Next Issue
Volume 17, February-1
Previous Issue
Volume 17, January-1
 
 
materials-logo

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Materials, Volume 17, Issue 2 (January-2 2024) – 263 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Graphene field-effect transistor-based ultrasensitive biosensors are promising applications that leverage the exceptional physical properties of graphene. However, several challenges remain for its practical application. In this review, we introduce these challenges and solutions to them. The Debye screening issue can be solved by using small molecule receptors or their deformations, or by using enzymatic reaction products from detection targets. Problems such as contaminants in the measurement sample and the complexity of the detection mechanism make it difficult to interpret the biosensor response. They can be solved by suppressing nonspecific adsorption or by limiting the molecular species that reach the graphene surface. These solutions will make this attractive biosensor practical in the near future. View this paper
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Reader to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
11 pages, 4015 KiB  
Article
NiCoCrFeY High Entropy Alloy Nanopowders and Their Soft Magnetic Properties
by Donghan Jiang, Zhifen Yuan, Zhenghou Zhu and Mengke Yao
Materials 2024, 17(2), 534; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17020534 - 22 Jan 2024
Viewed by 773
Abstract
High entropy alloy nanopowders were successfully prepared by liquid-phase reduction methods and their applications were preliminarily discussed. The prepared high entropy alloy nanopowders consisted of FeNi alloy spherical powders and NiFeCoCrY alloy spherical powders with a particle size of about 100 nm. The [...] Read more.
High entropy alloy nanopowders were successfully prepared by liquid-phase reduction methods and their applications were preliminarily discussed. The prepared high entropy alloy nanopowders consisted of FeNi alloy spherical powders and NiFeCoCrY alloy spherical powders with a particle size of about 100 nm. The powders have soft magnetic properties, the saturation magnetization field strength were up to 5000 Qe and the saturation magnetization strength Ms was about 17.3 emu/g. The powders have the excellent property of low high-frequency loss in the frequency range of 0.3–8.5 GHz. When the thickness of the powders coating was 5 mm, the powders showed excellent absorption performance in the Ku band; and when the thickness of the powders coating was 10 mm; the powders showed good wave-absorbing performance in the X band. The powders have good moulding, and the powders have large specific surface area, so that the magnetic powder core composites could be prepared under low pressure and without coating insulators, and the magnetic powder cores showed excellent frequency-constant magnetization and magnetic field-constant magnetization characteristics. In the frequency range of 1~100 KHz; the μm of the magnetic powder core heat-treated at 800 °C reached 359, the μe was about 4.6 and the change rate of μe with frequency was less than 1%, meanwhile; the magnetic powder core still maintains constant μe value under the action of the external magnetic field from 0 to 12,000 A/m. The high entropy alloy nanopowders have a broad application prospect in soft magnetic composites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Metals and Alloys)
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 6835 KiB  
Article
Load Deflection Characteristics of Orthodontic Gummetal® Wires in Comparison with Nickel–Titanium Wires: An In Vitro Study
by Hisham Sabbagh, Mila Janjic Rankovic, Daniel Martin, Matthias Mertmann, Linus Hötzel and Andrea Wichelhaus
Materials 2024, 17(2), 533; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17020533 - 22 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 869
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the load deflection characteristics of Gummetal® wires in comparison to nickel–titanium (NiTi) wires. Four different NiTi wires and one Gummetal® archwire were analyzed in two dimensions (0.014″ (0.36 mm) and 0.016″ × 0.022″ [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to investigate the load deflection characteristics of Gummetal® wires in comparison to nickel–titanium (NiTi) wires. Four different NiTi wires and one Gummetal® archwire were analyzed in two dimensions (0.014″ (0.36 mm) and 0.016″ × 0.022″ (0.41 mm × 0.56 mm)) and in two different orientations (edgewise and ribbonwise) using three-point bending tests at T = 37 °C. Force–displacement curves were recorded and analyzed. The Gummetal® 0.014″ wires exhibited higher forces compared to the NiTi wires at 2.0 mm deflection. At 1.0 mm deflection, the opposite pattern was observed. For the 0.016″ × 0.022″ Gummetal® wires, the forces were within the force interval of the NiTi wires at 2.0 mm deflection. At a deflection of 1.0 mm, no residual force was measurable for the Gummetal® wires. All the NiTi wires investigated showed hysteresis and a superelastic plateau. However, the Gummetal® did not form a plateau, but hysteresis was present. An easier plastic deformability compared to the NiTi wires was observed for all the tested geometries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biomaterials)
Show Figures

Figure 1

24 pages, 7378 KiB  
Article
The Slump Flow of Cementitious Pastes: Simulation vs. Experiments
by Mareike Thiedeitz, Thomas Kränkel, Deniz Kartal and Jithender J. Timothy
Materials 2024, 17(2), 532; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17020532 - 22 Jan 2024
Viewed by 773
Abstract
Understanding the transient properties of cementitious pastes is crucial for construction materials engineering. Computational modeling, particularly through Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), offers a promising avenue to enhance our understanding of these properties. However, there are several numerical uncertainties that affect the accuracy of [...] Read more.
Understanding the transient properties of cementitious pastes is crucial for construction materials engineering. Computational modeling, particularly through Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), offers a promising avenue to enhance our understanding of these properties. However, there are several numerical uncertainties that affect the accuracy of the simulations using CFD. This study focuses on evaluating the accuracy of CFD simulations in replicating slump flow tests for cementitious pastes by determining the impact of the numerical setup on the simulation accuracy and evaluates the transient, viscosity-dependent flows for different viscous pastes. Rheological input parameters were sourced from rheometric tests and Herschel–Bulkley regression of flow curves. We assessed spatial and temporal convergence and compared two regularization methods for the rheological model. Our findings reveal that temporal and spatial refinements significantly affected the final test results. Adjustments in simulation setups effectively reduced computational errors to less than four percent compared to experimental outcomes. The Papanastasiou regularization was found to be more accurate than the bi-viscosity model. Employing a slice geometry, rather than a full three-dimensional cone mesh, led to accurate results with decreased computational costs. The analysis of transient flow properties revealed the effect of the paste viscosity on the time- and shear-dependent flow progress. The study provides an enhanced understanding of transient flow patterns in cementitious pastes and presents a refined CFD model for simulating slump flow tests. These advancements contribute to improving the accuracy and efficiency of computational analyses in the field of cement and concrete flow, offering a benchmark for prospective analysis of transient flow cases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Computational Materials Sciences)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 7595 KiB  
Article
Oxidation Behavior of FeNiCoCrMo0.5Al1.3 High-Entropy Alloy Powder
by Anton Semikolenov, Mikhail Goshkoderya, Tigran Uglunts, Tatyana Larionova and Oleg Tolochko
Materials 2024, 17(2), 531; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17020531 - 22 Jan 2024
Viewed by 712
Abstract
One of the most promising applications of FeNiCoCrMoAl-based high-entropy alloy is the fabrication of protective coatings. In this work, gas-atomized powder of FeNiCoCrMo0.5Al1.3 composition was deposited via high-velocity oxygen fuel spraying. It was shown that in-flight oxidation of the powder [...] Read more.
