) is a major bamboo species cultivated in southern China with high economic, ecological, and social value. However, highly dense forests and reasonable structures in bamboo forests have unclear and adverse effects on light transmittance and forest productivity [...] Read more.
Ma bamboo (Dendrocalamus latiflorus Munro) is a major bamboo species cultivated in southern China with high economic, ecological, and social value. However, highly dense forests and reasonable structures in bamboo forests have unclear and adverse effects on light transmittance and forest productivity that are not adequately understood. Here, we investigated varied light-intensity treatments during different phases of shoot emergence and development on Ma bamboo shoots. The amount of total chlorophyll, carotenoids, gas exchange indicators, and biosynthetic products were also compared to explore the response mechanism of shoot germination on downstream biochemical pathways. We found that compared to the L0 treatment (full sunlight), the number of germinated bamboo shoots under the L1 treatment (40% light) increased significantly by 44.07% and 101.32% in the shooting initial-phase and metaphase, respectively (p < 0.05). Additionally, the net photosynthetic rate (Pn) during the shooting initial-phase and metaphase was the highest in the L1 treatment, while the L4 (10% light) and L0 treatments inhibited chlorophyll synthesis. Further, the accumulation of leaf carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) was higher in the L1 treatment than in other treatments. Ma bamboo showed rich carbohydrate contents under L0 and L1 treatments in the shooting initial-phase and metaphase. Principal component analysis (PCA) also revealed that the L1 treatment positively correlated with bamboo shoot germination and biochemical activity during the shooting periods. Ultimately, our data suggest that the L1 treatment is the most optimal for promoting bamboo shoot germination, providing a scientific basis for cultivating shoot-used bamboo forests in southern China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Forest Ecophysiology and Biology)
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9 pages, 1776 KiB  
Article
Tempo and Mode of Floristic Exchanges between Hainan Island and Mainland Asia: A Case Study of the Persea Group (Lauraceae)
Forests 2022, 13(10), 1722; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13101722 - 19 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1208
Abstract
The origin of island biodiversity has been a topic of interest in biogeography. Two main hypotheses were suggested to explain the floristic origin of Hainan Island: ancient vicariance vs. recent dispersal. The Persea group of Lauraceae was used to examine their origin on [...] Read more.
The origin of island biodiversity has been a topic of interest in biogeography. Two main hypotheses were suggested to explain the floristic origin of Hainan Island: ancient vicariance vs. recent dispersal. The Persea group of Lauraceae was used to examine their origin on Hainan Island. A data matrix including five genera and 49 species was assembled, phylogenetic trees of the Persea group were reconstructed using both maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference methods, and a relaxed molecular clock in BEAST was used to estimate the divergence time of the Persea group. The results showed that the Persea group diverged from its sister clade in the Eocene, and that the endemic and common species of Hainan Island and mainland Asia originated relatively late during the Miocene–Pleistocene. Species of the Persea group on Hainan may have arrived from mainland Asia via dispersal or originated via dispersal–isolation–divergence during the Miocene and Pleistocene. The results favor the dispersal hypothesis for the origin of the flora of Hainan Island and negate the vicariance hypothesis. Full article
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14 pages, 2419 KiB  
Article
Estimating Carbon Sink Strength of Norway Spruce Forests Using Machine Learning
Forests 2022, 13(10), 1721; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13101721 - 19 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1996
Abstract
Forests sequester atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) which is important for climate mitigation. Net ecosystem production (NEP) varies significantly across forests in different regions depending on the dominant tree species, stand age, and environmental factors. Therefore, it is important to evaluate forest [...] Read more.
