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Experimental Testing, Manufacturing and Numerical Modelling of Composite and Sandwich Structures

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Advanced Composites".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 April 2024) | Viewed by 18048

Special Issue Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Composite materials can be used in a wide range of applications, including aerospace, automotive, construction, sports equipment, and electronics. These materials have a high strength-to-weight ratio, excellent fatigue and corrosion resistance, and low thermal expansion. They can also be tailored to specific applications by varying the type, size, and orientation of the reinforcement material, as well as the type of matrix material used. However, there are issues to be solved, including high production costs, difficulty in repairing damage, susceptibility to delamination and other types of damage, and characterization/modelling difficulties. Recent research has focused on issues such as advanced manufacturing techniques (including 3D printing and digital manufacturing), nanocomposites (to improve higher strength and stiffness, or thermal and electrical conductivity), sustainable composites (using renewable or recycled materials), multifunctional composites (taking advantage of shape memory alloys, piezoelectric materials, and carbon nanotubes), bioinspired composites (spider silk, seashells, and bone, and their unique properties’ replication in synthetic materials), and numerical modelling (new approaches to simulate the complex behaviour). Composite sandwich structures are widely used in various industries such as aerospace, automotive, marine, and construction due to their high strength-to-weight ratio, stiffness, and durability. Recent research topics include material selection, advanced and automated manufacturing processes, improved design with cellular and honeycomb core structures, dynamic behaviour (impact, blast, and vibration), and multi-functional properties (using phase change materials as core materials). To advance the state-of-the-art and disseminate the recent advances in all composite-related matters, this Special Issue intends to collate a significant number of contributions in this area through high-quality original or review works, subsequently promoting the Issue’s dissemination through the open access system.

Dr. Raul D. S. G. Campilho
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • advanced composite materials and structures
  • fibre-reinforced composite
  • polymer composite
  • metallic composite
  • innovative composite material applications
  • aerospace composites
  • nanocomposites
  • smart composites
  • sustainable composites
  • multifunctional composites
  • bioinspired composites
  • composite characterization
  • composite testing
  • composite mechanical behaviour
  • composite fabrication
  • advanced manufacturing techniques
  • sandwich structures
  • sandwich skin
  • sandwich core
  • sandwich failure mechanisms
  • experimental and numerical modelling
  • manufacturing simulation
  • numerical simulation
  • finite element analysis
  • constitutive relationships
  • damage onset and propagation
  • damage and failure
  • impact in composites

Related Special Issue

Published Papers (18 papers)

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Research

17 pages, 11330 KiB  
Article
Fracture Behavior of a Unidirectional Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Plastic under Biaxial Tensile Loads
by Kosuke Sanai, Sho Nakasaki, Mikiyasu Hashimoto, Arnaud Macadre and Koichi Goda
Materials 2024, 17(6), 1387; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17061387 - 18 Mar 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 557
Abstract
In order to clarify the fracture behavior of a unidirectional CFRP under proportional loading along the fiber (0°) and fiber vertical (90°) directions, a biaxial tensile test was carried out using a cruciform specimen with two symmetric flat indentations in the thickness direction. [...] Read more.
In order to clarify the fracture behavior of a unidirectional CFRP under proportional loading along the fiber (0°) and fiber vertical (90°) directions, a biaxial tensile test was carried out using a cruciform specimen with two symmetric flat indentations in the thickness direction. Three fracture modes were observed in the specimens after the test. The first mode was a transverse crack (TC), and the second was fiber breakage (FB). The third mode was a mixture mode of TC and FB (TC&FB). According to the measured fracture strains, regardless of the magnitude of the normal strain in the 0° direction, TC and TC&FB modes occurred when the normal strain in the 90° direction, εy, ranged from 0.08% to 1.26% (positive values), and the FB mode occurred when εy ranged from −0.19% to −0.79% (negative values). The TC&FB mode is a unique mode that does not appear as a failure mode under uniaxial tension; it only occurs under biaxial tensile loading. Biaxial tensile tests were also conducted under non-proportional loading. The result showed three fracture modes similarly to the proportional loading case, each of which was also determined by the positive or negative value of εy. Thus, this study reveals that the occurrence of each fracture mode in a unidirectional CFRP is characterized by only one parameter, namely εy. Full article
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22 pages, 2943 KiB  
Article
Biocomposite Materials Derived from Andropogon halepensis: Eco-Design and Biophysical Evaluation
by Marcela-Elisabeta Barbinta-Patrascu, Cornelia Nichita, Bogdan Bita and Stefan Antohe
Materials 2024, 17(5), 1225; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17051225 - 6 Mar 2024
Viewed by 743
Abstract
This research work presents a “green” strategy of weed valorization for developing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with promising interesting applications. Two types of AgNPs were phyto-synthesized using an aqueous leaf extract of the weed Andropogon halepensis L. Phyto-manufacturing of AgNPs was achieved by two [...] Read more.