One of the most promising applications of FeNiCoCrMoAl-based high-entropy alloy is the fabrication of protective coatings. In this work, gas-atomized powder of FeNiCoCrMo0.5Al1.3 composition was deposited via high-velocity oxygen fuel spraying. It was shown that in-flight oxidation of the powder influences the coating’s phase composition and properties. Powder oxidation and phase transformations were studied under HVOF deposition, and during continuous heating and prolonged isothermal annealing at 800 °C. Optical and scanning electron microscopy observation, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray diffraction analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, differential thermal analysis, and microhardness tests were used for study. In a gas-atomized state, the powder consisted of BCC supersaturated solid solution. The high rate of heating and cooling and high oxygen concentration during spraying led to oxidation development prior to decomposition of the supersaturated solid solution. Depleted Al layers of BCC transferred to the FCC phase. An increase in the spraying distance resulted in an increase in α-Al2O3 content; however, higher oxide content does not result in a higher microhardness. In contrast, under annealing, the supersaturated BCC solid solution decomposition occurs earlier than pronounced oxidation, which leads to considerable strengthening to 910 HV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Forming and Serving Performance of Advanced Alloys)
Show Figures

Figure 1

23 pages, 10006 KiB  
Article
Numerical Simulation of Fluid Flow, Solidification, and Solute Distribution in Billets under Combined Mold and Final Electromagnetic Stirring
by Zhenhua Feng, Guifang Zhang, Pengchao Li and Peng Yan
Materials 2024, 17(2), 530; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17020530 - 22 Jan 2024
Viewed by 676
Abstract
In this study, a three-dimensional segmented coupled model for continuous casting billets under combined mold and final electromagnetic stirring (M-EMS, F-EMS) was developed. The model was verified by comparing carbon segregation in billets with and without EMS through plant experiments. The findings revealed [...] Read more.
In this study, a three-dimensional segmented coupled model for continuous casting billets under combined mold and final electromagnetic stirring (M-EMS, F-EMS) was developed. The model was verified by comparing carbon segregation in billets with and without EMS through plant experiments. The findings revealed that both M-EMS and F-EMS induce tangential flow in molten steel, impacting solidification and solute distribution processes within the billet. For M-EMS, with operating parameters of 250A-2Hz, the maximum tangential velocity (velocity projected onto the cross-section) was observed at the liquid phase’s edge. For F-EMS, with operating parameters of 250A-6Hz, the maximum tangential velocity occurred at fl=0.7. Furthermore, F-EMS accelerated heat transfer in the liquid phase, reducing the central liquid fraction from 0.93 to 0.85. M-EMS intensified the washing effect of molten steel on the solidification front, resulting in the formation of negative segregation within the mold. F-EMS significantly improved the centerline segregation issue, reducing carbon segregation from 1.15 to 1.02. Experimental and simulation results, with and without EMS, were in good agreement, indicating that M+F-EMS leads to a more uniform solute distribution within the billet, with a pronounced improvement in centerline segregation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Stainless Steel—from Making, Shaping, Treating to Products)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 6108 KiB  
Communication
Improving Mechanical Properties of Co-Cr-Fe-Ni High Entropy Alloy via C and Mo Microalloying
by Yukun Lv, Yangyang Guo, Jie Zhang, Yutian Lei, Pingtao Song and Jian Chen
Materials 2024, 17(2), 529; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17020529 - 22 Jan 2024
Viewed by 776
Abstract
The as-cast [Co40Cr25(FeNi)35−yMoy]100−xCx (x = 0, 0.5, y = 3, 4, 5 at.%) HEAs (high-entropy alloys) were prepared by a vacuum arc melting furnace and were then hot rolled. The effect of [...] Read more.
The as-cast [Co40Cr25(FeNi)35−yMoy]100−xCx (x = 0, 0.5, y = 3, 4, 5 at.%) HEAs (high-entropy alloys) were prepared by a vacuum arc melting furnace and were then hot rolled. The effect of C and Mo elements on the microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of HEAs was systematically analyzed. The results showed that when no C atoms were added, the HEAs consisted of FCC + HCP dual-phase structure. In addition, as the Mo content increased, the grain size of the alloy increased from 17 μm to 47 μm. However, only the FCC phase appeared after adding 0.5 at.% carbon in Mo microalloyed HEAs, and the grain size of the Mo4C0.5 HEA decreased significantly. Due to the Mo atom content exceeding the solid solution limit, the carbides of Mo combined with the C element appeared in the Mo5C0.5 HEA. The strength of C and Mo microalloyed HEAs significantly increased compared to HEAs with no C added. However, the Mo4C0.5 HEA exhibited excellent comprehensive mechanical properties, which was superior to a majority of reported HEAs and conventional metal alloys. Its yield strength, tensile strength, and elongation were 757 MPa, 1186 MPa, and 69%, respectively. The strengthening mechanism was a combination of fine grain strengthening, TWIP effect, and solid solution strengthening. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

37 pages, 6911 KiB  
Review
Secondary Ion Mass Spectral Imaging of Metals and Alloys
by Yanjie Shen, Logan Howard and Xiao-Ying Yu
Materials 2024, 17(2), 528; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17020528 - 22 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1439
Abstract
Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) is an outstanding technique for Mass Spectral Imaging (MSI) due to its notable advantages, including high sensitivity, selectivity, and high dynamic range. As a result, SIMS has been employed across many domains of science. In this review, we [...] Read more.
Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) is an outstanding technique for Mass Spectral Imaging (MSI) due to its notable advantages, including high sensitivity, selectivity, and high dynamic range. As a result, SIMS has been employed across many domains of science. In this review, we provide an in-depth overview of the fundamental principles underlying SIMS, followed by an account of the recent development of SIMS instruments. The review encompasses various applications of specific SIMS instruments, notably static SIMS with time-of-flight SIMS (ToF-SIMS) as a widely used platform and dynamic SIMS with Nano SIMS and large geometry SIMS as successful instruments. We particularly focus on SIMS utility in microanalysis and imaging of metals and alloys as materials of interest. Additionally, we discuss the challenges in big SIMS data analysis and give examples of machine leaning (ML) and Artificial Intelligence (AI) for effective MSI data analysis. Finally, we recommend the outlook of SIMS development. It is anticipated that in situ and operando SIMS has the potential to significantly enhance the investigation of metals and alloys by enabling real-time examinations of material surfaces and interfaces during dynamic transformations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mass Spectrometry in Materials Science)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 14829 KiB  
Article
Plasmonic Nanocomposites of ZnO-Ag Produced by Laser Ablation and Their Photocatalytic Destruction of Rhodamine, Tetracycline and Phenol
by Elena D. Fakhrutdinova, Anastasia V. Volokitina, Sergei A. Kulinich, Daria A. Goncharova, Tamara S. Kharlamova and Valery A. Svetlichnyi
Materials 2024, 17(2), 527; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17020527 - 22 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 775
Abstract
Hydrosphere pollution by organic pollutants of different nature (persistent dyes, phenols, herbicides, antibiotics, etc.) is one of the urgent ecological problems facing humankind these days. The task of water purification from such pollutants can be effectively solved with the help of modern photocatalytic [...] Read more.
Hydrosphere pollution by organic pollutants of different nature (persistent dyes, phenols, herbicides, antibiotics, etc.) is one of the urgent ecological problems facing humankind these days. The task of water purification from such pollutants can be effectively solved with the help of modern photocatalytic technologies. This article is devoted to the study of photocatalytic properties of composite catalysts based on ZnO modified with plasmonic Ag nanoparticles. All materials were obtained by laser synthesis in liquid and differed by their silver content and preparation conditions, such as additional laser irradiation and/or annealing of produced powders. The prepared ZnO-Ag powders were investigated by electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Photocatalytic tests were carried out with well- known test molecules in water (persistent dye rhodamine B, phenol and common antibiotic tetracycline) using LED light sources with wavelengths of 375 and 410 nm. The introduction of small concentrations (up to 1%) of plasmonic Ag nanoparticles is shown to increase the efficiency of the ZnO photocatalyst by expanding its spectral range. Both the preparation conditions and material composition were optimized to obtain composite photocatalysts with the highest efficiency. Finally, the operation mechanisms of the material with different distribution of silver are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Obtaining and Characterization of New Materials, Volume IV)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 9595 KiB  
Article
Synthesis and Characterization of Cellulose Microfibril-Reinforced Polyvinyl Alcohol Biodegradable Composites
by Fatemeh Mahdiyeh Boroujeni, Gabriella Fioravanti and Ronald Kander
Materials 2024, 17(2), 526; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17020526 - 22 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 867
Abstract
The pursuit of an environmentally sustainable manufacturing process requires the substitution of less damaging and recyclable solutions for harmful reagents. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of using cellulose microfibrils synthesized via different hydrolysis reactions as reinforcing agents in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) [...] Read more.
The pursuit of an environmentally sustainable manufacturing process requires the substitution of less damaging and recyclable solutions for harmful reagents. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of using cellulose microfibrils synthesized via different hydrolysis reactions as reinforcing agents in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) at varying concentrations. The investigation explores the morphology, thermal properties, and chemical behavior of the cellulose particles. The cellulose microfibrils (CMFs) produced using citric acid exhibited the highest yield and aspect ratio. Notably, particles from organic acids demonstrated greater thermal stability, with oxalic acid-derived particles displaying the maximum thermal degradation temperature. Subsequently, cast films of PVA reinforced with the cellulose microfibrils underwent comprehensive analyses, including Fourier transfer infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermal degradation temperature (Td), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and tensile strength tests. The thermal behavior of cast films experienced notable changes with the addition of cellulose particles, evidenced by increased melting and crystallinity temperatures, along with a rise in the degree of crystallinity. The incorporation of cellulose particles led to a substantial improvement in mechanical properties. Films containing CMF displayed higher Young’s modulus, and the sample incorporating 5% CMF derived from citric acid exhibited the most significant increase in modulus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Lignocellulosic Materials)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 6168 KiB  
Article
An Experimental and Numerical Study on the Influence of Helices of Screw Piles Positions on Their Bearing Capacity in Sandy Soils
by Stanislav Simonenko, José Antonio Loya and Marcos Rodriguez-Millan
Materials 2024, 17(2), 525; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17020525 - 22 Jan 2024
Viewed by 706
Abstract
Helical piles became a popular foundation technique, and as a result of environmental restrictions, they have become increasingly widely used. However, due to the high cost of experimentation, the influence of the number of helices and their positions on the pile-bearing capacity has [...] Read more.
Helical piles became a popular foundation technique, and as a result of environmental restrictions, they have become increasingly widely used. However, due to the high cost of experimentation, the influence of the number of helices and their positions on the pile-bearing capacity has not been sufficiently studied. The present study performed compression and lateral load tests on helical piles of the same diameter but with one, two, and three round helices in known sandy soil. The results from the experiments are compared with those from numerical simulations that use the mesh-free RBF method and the Winkler–Fuss approach to model how the pile and ground interact. The results are generalized to suggest an engineering equation that can predict the best pile configuration in sandy soil. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Numerical Modeling and Dynamic Analysis of Composite Materials)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 4080 KiB  
Article
Enhancing Epoxy Composite Performance with Carbon Nanofillers: A Solution for Moisture Resistance and Extended Durability in Wind Turbine Blade Structures
by Angelos Ntaflos, Georgios Foteinidis, Theodora Liangou, Elias Bilalis, Konstantinos Anyfantis, Nicholas Tsouvalis, Thomais Tyriakidi, Kosmas Tyriakidis, Nikolaos Tyriakidis and Alkiviadis S. Paipetis
Materials 2024, 17(2), 524; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17020524 - 22 Jan 2024
Viewed by 717
Abstract
The increasing prominence of glass-fibre-reinforced plastics (GFRPs) in the wind energy industry, due to their exceptional combination of strength, low weight, and resistance to corrosion, makes them an ideal candidate for enhancing the performance and durability of wind turbine blades. The unique properties [...] Read more.