Forests sequester atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) which is important for climate mitigation. Net ecosystem production (NEP) varies significantly across forests in different regions depending on the dominant tree species, stand age, and environmental factors. Therefore, it is important to evaluate forest NEP and its potential changes under climate change in different regions to inform forestry policy making. Norway spruce (Picea abies) is the most prevalent species in conifer forests throughout Europe. Here, we focused on Norway spruce forests and used eddy covariance-based observations of CO2 fluxes and other variables from eight sites to build a XGBoost machine learning model for NEP estimation. The NEP values from the study sites varied between −296 (source) and 1253 (sink) g C m−2 yr−1. Overall, among the tested variables, air temperature was the most important factor driving NEP variations, followed by global radiation and stand age, while precipitation had a very limited contribution to the model. The model was used to predict the NEP of mature Norway spruce forests in different regions within Europe. The NEP median value was 494 g C m−2 yr−1 across the study areas, with higher NEP values, up to >800 g C m−2 yr−1, in lower latitude regions. Under the “middle-of-the-road” SSP2-4.5 scenario, the NEP values tended to be greater in almost all the studied regions by 2060 with the estimated median of NEP changes in 2041–2060 to be +45 g C m−2 yr−1. Our results indicate that Norway spruce forests show high productivity in a wide area of Europe with potentially future NEP enhancement. However, due to the limitations of the data, the potential decrease in NEP induced by temperature increases beyond the photosynthesis optima and frequent ecosystem disturbances (e.g., drought, bark beetle infestation, etc.) still needs to be evaluated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Forest Inventory, Modeling and Remote Sensing)
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14 pages, 2173 KiB  
Article
Biodiagnostics of Resistance to the Copper (Cu) Pollution of Forest Soils at the Dry and Humid Subtropics in the Greater Caucasus Region
Forests 2022, 13(10), 1720; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13101720 - 18 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1169
Abstract
Forest ecosystems perform important forestry and ecological functions. However, mining and processing companies cause significant soil contamination by heavy metals, in particular, copper (Cu). The resistance of nine types and subtypes of forest soils of the dry and humid subtropics in the Greater [...] Read more.
Forest ecosystems perform important forestry and ecological functions. However, mining and processing companies cause significant soil contamination by heavy metals, in particular, copper (Cu). The resistance of nine types and subtypes of forest soils of the dry and humid subtropics in the Greater Caucasus region to Cu contamination at concentrations of 100, 1000, and 10,000 mg/kg was evaluated for the first time following the most sensitive and informative biological (microbiological, biochemical, and phytotoxic) indicators via a laboratory simulation study. Contamination was simulated under laboratory conditions. The series of forest soils was established following their resistance to Cu pollution: brown leached soils (Haplic Cambisols Eutric) = brown typical soils (Haplic Cambisols Eutric) > brown carbonate soils (Haplic Cambisols Eutric) = sod-carbonate typical soils (Rendzic Leptosols Eutric) ≥ yellow soils (Albic Luvisols Abruptic) ≥ leached sod-carbonate soils (Rendzic Leptosols Eutric) > brown forest slightly unsaturated soils (Haplic Cambisols Eutric) > acid brown forest soils (Haplic Cambisols Eutric) > acid brown forest podzolized soils (Haplic Cambisols Eutric). Regional environmentally safe standards for the Cu content in forest soils of the dry and humid subtropics of the Greater Caucasus were proposed: for brown typical soils, brown leached soils, brown carbonate soils, brown forest slightly unsaturated soils, sod-carbonate typical soils, leached sod-carbonate soils, and yellow soils, the rMPC was 100 mg/kg; for acid brown forest soils and acid brown forest podzolized soils, the rMPC was 70 mg/kg. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pollution, Heavy Metal, and Emerging Threats in Forest Soil)
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19 pages, 11564 KiB  
Article
Investigation of Recognition and Classification of Forest Fires Based on Fusion Color and Textural Features of Images
Forests 2022, 13(10), 1719; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13101719 - 18 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1460
Abstract
An image recognition and classification method based on fusion color and textural features was studied. Firstly, the suspected forest fire region was segmented via the fusion RGB-YCbCr color spaces. Then, 10 kinds of textural features were extracted by a local binary pattern (LBP) [...] Read more.