This research work presents a “green” strategy of weed valorization for developing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with promising interesting applications. Two types of AgNPs were phyto-synthesized using an aqueous leaf extract of the weed Andropogon halepensis L. Phyto-manufacturing of AgNPs was achieved by two bio-reactions, in which the volume ratio of (phyto-extract)/(silver salt solution) was varied. The size and physical stability of Andropogon—AgNPs were evaluated by means of DLS and zeta potential measurements, respectively. The phyto-developed nanoparticles presented good free radicals-scavenging properties (investigated via a chemiluminescence technique) and also urease inhibitory activity (evaluated using the conductometric method). Andropogon—AgNPs could be promising candidates for various bio-applications, such as acting as an antioxidant coating for the development of multifunctional materials. Thus, the Andropogon-derived samples were used to treat spider silk from the spider Pholcus phalangioides, and then, the obtained “green” materials were characterized by spectral (UV-Vis absorption, FTIR ATR, and EDX) and morphological (SEM) analyses. These results could be exploited to design novel bioactive materials with applications in the biomedical field. Full article
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17 pages, 5448 KiB  
Article
Mechanics of Pure Bending and Eccentric Buckling in High-Strain Composite Structures
by Jimesh D. Bhagatji, Oleksandr G. Kravchenko and Sharanabasaweshwara Asundi
Materials 2024, 17(4), 796; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17040796 - 7 Feb 2024
Viewed by 737
Abstract
To maximize the capabilities of nano- and micro-class satellites, which are limited by their size, weight, and power, advancements in deployable mechanisms with a high deployable surface area to packaging volume ratio are necessary. Without progress in understanding the mechanics of high-strain materials [...] Read more.
To maximize the capabilities of nano- and micro-class satellites, which are limited by their size, weight, and power, advancements in deployable mechanisms with a high deployable surface area to packaging volume ratio are necessary. Without progress in understanding the mechanics of high-strain materials and structures, the development of compact deployable mechanisms for this class of satellites would be difficult. This paper presents fabrication, experimental testing, and progressive failure modeling to study the deformation of an ultra-thin composite beam. The research study examines the deformation modes of a post-deployed boom under repetitive pure bending loads using a four-point bending setup and bending collapse failure under eccentric buckling. The material and fabrication challenges for ultra-thin, high-stiffness (UTHS) composite boom are discussed in detail. The continuum damage mechanics (CDM) model for the beam is calibrated using experimental coupon testing and was used for a finite element explicit analysis of the boom. It is shown that UTHS can sustain a bending radius of 14 mm without significant fiber and matrix damage. The finite element model accurately predicts the localized transverse fiber damage under eccentric buckling and buckling stiffness of 15.6 N/mm. The results of the bending simulation were found to closely match the experimental results, indicating that the simulation accurately shows deformation stages and predicts damage to the material. The findings of this research provide a better understanding of the structure characteristics with the progressive damage model of the UTHS boom, which can be used for designing a complex deployable payload for nano-micro-class satellites. Full article
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17 pages, 4433 KiB  
Article
Enhancing Sustainability and Antifungal Properties of Biodegradable Composites: Caffeine-Treated Wood as a Filler for Polylactide
by Aleksandra Grząbka-Zasadzińska, Magdalena Woźniak, Agata Kaszubowska-Rzepka, Marlena Baranowska, Anna Sip, Izabela Ratajczak and Sławomir Borysiak
Materials 2024, 17(3), 698; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17030698 - 1 Feb 2024
Viewed by 659
Abstract
This study investigates the suitability of using caffeine-treated and untreated black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) wood as a polylactide filler. Composites containing 10%, 20%, and 30% filler were investigated in terms of increasing the nucleating ability of polylactide, as well as enhancing [...] Read more.