The increasing prominence of glass-fibre-reinforced plastics (GFRPs) in the wind energy industry, due to their exceptional combination of strength, low weight, and resistance to corrosion, makes them an ideal candidate for enhancing the performance and durability of wind turbine blades. The unique properties of GFRPs not only contribute to reduced energy costs through improved aerodynamic efficiency but also extend the operational lifespan of wind turbines. By modifying the epoxy resin with carbon nanofillers, an even higher degree of performance can be achieved. In this work, graphene nanoplatelet (GNP)-enhanced GFRPs are produced through industrial methods (filament winding) and coupons are extracted and tested for their mechanical performance after harsh environmental aging in high temperature and moisture. GNPs enhance the in-plane shear strength of GFRP by 200%, while reducing their water uptake by as much as 40%. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 14777 KiB  
Article
Effect of Multidirectional Forging and Aging Treatment on Wear Properties of ZK61 Alloy
by Xuhui Zhang, Jian Xu, Wenyu He and Jingjing Jia
Materials 2024, 17(2), 523; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17020523 - 22 Jan 2024
Viewed by 677
Abstract
This study investigated the effects of multidirectional forging (MDF) and aging treatments on the wear properties of ZK61 magnesium alloy. Dry sliding wear tests were performed on homogenized, MDF, and aged samples using a friction wear machine to analyze the surface morphology by [...] Read more.
This study investigated the effects of multidirectional forging (MDF) and aging treatments on the wear properties of ZK61 magnesium alloy. Dry sliding wear tests were performed on homogenized, MDF, and aged samples using a friction wear machine to analyze the surface morphology by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and white light interferometry, as well as the hardness and tensile mechanical properties. The ZK61 magnesium alloy has higher sliding wear properties after MDF due to higher strength, hardness, and work hardening. Grain refinement affects the wear resistance of the material, but aging increases the hardness and tensile strength and decreases the wear resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Metals and Alloys)
Show Figures

Figure 1

31 pages, 11861 KiB  
Article
Effect of 3D-Printed Honeycomb Core on Compressive Property of Hybrid Energy Absorbers: Experimental Testing and Optimization Analysis
by Rita de Cássia Silva, Gabriel Martins de Castro, Alessandro Borges de Sousa Oliveira and Augusto César de Mendonça Brasil
Materials 2024, 17(2), 522; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17020522 - 22 Jan 2024
Viewed by 858
Abstract
This paper presents an innovative method of constructing energy absorbers, whose primary function is to effectively transform kinetic energy into strain energy in events with high deformation rates. Hybrid specimens are proposed considering thin-walled windowed metallic tubes filled with 3D-printed hexagonal honeycombs made [...] Read more.
This paper presents an innovative method of constructing energy absorbers, whose primary function is to effectively transform kinetic energy into strain energy in events with high deformation rates. Hybrid specimens are proposed considering thin-walled windowed metallic tubes filled with 3D-printed hexagonal honeycombs made of PET-G and ABS thermoplastic. The patterned windows dimensions vary from 20 × 20, 20 × 30, 15 × 20 and 15 × 30 mm2. Although using polymers in engineering and thin-walled sections is not new, their combination has not been explored in this type of structure designed to withstand impacts. Specimens resist out-of-plane quasi-static axial loading, and test results are analyzed, demonstrating that polymer core gives the samples better performance parameters than unfilled samples regarding energy absorption (Ea), load rate (LR), and structural effectiveness (η). An optimization procedure using specialized software was applied to evaluate experimental results, which led to identifying the optimal window geometry (16.4 × 20 mm2, in case) and polymer to be used (ABS). The optimized sample was constructed and tested for axial compression to validate the optimization outcomes. The results reveal that the optimal sample performed similarly to the estimated parameters, making this geometry the best choice under the test conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Thin-Walled Structures and Composite Structures)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 4592 KiB  
Article
Differential Etching of Rays at Wood Surfaces Exposed to an Oxygen Glow Discharge Plasma
by Kenneth J. Cheng, Weicong Ma and Philip D. Evans
Materials 2024, 17(2), 521; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17020521 - 22 Jan 2024
Viewed by 769
Abstract
Basswood samples were exposed to oxygen glow-discharge plasmas for 30 min, and etching of radial and tangential longitudinal surfaces was measured. It was hypothesized that there would be a positive correlation between etching and plasma energy, and differential etching of wood surfaces because [...] Read more.
Basswood samples were exposed to oxygen glow-discharge plasmas for 30 min, and etching of radial and tangential longitudinal surfaces was measured. It was hypothesized that there would be a positive correlation between etching and plasma energy, and differential etching of wood surfaces because of variation in the microstructure and chemical composition of different woody tissues. Etching at the surface of basswood samples was examined using profilometry. Light and scanning electron microscopy were used to examine the microstructure of samples exposed to plasma. There was a large effect of plasma energy on etching of basswood surfaces, and radial surfaces were etched to a greater extent than tangential surfaces. However, rays at radial surfaces were more resistant to etching than fibers, resulting in greater variation in the etching of radial versus tangential surfaces. The same phenomenon occurred at radial surfaces of balsa wood, jelutong and New Zealand white pine subjected to plasma etching. The possible reasons for the greater resistance of rays to plasma etching are explored, and it is suggested that such differential etching of wood surfaces may impose a limitation on the use of plasma to precisely etch functional patterns at wood surfaces (raised pillars, grooves), as has been done with other materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Modification and Applications of Wood Materials)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 5397 KiB  
Article
New Water-Soluble (Iminomethyl)benzenesulfonates Derived from Biogenic Amines for Potential Biological Applications
by Anna Kmieciak, Marek P. Krzemiński, Anastasiia Hodii, Damian Gorczyca and Aneta Jastrzębska
Materials 2024, 17(2), 520; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17020520 - 22 Jan 2024
Viewed by 728
Abstract
In this paper, a highly efficient and straightforward method for synthesizing novel Schiff bases was developed by reacting selected biogenic amines with sodium 2-formylbenzene sulfonate and sodium 3-formylbenzene sulfonate. 1H and 13C NMR, IR spectroscopy, and high-resolution mass spectrometry were used [...] Read more.
In this paper, a highly efficient and straightforward method for synthesizing novel Schiff bases was developed by reacting selected biogenic amines with sodium 2-formylbenzene sulfonate and sodium 3-formylbenzene sulfonate. 1H and 13C NMR, IR spectroscopy, and high-resolution mass spectrometry were used to characterize the new compounds. The main advantages of the proposed procedure include simple reagents and reactions carried out in water or methanol and at room temperature, which reduces time and energy. Moreover, it was shown that the obtained water-soluble Schiff bases are stable in aqueous solution for at least seven days. Additionally, the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of synthesized Schiff bases were tested. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 2282 KiB  
Article
Structural and Photoelectronic Properties of κ-Ga2O3 Thin Films Grown on Polycrystalline Diamond Substrates
by Marco Girolami, Matteo Bosi, Sara Pettinato, Claudio Ferrari, Riccardo Lolli, Luca Seravalli, Valerio Serpente, Matteo Mastellone, Daniele M. Trucchi and Roberto Fornari
Materials 2024, 17(2), 519; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17020519 - 22 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 901
Abstract
Orthorhombic κ-Ga2O3 thin films were grown for the first time on polycrystalline diamond free-standing substrates by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy at a temperature of 650 °C. Structural, morphological, electrical, and photoelectronic properties of the obtained heterostructures were evaluated by optical [...] Read more.