An image recognition and classification method based on fusion color and textural features was studied. Firstly, the suspected forest fire region was segmented via the fusion RGB-YCbCr color spaces. Then, 10 kinds of textural features were extracted by a local binary pattern (LBP) algorithm and 4 kinds of textural features were extracted by a gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) algorithm from the suspected fire region. In terms of its application, a database of the forest fire textural feature vector of three scenes was constructed, including forest images without fire, forest images with fire, and forest images with fire-like interference. The existence of forest fires can be recognized based on the database via a support vector machine (SVM). The results showed that the method’s recognition rate for forest fires reached 93.15% and that it had a strong robustness with respect to distinguishing fire-like interference, which provides a more effective scheme for forest fire recognition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Hazards and Risk Management)
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13 pages, 4005 KiB  
Article
Chloroplast Microsatellite-Based High-Resolution Melting Analysis for Authentication and Discrimination of Ilex Species
Forests 2022, 13(10), 1718; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13101718 - 18 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1464
Abstract
Ilex species are important sources of high-quality raw plant materials for the production of drugs and functional foods. The precise identification of different species within the Ilex genus would greatly facilitate authentication and certification as well as forest resource monitoring in plantations. Combining [...] Read more.
Ilex species are important sources of high-quality raw plant materials for the production of drugs and functional foods. The precise identification of different species within the Ilex genus would greatly facilitate authentication and certification as well as forest resource monitoring in plantations. Combining DNA barcoding with high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis represents a robust strategy for species discrimination, as demonstrated in recent DNA barcoding studies. Here, using concatenated and aligned complete chloroplast genomes of different Ilex species, we conducted a sliding window analysis to identify regions of high nucleotide diversity (Pi). We optimized and validated the utility of PCR-based HRM coupled with microsatellite markers to discriminate among the four Ilex species, Ilex integra Thunb., Ilex rotunda Thunb., Ilex cornuta Lindl. and Paxton, and Ilex x wandoensis C.F. Mill and M. Kim, from wild populations in southwestern Korea. The marker trnSUGA-psbZ produced clear melting patterns and distinct melting curve profiles for the four Ilex species using HRM analysis. We applied this protocol to commercially available Ilex accessions and consistently identified the correct species for all 15 accessions tested. Therefore, combining DNA barcoding with HRM analysis is a powerful method for identifying different species within the same genus, which could be used for quality control of raw materials in the functional food/medicinal plant industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Genetics and Molecular Biology)
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12 pages, 6357 KiB  
Article
Fire Path Fighting in Forest Off-Road Using Improved ACA—An Example of The Northern Primitive Forest Region of The Great Xing’an Range in Inner Mongolia, China
Forests 2022, 13(10), 1717; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13101717 - 18 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1050
Abstract
In order to deal with the threat of forest fire to the original forest resources, improve the efficiency of firefighting, and better protect the forest ecological resources in the original forest area. In this paper, the ant colony algorithm is used as the [...] Read more.
In order to deal with the threat of forest fire to the original forest resources, improve the efficiency of firefighting, and better protect the forest ecological resources in the original forest area. In this paper, the ant colony algorithm is used as the search algorithm for the firefighting path, and the Qiqian Forestry Bureau in the northern primitive forest region of the Great Xing‘an Range in Inner Mongolia is taken as the research object to select road entry points with different linear distances from the fire poin. By adjusting the pheromone volatility coefficient, the improved ant colony algorithm can better deal with the off-road firefighting path planning in forest environment. The simulation results show that using the road entry point with linear distance of 24.5 km as the starting point for the path planning of off-road firefighting in the northern the Great Xing‘an Range can effectively shorten the path and minimize the loss caused by forest fire. At the same time, it verifies the effectiveness and rationality of the path planning of the improved ant colony algorithm under such environmental conditions. The optimization scheme meets the needs of forest fire fighting in the original forest area, and can play a guiding role in design of the forest fire path planning in the original forest area in the northern Great Xing‘an Range of Inner Mongolia and a reference for fire path planning in other forest areas in China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Hazards and Risk Management)
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20 pages, 14599 KiB  
Article
Mapping and Monitoring Forest Plantations in São Paulo State, Southeast Brazil, Using Fraction Images Derived from Multiannual Landsat Sensor Images
Forests 2022, 13(10), 1716; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13101716 - 18 Oct 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1403
Abstract
This article presents a method, based on orbital remote sensing, to map the extent of forest plantations in São Paulo State (Southeast Brazil). The proposed method uses the random forest machine learning algorithm available on the Google Earth Engine (GEE) cloud computing platform. [...] Read more.