This study investigates the suitability of using caffeine-treated and untreated black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) wood as a polylactide filler. Composites containing 10%, 20%, and 30% filler were investigated in terms of increasing the nucleating ability of polylactide, as well as enhancing its resistance to microorganisms. Differential scanning calorimetry studies showed that the addition of caffeine-treated wood significantly altered the crystallization behavior of the polymer matrix, increasing its crystallization temperature and degree of crystallinity. Polarized light microscopic observations revealed that only the caffeine-treated wood induced the formation of transcrystalline structures in the polylactide. Incorporation of the modified filler into the matrix was also responsible for changes in the thermal stability and decreased hydrophilicity of the material. Most importantly, the use of black cherry wood treated with caffeine imparted antifungal properties to the polylactide-based composite, effectively reducing growth of Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium culmorum, Alternaria alternata, and Trichoderma viride. For the first time, it was reported that treatment of wood with a caffeine compound of natural origin alters the supermolecular structure, nucleating abilities, and imparts antifungal properties of polylactide/wood composites, providing promising insights into the structure-properties relationship of such composites. Full article
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19 pages, 9977 KiB  
Article
Unified Failure Criterion Based on Stress and Stress Gradient Conditions
by Young W. Kwon, Emma K. Markoff and Stanley DeFisher
Materials 2024, 17(3), 569; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17030569 - 25 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 526
Abstract
Specimens made of various materials with different geometric features were investigated to predict the failure loads using the recently proposed criterion comprised of both stress and stress gradient conditions. The notch types were cracks and holes, and the materials were brittle, ductile, isotropic, [...] Read more.
Specimens made of various materials with different geometric features were investigated to predict the failure loads using the recently proposed criterion comprised of both stress and stress gradient conditions. The notch types were cracks and holes, and the materials were brittle, ductile, isotropic, orthotropic, or fibrous composites. The predicted failure stresses or loads were compared to experimental results, and both experimental and theoretically predicted results agreed well for all the different cases. This suggests that the stress and stress-gradient-based failure criterion is both versatile and accurate in predicting the failure of various materials and geometric features. Full article
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12 pages, 4080 KiB  
Article
Enhancing Epoxy Composite Performance with Carbon Nanofillers: A Solution for Moisture Resistance and Extended Durability in Wind Turbine Blade Structures
by Angelos Ntaflos, Georgios Foteinidis, Theodora Liangou, Elias Bilalis, Konstantinos Anyfantis, Nicholas Tsouvalis, Thomais Tyriakidi, Kosmas Tyriakidis, Nikolaos Tyriakidis and Alkiviadis S. Paipetis
Materials 2024, 17(2), 524; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17020524 - 22 Jan 2024
Viewed by 704
Abstract
The increasing prominence of glass-fibre-reinforced plastics (GFRPs) in the wind energy industry, due to their exceptional combination of strength, low weight, and resistance to corrosion, makes them an ideal candidate for enhancing the performance and durability of wind turbine blades. The unique properties [...] Read more.
The increasing prominence of glass-fibre-reinforced plastics (GFRPs) in the wind energy industry, due to their exceptional combination of strength, low weight, and resistance to corrosion, makes them an ideal candidate for enhancing the performance and durability of wind turbine blades. The unique properties of GFRPs not only contribute to reduced energy costs through improved aerodynamic efficiency but also extend the operational lifespan of wind turbines. By modifying the epoxy resin with carbon nanofillers, an even higher degree of performance can be achieved. In this work, graphene nanoplatelet (GNP)-enhanced GFRPs are produced through industrial methods (filament winding) and coupons are extracted and tested for their mechanical performance after harsh environmental aging in high temperature and moisture. GNPs enhance the in-plane shear strength of GFRP by 200%, while reducing their water uptake by as much as 40%. Full article
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11 pages, 2381 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of True Bonding Strength for Adhesive Bonded Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Plastics
by Maruri Takamura, Minori Isozaki, Shinichi Takeda, Yutaka Oya and Jun Koyanagi
Materials 2024, 17(2), 394; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17020394 - 12 Jan 2024
Viewed by 601
Abstract
Carbon fiber-reinforced thermoplastics (CFRTPs) have attracted attention in aerospace because of their superior specific strength and stiffness. It can be assembled by adhesive bonding; however, the existing evaluation of bonding strength is inadequate. For example, in a single-lap shear test, the weld zone [...] Read more.