Orthorhombic κ-Ga2O3 thin films were grown for the first time on polycrystalline diamond free-standing substrates by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy at a temperature of 650 °C. Structural, morphological, electrical, and photoelectronic properties of the obtained heterostructures were evaluated by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, current-voltage measurements, and spectral photoconductivity, respectively. Results show that a very slow cooling, performed at low pressure (100 mbar) under a controlled He flow soon after the growth process, is mandatory to improve the quality of the κ-Ga2O3 epitaxial thin film, ensuring a good adhesion to the diamond substrate, an optimal morphology, and a lower density of electrically active defects. This paves the way for the future development of novel hybrid architectures for UV and ionizing radiation detection, exploiting the unique features of gallium oxide and diamond as wide-bandgap semiconductors. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 68559 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Multi-Step Tempering and Partition Heat Treatment on 25Cr2Ni3MoV Steel’s Cryogenic Strength Properties
by Ye Chen, Ran Chen, Yanchen Yao, Na Min, Wei Li and Anna Diao
Materials 2024, 17(2), 518; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17020518 - 21 Jan 2024
Viewed by 893
Abstract
In this study, the refinement of two microstructures was controlled in medium carbon 25Cr2Ni3MoV steel via multi-step tempering and partition (MTP) to achieve high cryogenic strength–ductility combinations. Microstructure evolution, the distribution of stress concentration, and microcrack formation and propagation during cryogenic Charpy impact [...] Read more.
In this study, the refinement of two microstructures was controlled in medium carbon 25Cr2Ni3MoV steel via multi-step tempering and partition (MTP) to achieve high cryogenic strength–ductility combinations. Microstructure evolution, the distribution of stress concentration, and microcrack formation and propagation during cryogenic Charpy impact testing were investigated. Compared with their performance in the quenching and tempering states (QT), the MTP steels showed a significant improvement in yield strength (1300 MPa), total elongation (25%), and impact toughness (>25 J) at liquid nitrogen temperature (LNT). The strengthening contributions mainly originated from the high dislocation density and refinement cementite (size: 70 nm) in the martensite lath (width: 1.5 μm) introduced by refined reversed austenite and its latter decomposition. The instrumented Charpy impact results indicated that cracks nucleated in the primary austenite grain (PAG) boundary for two steels due to the strain concentration band preferring to appear near PAGs, while cracks in the QT and MTP samples propagated along the PAGs and high-angle grain boundary (HAGB), respectively. The crystallized plasticity finite element simulation revealed that the PAG boundary with cementite precipitates of large size (>200 nm) was less able to dissipate crack propagation energy than the HAGBs by continuously forming a high strain concentration area, thus leading to the low-impact toughness of the QT steel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Steel Design: Casting, Forming and Heat Treatment)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 3392 KiB  
Article
Process Parameters of High Frequency Welding
by Dubravko Rogale, Snježana Firšt Rogale, Željko Knezić, Siniša Fajt, Daniel Časar Veličan and Nikolina Jukl
Materials 2024, 17(2), 517; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17020517 - 21 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1028
Abstract
High frequency (HF) welding of polymer materials is increasingly used in modern manufacturing processes. The literature on HF welding process parameters was reviewed and it was found that 3–5 basic welding parameters were considered, which is insufficient for the scientific study of HF [...] Read more.
High frequency (HF) welding of polymer materials is increasingly used in modern manufacturing processes. The literature on HF welding process parameters was reviewed and it was found that 3–5 basic welding parameters were considered, which is insufficient for the scientific study of HF welding of polymeric materials. This article presents the mathematical expressions for the evaluation combining 17 influential parameters. For the first time, the specific and latent heat of the welded polymer material were used. The breaking forces of welds made by RF welding are investigated by varying the anode current, the coupling capacitor, and the exposure time of the HF electromagnetic fields. It was found that the amount of HF energy supplied depends on the breaking forces of the weld. A characteristic inflection point was also observed in the graph of the dependence of the breaking forces on the percentage of the coupling capacitor and the anode current. During elongation, it was observed that the weld is separated by peeling before the inflection point and breaks after the inflection point by tearing at the extruded edges of the weld. If the HF energy is applied to the weld for too long, there will be excessive melting of the material in the weld, thinning of the weld, unfavourable appearance of the extruded edges and electrical breakdown, and a drastic drop in the breaking force. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 16178 KiB  
Article
Preparation, Characterization, and Lubrication Performances of Water-Based Nanolubricant for Micro Rolling Strips
by Yuchuan Zhu, Hongmei Zhang, Na Li and Zhengyi Jiang
Materials 2024, 17(2), 516; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17020516 - 21 Jan 2024
Viewed by 698
Abstract
Water-based nanolubricants are widely used in rolling processes due to their unique characteristics. As a common additive, nanoparticles could significantly improve the tribological properties of the lubricant. However, the effect of the physical properties of the particles on the anti-friction behavior is unclear. [...] Read more.
Water-based nanolubricants are widely used in rolling processes due to their unique characteristics. As a common additive, nanoparticles could significantly improve the tribological properties of the lubricant. However, the effect of the physical properties of the particles on the anti-friction behavior is unclear. In this study, the effect of Fe3O4 nanoparticles as an additive for the prepared lubricant is studied. The tribological properties of Fe3O4 water-based nanolubricant are examined using a tribometer and a scratch meter. The absorption energy is calculated using the molecular dynamic simulation method, and the best parameters for the preparation of the nanolubricant are obtained. The developed nanolubricant is used in the rolling process. The results show that the processing quality of samples is promoted and the tribological properties of water-based lubricant can be significantly promoted by an Fe3O4 nanoparticle additive. An economical and environmentally friendly method is presented through which the water-based Fe3O4 nanolubricant can be prepared for the replacement of oil-based lubricant in cold rolling strips. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 31171 KiB  
Article
Influence of Chemical Composition on Structure and Mechanical Properties of Vacuum-Carburized Low-Alloy Steels
by Paweł Kochmański, Renata Chylińska, Paweł Figiel, Sebastian Fryska, Agnieszka E. Kochmańska, Magdalena Kwiatkowska, Konrad Kwiatkowski, Agata Niemczyk, Justyna Słowik, Wojciech Maziarz, Łukasz Rogal, Konrad Dybowski and Jolanta Baranowska
Materials 2024, 17(2), 515; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17020515 - 21 Jan 2024
Viewed by 827
Abstract
This study presents research results concerning the vacuum carburizing of four steel grades, specifically conforming to European standards 1.7243, 1.6587, 1.5920, and 1.3532. The experimental specimens exhibited variations primarily in nickel content, ranging from 0 to approximately 3.8 wt. %. As a comparative [...] Read more.