This article presents a method, based on orbital remote sensing, to map the extent of forest plantations in São Paulo State (Southeast Brazil). The proposed method uses the random forest machine learning algorithm available on the Google Earth Engine (GEE) cloud computing platform. We used 30 m annual mosaics derived from Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) images and from Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) images for the 1985 to 1995 and 2013 to 2021 time periods, respectively. These time periods were selected based on the planted areas’ rotation, especially the eucalypt’s short rotation. To classify the forest plantations, green, red, NIR, and MIR spectral bands, NDVI, GNDVI, NDWI, and NBR spectral indices, and vegetation, shade, and soil fractions were used for both sensors. These indices and the fraction images have the advantage of reducing the volume of data to be analyzed and highlighting the forest plantations’ characteristics. In addition, we also generated one mosaic for each fraction image for the TM and OLI datasets by computing the maximum value through the period analyzed, facilitating the classification of areas occupied by forest plantations in the study area. The proposed method allowed us to classify the areas occupied by two forest plantation classes: eucalypt and pine. The results of the proposed method compared with the forest plantation areas extracted from the land use and land cover maps, provided by the MapBiomas product, presented the Kappa values of 0.54 and 0.69 for 1995 and 2020, respectively. In addition, two pilot areas were used to evaluate the classification maps and to monitor the phenological stages of eucalypt and pine plantations, showing the rotation cycle of these plantations. The results are very useful for planning and managing planted forests by commercial companies and can contribute to developing an automatic method to map forest plantations on regional and global scales. Full article
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27 pages, 3585 KiB  
Review
Floristic Legacies of Historical Land Use in Swedish Boreo-Nemoral Forests: A Review of Evidence and a Case Study on Chimaphila umbellata and Moneses uniflora
Forests 2022, 13(10), 1715; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13101715 - 18 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1228
Abstract
Many forests throughout the world contain legacies of former human impacts and management. This study reviews evidence of floristic legacies in the understory of Swedish boreo-nemoral forests, and presents a case study on two currently declining forest plants, suggested to have been favored [...] Read more.
Many forests throughout the world contain legacies of former human impacts and management. This study reviews evidence of floristic legacies in the understory of Swedish boreo-nemoral forests, and presents a case study on two currently declining forest plants, suggested to have been favored by historical use of forests. The review provides evidence of forest remnant populations of 34 grassland species. Thus, many floristic legacies have their main occurrence in semi-natural grasslands, but maintain remnant populations in forests, in some cases more than 100 years after grazing and mowing management have ceased. Despite less information on true forest understory plants appearing as legacies of historical human use of boreo-nemoral forests, a putative guild of such species is suggested. The case study on two species, Chimaphila umbellata and Moneses uniflora (Pyroleae, Ericaceae) suggests that both species are currently declining, mainly due to modern forestry and ceased livestock grazing in forests. Chimaphila maintains remnant populations during decades, due to its extensive clonal capacity and its long-lived ramets. Moneses is more sensitive, due to a lower stature, weaker clonal capacity and short-lived ramets, flowering only once during their lifetime. Thus, Moneses have more transient occurrences, and will decline rapidly under deteriorating conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Forest Biodiversity)
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16 pages, 3295 KiB  
Article
Bibliometric Analysis of the Green Gluing Technique (2000–2020): Trends and Perspectives
Forests 2022, 13(10), 1714; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13101714 - 18 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1546
Abstract
Wood is a sustainable and renewable material with a lower carbon footprint than other materials. However, its transformation into engineered products industrially, such as glulam, requires kiln drying, which implies energy consumption and loss of wood resources. Recent research has carried out green [...] Read more.