Carbon fiber-reinforced thermoplastics (CFRTPs) have attracted attention in aerospace because of their superior specific strength and stiffness. It can be assembled by adhesive bonding; however, the existing evaluation of bonding strength is inadequate. For example, in a single-lap shear test, the weld zone fails in a combined stress state because of the bending moment. Therefore, the strength obtained experimentally is only the apparent strength. The true bonding strength was obtained via numerical analysis by outputting the local stress state at the initiation point of failure. In this study, the apparent and true bonding strengths were compared with respect to three types of strength evaluation tests to comprehensively evaluate bonding strength. Consequently, the single-lap shear test underestimates the apparent bonding strength by less than 14% of the true bonding strength. This indicates that care should be taken when determining the adhesion properties for use in numerical analyses based on experimental results. We also discussed the thickness dependence of the adhesive on the stress state and found that the developed shear test by compression reduced the discrepancy between apparent and true strength compared with the single-lap shear test and reduced the thickness dependence compared with the flatwise tensile test. Full article
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18 pages, 5231 KiB  
Article
Fatigue Life Prediction for Injection-Molded Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polyamide-6 Considering Anisotropy and Temperature Effects
by Joeun Choi, Yohanes Oscar Andrian, Hyungtak Lee, Hyungyil Lee and Naksoo Kim
Materials 2024, 17(2), 315; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17020315 - 8 Jan 2024
Viewed by 722
Abstract
The effects of anisotropy and temperature of short carbon fiber-reinforced polyamide-6 (CF-PA6) by the injection molding process were investigated to obtain the static and fatigue characteristics. Static and fatigue tests were conducted with uniaxial tensile and three-point bending specimens with various fiber orientations [...] Read more.
The effects of anisotropy and temperature of short carbon fiber-reinforced polyamide-6 (CF-PA6) by the injection molding process were investigated to obtain the static and fatigue characteristics. Static and fatigue tests were conducted with uniaxial tensile and three-point bending specimens with various fiber orientations at temperatures of 40, 60, and 100 °C. The anisotropy caused by the fiber orientations along a polymer flow was calculated using three software connecting analysis sequences. The characteristics of tensile strength and fatigue life can be changed by temperature and anisotropy variations. A semi-empirical strain–stress fatigue life prediction model was proposed, considering cyclic and thermodynamic properties based on the Arrhenius equation. The developed model had a good agreement with an R2 = 0.9457 correlation coefficient. The present fatigue life prediction of CF-PA6 can be adopted when designers make suitable decisions considering the effects of temperature and anisotropy. Full article
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24 pages, 7931 KiB  
Article
Experimental Analysis of the Influence of Carrier Layer Material on the Performance of the Control System of a Cantilever-Type Piezoelectric Actuator
by Dariusz Grzybek
Materials 2024, 17(1), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17010096 - 24 Dec 2023
Viewed by 713
Abstract
The subject of this article is an experimental analysis of the control system of a composite-based piezoelectric actuator and an aluminum-based piezoelectric actuator. Analysis was performed for both the unimorph and bimorph structures. To carry out laboratory research, two piezoelectric actuators with a [...] Read more.