This study presents research results concerning the vacuum carburizing of four steel grades, specifically conforming to European standards 1.7243, 1.6587, 1.5920, and 1.3532. The experimental specimens exhibited variations primarily in nickel content, ranging from 0 to approximately 3.8 wt. %. As a comparative reference, gas carburizing was also conducted on the 1.3532 grade, which had the highest nickel content. Comprehensive structural analysis was carried out on the resultant carburized layers using a variety of techniques, such as optical and electron scanning, transmission microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Additionally, mechanical properties such as hardness and fatigue strength were assessed. Fatigue strength evaluation was performed on un-notched samples having a circular cross-section with a diameter of 12 mm. Testing was executed via a three-point bending setup subjected to sinusoidally varying stresses ranging from 0 to maximum stress levels. The carburized layers produced had effective thicknesses from approximately 0.8 to 1.4 mm, surface hardness levels in the range of 600 to 700 HV, and estimated retained austenite contents from 10 to 20 vol%. The observed fatigue strength values for the layers varied within the range from 1000 to 1350 MPa. It was found that changing the processing method from gas carburizing, which induced internal oxidation phenomena, to vacuum carburizing improved the fatigue properties to a greater extent than increasing the nickel content of the steel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Metals and Alloys)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 2101 KiB  
Article
Predicted and Experimental Bending Behaviour of Glulam Bonded by RPF Adhesive
by Tomáš Kytka, Miroslav Gašparík, Lukáš Sahula, David Novák, Elham Karami, Sumanta Das and Martin Sviták
Materials 2024, 17(2), 514; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17020514 - 21 Jan 2024
Viewed by 709
Abstract
In this study, alder, spruce, and beech woods were used for homogeneous symmetric, inhomogeneous symmetric (combined) and inhomogeneous non-symmetric glued laminated timber (glulam) beams glued with resorcinol phenol formaldehyde (RPF) adhesive. The aim of this paper is to determine and compare the modulus [...] Read more.
In this study, alder, spruce, and beech woods were used for homogeneous symmetric, inhomogeneous symmetric (combined) and inhomogeneous non-symmetric glued laminated timber (glulam) beams glued with resorcinol phenol formaldehyde (RPF) adhesive. The aim of this paper is to determine and compare the modulus of elasticity of glulam beams using three methods, i.e., analytical calculation, numerical model (FEM) and experimental testing. As an additional characteristic, the bending strength (MOR) of the beams was determined during experimental testing. Analytical calculation was used to calculate the modulus of elasticity (MOE) of glued laminated timber based on the knowledge of the modulus of elasticity of solid wood and to estimate the location of the neutral axis during bending. According to calculations, for symmetrical combinations, the deviation from the real neutral axis does not exceed 5%. In the case of the modulus of elasticity, the deviation is an average of 4.1% from that of the actual measured beams. The numerical model includes finite element modelling, where the deflection of the modelled beams can be calculated with a deviation of up to 10%. The last method was experimental testing of glued beams using four-point bending, in which, among homogeneous beams, beech glulam beams achieved the highest MOE and MOR, while alder glulam beams achieved the lowest. The combination of wood species resulted in an increase in both MOE and MOR compared to homogeneous spruce and alder beams. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 6201 KiB  
Article
Mechanism Analysis for the Enhancement of Low-Temperature Impact Toughness of Nodular Cast Iron by Heat Treatment
by Huanyu Zhuang, Jiahui Shen, Minhua Yu, Xulong An and Jing Hu
Materials 2024, 17(2), 513; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17020513 - 21 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 966
Abstract
The low-temperature impact toughness of nodular cast iron can be significantly enhanced by heat treatment, and thus meet the severe service requirements in the fields of high-speed rail and power generation, etc. In order to explore the enhancement mechanism, microstructure, hardness, composition and [...] Read more.
The low-temperature impact toughness of nodular cast iron can be significantly enhanced by heat treatment, and thus meet the severe service requirements in the fields of high-speed rail and power generation, etc. In order to explore the enhancement mechanism, microstructure, hardness, composition and other characteristics of as-cast and heat-treated nodular cast iron is systematically tested and compared by optical microscopy, microhardness tester, EBSD, SEM, electron probe, and impact toughness testing machine in this study. The results show that heat treatment has little effect on the morphology and size of graphite in nodular cast iron, ignores the effect on the grain size, morphology, and distribution of ferritic matrix, and has little effect on the hardness and exchange of elements, while it is meaningful to find that heat treatment brings about significant decrease in high-angle grain boundaries (HAGB) between 59° and 60°, decreasing from 10% to 3%. Therefore, the significant enhancement of low-temperature impact toughness of nodular cast iron by heat treatment may result from the obvious decrease in HAGB between 59° and 60°, instead of other reasons. From this perspective, the study can provide novel ideas for optimizing the heat treatment process of nodular cast iron. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

23 pages, 10508 KiB  
Article
On the Susceptibility of Reinforced Concrete Beam and Rigid-Frame Bridges Subjected to Spatially Varying Mining-Induced Seismic Excitation
by Paweł Boroń, Izabela Drygała, Joanna Maria Dulińska and Szymon Burdak
Materials 2024, 17(2), 512; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17020512 - 21 Jan 2024
Viewed by 644
Abstract
This paper aims to identify the optimal reinforced concrete bridge construction for regions at risk of mining-induced seismic shocks. This study compares the performances of two common bridge types made of the same structural tissue, i.e., a reinforced concrete beam bridge and rigid-frame [...] Read more.