Wood is a sustainable and renewable material with a lower carbon footprint than other materials. However, its transformation into engineered products industrially, such as glulam, requires kiln drying, which implies energy consumption and loss of wood resources. Recent research has carried out green gluing, a variant of glulam characterized by a reduction of the drying process. Interest in it has increased as a new method of improving the use of wood that does not meet industry standards. It has been accomplished by developing adhesives for wood with high moisture content, but the variables involved are not yet completely understood. Therefore, conducting further research and analyzing the relevant publications is necessary. Bibliometric analysis was the method used, which included documents stored (from 2000 to 2020) in Scopus (Elsevier), Web of Science (Clarivate Analytics), and SciELO Citation Index (Web of Science—Clarivate Analytics) databases. The bibliometric analysis identified three main areas to develop: glue wood, glue properties, and analysis methods. The studies were concentrated on a few countries and research groups. The main progress has been made in synthetic and natural (or environmentally friendly) glue topics. The improvement of technique could enlarge the opportunities for collaboration and innovation in wood material science. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Wood Science and Forest Products)
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16 pages, 1416 KiB  
Review
Soil Environment and Fauna Communities in Europe after Afforestation of Post-Agricultural Lands—A Review
Forests 2022, 13(10), 1713; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13101713 - 18 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1530
Abstract
Afforestation can make an important contribution mitigating the effects of changing climate and provide structural and functional benefits. Afforestation also provides challenges for forest managers connected with past land-use history; therefore, there is an urgent need to summarize knowledge about such habitats and [...] Read more.
Afforestation can make an important contribution mitigating the effects of changing climate and provide structural and functional benefits. Afforestation also provides challenges for forest managers connected with past land-use history; therefore, there is an urgent need to summarize knowledge about such habitats and point out the gaps in knowledge for planning future studies. Although post-agricultural forests cover a large forest area in Europe, our understanding of the mechanisms governing the below-ground environment is still poor, especially when soil fauna is considered. In this study, we revised knowledge about the soil environment and the response of soil fauna to afforestation on former agricultural lands located in Europe based on research articles from the ISI Web of Science database. Data came from various but distinct locations, compared forests with different types of agricultural lands, and presented previous knowledge about soil chemistry and accompanying soil fauna communities. Finally, we selected 15 studies, investigating soil fauna communities on post-agricultural lands. The meta-analysis was based on response ratio (R) for available data, although in many cases the data were incomplete. Results indicated that post-agricultural forests differ from arable lands in reference to soil pH, but not for soil organic matter and carbon content. Different soil animal groups were represented by a similar number of studies: microfauna (seven studies) and mesofauna (nine), whereas macrofauna were represented by five studies. Meta-analysis revealed that the response of soil fauna to afforestation differed between soil fauna size classes. Additionally, in total, 18 tree species, 12 soil types, and 20 soil parameters were provided in the literature but only a few of them were presented in a single study. Future studies should include the impact of microclimate, detailed stand characteristics and soil conditions, which could help to clearly describe the impact of certain tree species growing on certain soil types. In future soil fauna ecological studies, the data should include mean values, standard deviation (SD) and/or standard effort of means (SE) for abundance, species richness, diversity indices and number of collected samples. Providing the above mentioned information will give the broad audience the opportunity to include data in future comparative analyses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mite Communities in Forest Ecosystems: Role, Ecology and Diversity)
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