The subject of this article is an experimental analysis of the control system of a composite-based piezoelectric actuator and an aluminum-based piezoelectric actuator. Analysis was performed for both the unimorph and bimorph structures. To carry out laboratory research, two piezoelectric actuators with a cantilever sandwich beam structure were manufactured. In the first beam, the carrier layer was made of glass-reinforced epoxy composite (FR4), and in the second beam, it was made of 1050 aluminum. A linear mathematical model of both actuators was also developed. A modification of the method of selecting weights in the LQR control algorithm for a cantilever-type piezoelectric actuator was proposed. The weights in the R matrix for the actuator containing a carrier layer made of stiffer material should be smaller than those for the actuator containing a carrier layer made of less stiff material. Additionally, regardless of the carrier layer material, in the case of a bimorph, the weight in the R matrix that corresponds to the control voltage of the compressing MFC patch should be smaller than the weight corresponding to the control voltage of the stretching MFC patch. Full article
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13 pages, 4974 KiB  
Article
Strength and Deformation Behavior of Graphene Aerogel of Different Morphologies
by Julia A. Baimova and Stepan A. Shcherbinin
Materials 2023, 16(23), 7388; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16237388 - 27 Nov 2023
Viewed by 839
Abstract
Graphene aerogels are of high interest nowadays since they have ultralow density, rich porosity, high deformability, and good adsorption. In the present work, three different morphologies of graphene aerogels with a honeycomb-like structure are considered. The strength and deformation behavior of these graphene [...] Read more.
Graphene aerogels are of high interest nowadays since they have ultralow density, rich porosity, high deformability, and good adsorption. In the present work, three different morphologies of graphene aerogels with a honeycomb-like structure are considered. The strength and deformation behavior of these graphene honeycomb structures are studied by molecular dynamics simulation. The effect of structural morphology on the stability of graphene aerogel is discussed. It is shown that structural changes significantly depend on the structural morphology and the loading direction. The deformation of the re-entrant honeycomb is similar to the deformation of a conventional honeycomb due to the opening of the honeycomb cells. At the first deformation stage, no stress increase is observed due to the structural transformation. Further, stress concentration on the junctions of the honeycomb structure and over the walls occurs. The addition of carbon nanotubes and graphene flakes into the cells of graphene aerogel does not result in a strength increase. The mechanisms of weakening are analyzed in detail. The obtained results further contribute to the understanding of the microscopic deformation mechanisms of graphene aerogels and their design for various applications. Full article
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19 pages, 12537 KiB  
Article
Manufacturing of Corrosion-Resistant Surface Layers by Coating Non-Alloy Steels with a Polymer-Powder Slurry and Sintering
by Grzegorz Matula and Błażej Tomiczek
Materials 2023, 16(15), 5210; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16155210 - 25 Jul 2023
Viewed by 896
Abstract
This paper describes the combination of surface engineering and powder metallurgy to create a coating with improved corrosion resistance and wear properties. A new method has been developed to manufacture corrosion-resistant surface layers on steel substrate with additional carbide reinforcement by employing a [...] Read more.
This paper describes the combination of surface engineering and powder metallurgy to create a coating with improved corrosion resistance and wear properties. A new method has been developed to manufacture corrosion-resistant surface layers on steel substrate with additional carbide reinforcement by employing a polymer-powder slurry forming and sintering. The proposed technology is an innovative alternative to anti-corrosion coatings applied by galvanic, welding or thermal spraying techniques. Two different stainless-steel powders were used in the research. Austenitic 316 L and 430 L ferritic steel powders were selected for comparison. In addition, to improve resistance to abrasive wear, coatings containing an additional mixture of tetra carbides (WC, TaC, TiC, NbC) were applied. The study investigates the effects of using multicomponent polymeric binders, sintering temperature, and atmosphere in the sintering process, as well as the presence of reinforcing precipitation, microstructure and selected surface layer properties. Various techniques such as SEM, EDS, hardness and tensile tests and corrosion resistance analysis are employed to evaluate the characteristics of the developed materials. It has been proven that residual carbon content and nitrogen atmosphere cause the release of hard precipitations and thus affect the higher mechanical properties of the obtained coatings. The tensile test shows that both steels have higher strength after sintering in a nitrogen-rich atmosphere. Nitrogen contributes over 50% more to the tensile strength than an argon-containing atmosphere. Full article