This paper aims to identify the optimal reinforced concrete bridge construction for regions at risk of mining-induced seismic shocks. This study compares the performances of two common bridge types made of the same structural tissue, i.e., a reinforced concrete beam bridge and rigid-frame bridge under real mining-induced tremors using uniform and spatially varying ground motion models. This study investigates the dynamic responses of the bridges depending on wave velocity and assesses their susceptibility to mining-triggered tremors based on the contribution of quasi-static and dynamic effects in the global dynamic responses of the bridges. This study revealed significant changes in dynamic response under spatially varying ground excitation for both bridge types. It was observed that rigid-frame bridges show higher susceptibility to quasi-static effects due to their stiffness, whereas beam bridges are more susceptible to dynamic stresses. This study recommends that in regions with mining tremors, the choice between bridge types should consider the possibility of limiting individual components of stress. A solution may involve the reduction in quasi-static components through structural reinforcement or decreasing dynamic components by using vibration absorbers. It was found that beam bridges are more cost-effective and practical in mining-affected areas, especially when founded on weak grounds. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 5459 KiB  
Article
Preparation of Sol–Gel-Derived CaO-B2O3-SiO2 Glass/Al2O3 Composites with High Flexural Strength and Low Dielectric Constant for LTCC Application
by Yiqun Ni, Shanshan Li, Bo Hou, Weizhuang Zhuo and Weijia Wen
Materials 2024, 17(2), 511; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17020511 - 21 Jan 2024
Viewed by 889
Abstract
Low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) substrate materials are widely applied in electronic components due to their excellent microwave dielectric properties. However, the absence of LTCC materials with a lower dielectric constant and higher mechanical strength restricts the creation of integrated and minified electronic devices. [...] Read more.
Low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) substrate materials are widely applied in electronic components due to their excellent microwave dielectric properties. However, the absence of LTCC materials with a lower dielectric constant and higher mechanical strength restricts the creation of integrated and minified electronic devices. In this work, sol–gel-derived CaO-B2O3-SiO2 (CBS) glass/Al2O3 composites with high flexural strength and low dielectric constant were successfully prepared using the LTCC technique. Among the composites sintered at different temperatures, the composites sintered at 870 °C for 2 hours possess a dielectric constant of 6.3 (10 GHz), a dielectric loss of 0.2%, a flexural strength of 245 MPa, and a CTE of 5.3 × 10−6 K−1, demonstrating its great potential for applications in the electronic package field. By analyzing the CBS glass’ physical characteristics, it was found that the sol–gel-derived glass has an extremely low dielectric constant of 3.6 and does not crystallize or react with Al2O3 at the sintering temperature, which is conducive to improving the flexural strength and reducing the dielectric constant of CBS glass/Al2O3 composites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Dielectric Ceramics (2nd Edition))
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 3261 KiB  
Article
Deep-Learning-Based Segmentation of Keyhole in In-Situ X-ray Imaging of Laser Powder Bed Fusion
by William Dong, Jason Lian, Chengpo Yan, Yiran Zhong, Sumanth Karnati, Qilin Guo, Lianyi Chen and Dane Morgan
Materials 2024, 17(2), 510; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17020510 - 21 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 861
Abstract
In laser powder bed fusion processes, keyholes are the gaseous cavities formed where laser interacts with metal, and their morphologies play an important role in defect formation and the final product quality. The in-situ X-ray imaging technique can monitor the keyhole dynamics from [...] Read more.
In laser powder bed fusion processes, keyholes are the gaseous cavities formed where laser interacts with metal, and their morphologies play an important role in defect formation and the final product quality. The in-situ X-ray imaging technique can monitor the keyhole dynamics from the side and capture keyhole shapes in the X-ray image stream. Keyhole shapes in X-ray images are then often labeled by humans for analysis, which increasingly involves attempting to correlate keyhole shapes with defects using machine learning. However, such labeling is tedious, time-consuming, error-prone, and cannot be scaled to large data sets. To use keyhole shapes more readily as the input to machine learning methods, an automatic tool to identify keyhole regions is desirable. In this paper, a deep-learning-based computer vision tool that can automatically segment keyhole shapes out of X-ray images is presented. The pipeline contains a filtering method and an implementation of the BASNet deep learning model to semantically segment the keyhole morphologies out of X-ray images. The presented tool shows promising average accuracy of 91.24% for keyhole area, and 92.81% for boundary shape, for a range of test dataset conditions in Al6061 (and one AliSi10Mg) alloys, with 300 training images/labels and 100 testing images for each trial. Prospective users may apply the presently trained tool or a retrained version following the approach used here to automatically label keyhole shapes in large image sets. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 8409 KiB  
Article
Study on Magnetic and Plasmonic Properties of Fe3O4-PEI-Au and Fe3O4-PEI-Ag Nanoparticles
by Shuya Ning, Shuo Wang, Zhihui Liu, Naming Zhang, Bin Yang and Fanghui Zhang
Materials 2024, 17(2), 509; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17020509 - 21 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1106
Abstract
Magnetic–plasmonic nanoparticles (NPs) have attracted great interest in many fields because they can exhibit more physical and chemical properties than individual magnetic or plasmonic NPs. In this work, we synthesized Au- or Ag-decorated Fe3O4 nanoparticles coated with PEI (Fe3 [...] Read more.
Magnetic–plasmonic nanoparticles (NPs) have attracted great interest in many fields because they can exhibit more physical and chemical properties than individual magnetic or plasmonic NPs. In this work, we synthesized Au- or Ag-decorated Fe3O4 nanoparticles coated with PEI (Fe3O4-PEI-M (M = Au or Ag) NPs) using a simple method. The influences of the plasmonic metal NPs’ (Au or Ag) coating density on the magnetic and plasmonic properties of the Fe3O4-PEI-M (M = Au or Ag) NPs were investigated, and the density of the plasmonic metal NPs coated on the Fe3O4 NPs surfaces could be adjusted by controlling the polyethyleneimine (PEI) concentration. It showed that the Fe3O4-PEI-M (M = Au or Ag) NPs exhibited both magnetic and plasmonic properties. When the PEI concentration increased from 5 to 35 mg/mL, the coating density of the Au or Ag NPs on the Fe3O4 NPs surfaces increased, the corresponding magnetic intensity became weaker, and the plasmonic intensity was stronger. At the same time, the plasmonic resonance peak of the Fe3O4-PEI-M (M = Au or Ag) NPs was red shifted. Therefore, there was an optimal coverage of the plasmonic metal NPs on the Fe3O4 NPs surfaces to balance the magnetic and plasmonic properties when the PEI concentration was between 15 and 25 mg/mL. This result can guide the application of the Fe3O4-M (M = Au or Ag) NPs in the biomedical field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preparation and Characterization of Functional Composite Materials)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 12421 KiB  
Article
A Superhydrophobic Surface on a Superalloy Substrate with Properties of High Mechanical Strength and Self-Cleaning of Carbon Deposition
by Bingzhen Zhang, Yang Chen and Jinlong Song
Materials 2024, 17(2), 508; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17020508 - 20 Jan 2024
Viewed by 806
Abstract
Laser processing is an efficient method for fabricating a superhydrophobic surface and has attracted much attention due to its multifunctionality. However, excessive laser processing, such as laser beam overlap and multiple scans, generates both a thick, brittle recast layer and a thin material [...] Read more.