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15 pages, 5374 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Clearance Angle on Tool Life, Cutting Forces, Surface Roughness, and Delamination during Carbon-Fiber-Reinforced Plastic Milling
by Tomáš Knápek, Štěpánka Dvořáčková and Martin Váňa
Materials 2023, 16(14), 5002; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16145002 - 14 Jul 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1128
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the effect of the clearance angle of the milling tool on wear, cutting forces, machined edge roughness, and delamination during non-contiguous milling of carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) composite panels with a twill weave and 90° fiber orientation. To achieve [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the effect of the clearance angle of the milling tool on wear, cutting forces, machined edge roughness, and delamination during non-contiguous milling of carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) composite panels with a twill weave and 90° fiber orientation. To achieve the objective of the study, it was first necessary to design suitable tools (6 mm diameter sintered carbide shank milling cutters) with a variety of clearance angles (8.4°, 12.4°, and 16.4°) and all the machinery and measuring equipment for the research to be carried out. Furthermore, measurement and evaluation methods for cutting tool wear, cutting forces, machined edge roughness, and delamination were developed. Last but not least, the results obtained during the research were summarized and evaluated. From the experiments conducted in this study, it was found that the tool clearance angle has a significant effect on tool wear, roughness of the machined surface, and delamination of the carbon fiber composite board. The tool with a clearance angle of 8.4° wore faster than the tool with a clearance angle of 16.4°. The same trend was observed for cutting force, machined surface roughness, and delamination. In this context, it was also shown that the cutting force increased as the tool wear increased, which in turn increased surface roughness and delamination. These results are of practical significance, not only in terms of the quality of the machined surface but also in terms of time, cost, and energy savings when machining CFRP composite materials. Full article
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13 pages, 5651 KiB  
Article
Graphene/Heterojunction Composite Prepared by Carbon Thermal Reduction as a Sulfur Host for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries
by Jiahao Li, Bo Gao, Zeyuan Shi, Jiayang Chen, Haiyang Fu and Zhuang Liu
Materials 2023, 16(14), 4956; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16144956 - 12 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1177
Abstract
An interlayer nanocomposite (CC@rGO) consisting of a graphene heterojunction with CoO and Co9S8 was prepared using a simple and low-cost hydrothermal calcination method, which was tested as a cathode sulfur carrier for lithium-sulfur batteries. The CC@rGO composite comprises a spherical [...] Read more.
An interlayer nanocomposite (CC@rGO) consisting of a graphene heterojunction with CoO and Co9S8 was prepared using a simple and low-cost hydrothermal calcination method, which was tested as a cathode sulfur carrier for lithium-sulfur batteries. The CC@rGO composite comprises a spherical heterostructure uniformly distributed between graphene sheet layers, preventing stacking the graphene sheet layer. After the introduction of cobalt heterojunction on a graphene substrate, the Co element content increases the reactive sites of the composite and improves its electrochemical properties to some extent. The composite exhibited good cycling performance with an initial discharge capacity of 847.51 mAh/g at 0.5 C and a capacity decay rate of 0.0448% after 500 cycles, which also kept 452.91 mAh/g at 1 C and in the rate test from 3 C back to 0.1 C maintained 993.27 mAh/g. This article provides insight into the design of cathode materials for lithium-sulfur batteries. Full article
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14 pages, 3450 KiB  
Article
Machinability Measurements in Milling and Recurrence Analysis of Thin-Walled Elements Made of Polymer Composites
by Krzysztof Ciecieląg
Materials 2023, 16(13), 4825; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16134825 - 4 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 938
Abstract
The milling of polymer composites is a process that ensures dimensional and shape accuracy and appropriate surface quality. The shaping of thin-walled elements is a challenge owing to their deformation. This article presents the results of milling polymer composites made of glass and [...] Read more.
The milling of polymer composites is a process that ensures dimensional and shape accuracy and appropriate surface quality. The shaping of thin-walled elements is a challenge owing to their deformation. This article presents the results of milling polymer composites made of glass and carbon fibers saturated with epoxy resin. The milling of each material was conducted using different tools (tools with polycrystalline diamond inserts, physically coated carbide inserts with titanium nitride and uncoated carbide inserts) to show differences in feed force and deformation after the machining of individual thin-walled samples. In addition, the study used recurrence analysis to determine the most appropriate quantifications sensitive to changes occurring in milling different materials with the use of different tools. The study showed that the highest forces occurred in milling thin-walled carbon-fiber-reinforced plastics using uncoated tools and the highest feeds per revolution and cutting speeds. The use of a high feed per revolution (0.8 mm/rev) in carbon-fiber-reinforced plastics machining by uncoated tools resulted in a maximum feed force of 1185 N. A cutting speed of 400 m/min resulted in a force of 754 N. The largest permanent deformation occurred in the milling of glass-fiber-reinforced composite samples with uncoated tools. The permanent deformation value of this material was 0.88 mm. Low feed per revolution (0.1 mm/rev) resulted in permanent deformations of less than 0.30 mm for both types of materials. A change in feed per revolution had the most significant effect on the deformations of thin-walled polymer composites. The analysis of forces and deformation made it possible to conclude that high feed per revolution were not recommended in composite milling. In addition to the analysis of machining thin-walled composites, the novelty of this study was also the use of recurrence methods. Recurrence methods were used to determine the most appropriate quantifications. Determinism, averaged diagonal length and entropy have been shown to be suitable quantifications for determining the type of machined material and the tools used. Full article
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13 pages, 5242 KiB  
Article
Effect of High Current Pulsed Electron Beam (HCPEB) on the Organization and Wear Resistance of CeO2-Modified Al-20SiC Composites
by Lei Wang, Bo Gao, Yue Sun, Ying Zhang and Liang Hu
Materials 2023, 16(13), 4656; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16134656 - 28 Jun 2023
Viewed by 878
Abstract
This paper investigates the joint effect of high current pulsed electron beam (HCPEB) and denaturant CeO2 on improving the microstructure and properties of Al-20SiC composites prepared by powder metallurgy. Grazing Incidence X-ray Diffraction (GIXRD) results indicate the selective orientation of aluminum grains, [...] Read more.
This paper investigates the joint effect of high current pulsed electron beam (HCPEB) and denaturant CeO2 on improving the microstructure and properties of Al-20SiC composites prepared by powder metallurgy. Grazing Incidence X-ray Diffraction (GIXRD) results indicate the selective orientation of aluminum grains, with Al(111) crystal faces showing selective orientation after HCPEB treatment. Casting defects of powder metallurgy were eliminated by the addition of CeO2. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results reveal a more uniform distribution of hard points on the surface of HCPEB-treated Al-20SiC-0.3CeO2 composites. Microhardness and wear resistance of the Al-20SiC-0.3CeO2 composites were better than those of the Al matrix without CeO2 addition at the same number of pulses. Sliding friction tests indicate that the improvement of wear resistance is attributed to the uniform dispersion of hard points and the improvement of microstructure on the surface of the matrix after HCPEB irradiation. Overall, this study demonstrates the potential of HCPEB and CeO2 to enhance the performance of Al-20SiC composites. Full article
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13 pages, 18410 KiB  
Article
Effect of the Laying Order of Core Layer Materials on the Sound-Insulation Performance of High-Speed Train Carbody
by Ruiqian Wang, Dan Yao, Jie Zhang, Xinbiao Xiao and Xuesong Jin
Materials 2023, 16(10), 3862; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16103862 - 20 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1347
Abstract
The design of sound-insulation schemes requires the development of new materials and structures while also paying attention to their laying order. If the sound-insulation performance of the whole structure can be improved by simply changing the laying order of materials or structures, it [...] Read more.