Laser processing is an efficient method for fabricating a superhydrophobic surface and has attracted much attention due to its multifunctionality. However, excessive laser processing, such as laser beam overlap and multiple scans, generates both a thick, brittle recast layer and a thin material thickness, thereby greatly reducing the mechanical strength of the substrate. In addition, there is no report on fabricating a superhydrophobic surface on a superalloy substrate whose application includes a self-cleaning property. This work proposes the fabrication of a superhydrophobic surface on a superalloy substrate with high mechanical strength by optimizing the laser processing parameters including laser power, scanning speed, line spacing, and number of scans. We found that the microstructures required by superhydrophobicity could be constructed with a single laser scan. which could guarantee a minimal loss of the mechanical strength. The fabricated superhydrophobic surface on the superalloy substrate exhibited excellent self-cleaning of carbon deposition, showing good application potential in the aero engine field. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

27 pages, 10599 KiB  
Review
Review on Soil Corrosion and Protection of Grounding Grids
by Jing Zhao, Xian Meng, Xiao Ren, Shengfang Li, Fuhao Zhang, Xiaofang Yang, Junyao Xu and Yuan Yuan
Materials 2024, 17(2), 507; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17020507 - 20 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1165
Abstract
The corrosion of grounding grid materials in soil is a prominent factor in power and electrical equipment failure. This paper aims to delve into the corrosion characteristics of grounding grid materials and the corresponding methods of safeguarding against this phenomenon. Firstly, the influencing [...] Read more.
The corrosion of grounding grid materials in soil is a prominent factor in power and electrical equipment failure. This paper aims to delve into the corrosion characteristics of grounding grid materials and the corresponding methods of safeguarding against this phenomenon. Firstly, the influencing factors of the soil environment on the corrosion of the grounding grid are introduced, including soil physicochemical properties, microorganisms, and stray currents. Then, the corrosion behavior and durability of common grounding grid materials such as copper, carbon steel, and galvanized steel are discussed in detail and compared comprehensively. In addition, commonly used protective measures in China and outside China, including anti-corrosion coatings, electrochemical protection, and other technologies are introduced. Finally, it summarizes the current research progress and potential future directions of this field of study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Forming and Serving Performance of Advanced Alloys)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 10595 KiB  
Article
Specific Heat Capacity of Solar Salt-Based Nanofluids: Molecular Dynamics Simulation and Experiment
by Fahim Mahtab Abir and Donghyun Shin
Materials 2024, 17(2), 506; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17020506 - 20 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1043
Abstract
In this study, a nanofluid composed of molten solar salt (MSS) and 1.0% SiO2 nanoparticles by mass was created and analyzed using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to determine its specific heat capacity (SHC). The SHC of the nanofluid was found to be [...] Read more.
In this study, a nanofluid composed of molten solar salt (MSS) and 1.0% SiO2 nanoparticles by mass was created and analyzed using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to determine its specific heat capacity (SHC). The SHC of the nanofluid was found to be significantly higher than that of pure MSS. The average increase in SHC of the nanofluid with 1.0% SiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) loading was found to be 15.65% compared with pure MSS. The formation of nanostructures after doping with NPs may increase the SHC of molten salt (MS) nanofluids, according to certain published research that included experimental confirmation. Nevertheless, no thorough theoretical or computational studies have been conducted to verify the experimental findings related to MSS nanofluid. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were conducted in various simulation boxes for different cases to verify the experimental findings and investigate the mechanism behind the enhancement of SHC caused by the addition of SiO2 NPs in eutectic MSS. The simulations used pure MSS and mixtures containing NaNO3 nanostructures bonded with SiO2 NPs. The highest SHC increase of 25.03% was observed when the simulation box contained 13.71% NaNO3 nanostructures by weight. The incorporation of NaNO3 nanostructures increased the surface area and total surface energy, leading to a positive effect on the SHC of the MSS nanofluid. However, the decrease in the base molten salt’s SHC had a slight negative impact on the overall SHC of the MS nanofluid. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 6649 KiB  
Article
Flexible Transparent Electrode Based on Ag Nanowires: Ag Nanoparticles Co-Doped System for Organic Light-Emitting Diodes
by Ziye Wu, Xiaolin Xing, Yingying Sun, Yunlong Liu, Yongqiang Wang, Shuhong Li and Wenjun Wang
Materials 2024, 17(2), 505; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17020505 - 20 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 950
Abstract
Flexible organic light-emitting diodes (FOLEDs) have promising potential for future wearable applications because of their exceptional mechanical flexibility. Silver nanowire (Ag NW) networks are the most promising candidates to replace indium tin oxide (ITO), which is limited by its poor bendability. In this [...] Read more.
Flexible organic light-emitting diodes (FOLEDs) have promising potential for future wearable applications because of their exceptional mechanical flexibility. Silver nanowire (Ag NW) networks are the most promising candidates to replace indium tin oxide (ITO), which is limited by its poor bendability. In this study, three different methods including methanol impregnation, argon plasma treatment, and ultraviolet radiation were used to reduce the junction resistance of Ag NWs to optimize the flexible transparent electrodes (FTEs); which were prepared using Ag NWs and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT: PSS). Then, the optoelectronic properties of the FTEs were further improved by using a co-doped system of silver nanowires and silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs), the structure of which consisted of PET/Ag NWs: Ag NPs/PEDOT: PSS/DMSO. The largest FOM value of 1.42 × 10−2 ohm−1 and a low sheet resistance value of 13.86 ohm/sq were obtained using the optimized FTEs. The prepared FOLED based on the optimized FTEs had a luminous efficiency of 6.04 cd/A and a maximum EQE of 1.92%, and exhibited no observed decline in efficiency when reaching maximum luminance. After 500 bending tests, the luminance still reached 82% of the original value. It is demonstrated that the FTEs prepared via the co-doped system have excellent optoelectronic properties as well as high mechanical stability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Electronic Materials)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Back to TopTop