The design of sound-insulation schemes requires the development of new materials and structures while also paying attention to their laying order. If the sound-insulation performance of the whole structure can be improved by simply changing the laying order of materials or structures, it will bring great advantages to the implementation of the scheme and cost control. This paper studies this problem. First, taking a simple sandwich composite plate as an example, a sound-insulation prediction model for composite structures was established. The influence of different material laying schemes on the overall sound-insulation characteristics was calculated and analyzed. Then, sound-insulation tests were conducted on different samples in the acoustic laboratory. The accuracy of the simulation model was verified through a comparative analysis of experimental results. Finally, based on the sound-insulation influence law of the sandwich panel core layer materials obtained from simulation analysis, the sound-insulation optimization design of the composite floor of a high-speed train was carried out. The results show that when the sound absorption material is concentrated in the middle, and the sound-insulation material is sandwiched from both sides of the laying scheme, it represents a better effect on medium-frequency sound-insulation performance. When this method is applied to the sound-insulation optimization of a high-speed train carbody, the sound-insulation performance of the middle and low-frequency band of 125–315 Hz can be improved by 1–3 dB, and the overall weighted sound reduction index can be improved by 0.9 dB without changing the type, thickness or weight of the core layer materials. Full article
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24 pages, 5905 KiB  
Article
Modeling and Model Verification of the Stress-Strain State of Reinforced Polymer Concrete
by Kassym Yelemessov, Layla B. Sabirova, Nikita V. Martyushev, Boris V. Malozyomov, Gulnara B. Bakhmagambetova and Olga V. Atanova
Materials 2023, 16(9), 3494; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16093494 - 1 May 2023
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 1757
Abstract
This article considers the prospects of the application of building structures made of polymer concrete composites on the basis of strength analysis. The issues of application and structure of polymer-concrete mixtures are considered. Features of the stress-strain state of normal sections of polymer [...] Read more.
This article considers the prospects of the application of building structures made of polymer concrete composites on the basis of strength analysis. The issues of application and structure of polymer-concrete mixtures are considered. Features of the stress-strain state of normal sections of polymer concrete beams are revealed. The dependence between the stresses and relative deformations of rubber polymer concretes and beams containing reinforcement frame and fiber reinforcement has been determined. The main direction of the study was the choice of ways to increase the strength characteristics of concrete with the addition of a polymer base and to increase the reliability of structures in general. The paper presents the results of experimental and mathematical studies of the stress-strain state and strength, as well as deflections of reinforced rubber-polymer beams. The peculiarities of fracture of reinforced rubber-polymer beams along their sections have been revealed according to the results of the experiment. The peculiarities of fracture formation of reinforced rubber-polymer beams have also been revealed. The conducted work has shown that the share of longitudinal reinforcement and the height of the fibrous reinforcement zone are the main factors. These reasons determine the characteristics of the strength of the beams and their resistance to destructive influences. The importance and scientific novelty of the work are the identified features of the stress-strain state of normal sections of rubber-concrete beams, namely, it has been established that the ultimate strength in axial compression and tension, deformations corresponding to the ultimate strength for rubber concrete exceed similar parameters for cement concrete 2.5–6.5 times. In the case of the addition of fiber reinforcement, this increase becomes, respectively, 3.0–7.5 times. Full article
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17 pages, 5116 KiB  
Article
Numerical Simulations of the Low-Velocity Impact Response of Semicylindrical Woven Composite Shells
by Luis M. Ferreira, Carlos A. C. P. Coelho and Paulo N. B. Reis
Materials 2023, 16(9), 3442; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16093442 - 28 Apr 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1645
Abstract
This paper presents an efficient and reliable approach to study the low-velocity impact response of woven composite shells using 3D finite element models that account for the physical intralaminar and interlaminar progressive damage. The authors’ previous work on the experimental assessment of the [...] Read more.
This paper presents an efficient and reliable approach to study the low-velocity impact response of woven composite shells using 3D finite element models that account for the physical intralaminar and interlaminar progressive damage. The authors’ previous work on the experimental assessment of the effect of thickness on the impact response of semicylindrical composite laminated shells served as the basis for this paper. Therefore, the finite element models were put to the test in comparison to the experimental findings. A good agreement was obtained between the numerical predictions and experimental data for the load and energy histories as well as for the maximum impact load, maximum displacement, and contact time. The use of the mass-scaling technique was successfully implemented, reducing considerably the computing cost of the solutions. The maximum load, maximum displacement, and contact time are negligibly affected by the choice of finite element mesh discretization. However, it has an impact on the initiation and progression of interlaminar damage. Therefore, to accurately compute delamination, its correct definition is of upmost importance. The validation of these finite element models opens the possibility for further numerical studies on of woven composite shells and enables shortening the time and expenses associated with the experimental testing. Full article
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