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Preparation and Characterization of Functional Composite Materials

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Advanced Composites".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 October 2024 | Viewed by 5839

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Institute of Wood Sciences and Furniture, Warsaw University of Life Sciences - SGGW, 159 Nowoursynowska St., 02-776 Warsaw, Poland
Interests: analysis and modification of technology of wood-based composites; layered, particle, and fibrous wood-based materials characterization; biomass conversion and upcycling; biopolymers; regenerated cellulose; nanoparticles; biobased materials; forestry, wood, agricultural, and plant residues
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Guest Editor
Chemical and Environmental Engineering Department, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, San Sebastian, Spain
Interests: wood and lignocellulosic materials; analytic techniques; biorefinery and applications; surface treatments; exploration of phenolic compounds; antioxidant capacity

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

A composite material is a combination of two materials with different physical and chemical properties. When they are combined, they create a material that is specialized to perform a certain job, for instance to become stronger, lighter, or resistant to electricity. They can also improve strength and stiffness. The reason for their use over traditional materials is that they improve the properties of their base materials and are applicable in many situations. Through continuous advancements in materials science and engineering, the potential for further applications of composite materials can be achieved by introducing functionality. Functional composite materials are based on these cutting-edge new-generation materials, and the field is located between physics, chemistry, materials science, and engineering.

Composite materials are being used for high-end applications, such as aviation technology, spaceships, and heavy-equipment manufacturing. The use of composite materials has been observed in recent advancements in the field of multifunctional composite materials. There is continuous progress related to improvements, innovations, and replacements of metals, plastics, biopolymers, etc., despite rigorous destructive and non-destructive testing, proving for example the toughness and lifelong durability of such materials. The structural functions mostly emphasize mechanical properties, such as fracture toughness, strength, thermal stability, damping, stiffness, and tensile strength. The non-structural properties include biodegradability, thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity, electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding, and others.

The present Special Issue (SI) aims to contribute to the topics relevant to modern functional composite materials.

Dr. Grzegorz Kowaluk
Dr. Rene Herrera
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • fiber-reinforced composites
  • three-dimensional composites
  • mechanical properties
  • physical properties
  • modeling and characterization
  • design of composite structures
  • natural fiber and bio-composites
  • hybrid composites

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

11 pages, 806 KiB  
Article
Hydrophobization of Reduced Graphene Oxide Aerogel Using Soy Wax to Improve Sorption Properties
by Sergey A. Baskakov, Yulia V. Baskakova, Eugene N. Kabachkov, Mikhail V. Zhidkov, Anastasia V. Alperovich, Svetlana S. Krasnikova, Dmitrii A. Chernyaev, Yury M. Shulga and Gennady L. Gutsev
Materials 2024, 17(11), 2538; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17112538 - 24 May 2024
Viewed by 156
Abstract
A special technique has been developed for producing a composite aerogel which consists of graphene oxide and soy wax (GO/wax). The reduction of graphene oxide was carried out by the stepwise heating of this aerogel to 250 °C. The aerogel obtained in the [...] Read more.
A special technique has been developed for producing a composite aerogel which consists of graphene oxide and soy wax (GO/wax). The reduction of graphene oxide was carried out by the stepwise heating of this aerogel to 250 °C. The aerogel obtained in the process of the stepwise thermal treatment of rGO/wax was studied by IR and Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and thermogravimetry. The heat treatment led to an increase in the wax fraction accompanied by an increase in the contact angle of the rGO/wax aerogel surface from 136.2 °C to 142.4 °C. The SEM analysis has shown that the spatial structure of the aerogel was formed by sheets of graphene oxide, while the wax formed rather large (200–1000 nm) clumps in the folds of graphene oxide sheets and small (several nm) deposits on the flat surface of the sheets. The sorption properties of the rGO/wax aerogel were studied with respect to eight solvent, oil, and petroleum products, and it was found that dichlorobenzene (85.8 g/g) and hexane (41.9 g/g) had the maximum and minimum sorption capacities, respectively. In the case of oil and petroleum products, the indicators were in the range of 52–63 g/g. The rGO/wax aerogel was found to be highly resistant to sorption–desorption cycles. The cyclic tests also revealed a swelling effect that occurred differently for different parts of the aerogel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preparation and Characterization of Functional Composite Materials)
12 pages, 2033 KiB  
Article
Influence of Interface Modification on the Moisture Absorption and Thermal Resistance of Ramie Fiber/Degradable Epoxy Composites
by Jingqi Geng and Yingchun Cai
Materials 2024, 17(8), 1779; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17081779 - 12 Apr 2024
Viewed by 488
Abstract
Natural fiber/degradable epoxy composites have received much attention for their advantages of low carbon emissions, low environmental pollution, and utilization of renewable resources. However, the poor interfacial bonding strength and inferior moisture resistance of natural fiber/degradable epoxy composites restrict their application areas. In [...] Read more.
Natural fiber/degradable epoxy composites have received much attention for their advantages of low carbon emissions, low environmental pollution, and utilization of renewable resources. However, the poor interfacial bonding strength and inferior moisture resistance of natural fiber/degradable epoxy composites restrict their application areas. In order to improve the moisture and heat resistance of natural fiber/degradable epoxy resin-based composites, this study modified the surfaces of ramie fibers with hydroxylated carbon nanotubes, silane coupling agents, and sodium hydroxide, respectively. Three types of modified ramie fiber/degradable epoxy composites, namely F-CN-DEP, F-Si-DEP, and F-OH-DEP, were prepared using a winding forming process. The water absorption rate and short-beam shear strength of the materials were tested under different environments, and the fiber morphology and thermal–mechanical properties of the materials were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). The results show that F-CN-DEP exhibited the lowest moisture absorption rate; the highest shear strength, of 43.8 MPa; and a glass transition temperature (Tg) of 121.7 °C. The results demonstrate that carbon nanotubes on the fiber surface can improve the interfacial stability of ramie fiber/degradable epoxy composites in humid and hot environments. These results give guidelines for the development of natural fiber/degradable epoxy composites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preparation and Characterization of Functional Composite Materials)
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10 pages, 2836 KiB  
Communication
Preparation of RDX/F2311/Fe2O3/Al Composite Hollow Microspheres by Electrospray and Synergistic Energy Release during Combustion between Components
by Zhenwei Zhang, Dong Jiang, Lanting Yang, Wenkui Song, Ruihao Wang and Qiuan Huang
Materials 2024, 17(7), 1623; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17071623 - 2 Apr 2024
Viewed by 595
Abstract
Nanothermites and high-energy explosives have significantly improved the performance of high-energy composites and have broad application prospects. Therefore, in this study, RDX/F2311/Fe2O3/Al composite hollow microspheres were successfully prepared utilizing the electrospray method using F2311 as a binder between components. [...] Read more.
Nanothermites and high-energy explosives have significantly improved the performance of high-energy composites and have broad application prospects. Therefore, in this study, RDX/F2311/Fe2O3/Al composite hollow microspheres were successfully prepared utilizing the electrospray method using F2311 as a binder between components. The results show that the combustion time of the composite hollow microspheres is shortened from 2400 ms to 950 ms, the combustion process is more stable, and the energy release is more concentrated. The H50 of the composite hollow microspheres increased from 14.49 cm to 24.57 cm, the explosion percentage decreased from 84% to 72%, and the sensitivity of the composite samples decreased significantly. This is mainly the result of the combination of homogeneous composition and synergistic reactions. The combustion results show that F2311 as a binder affects the tightness of the contact between the components. By adjusting its content, the combustion time and the intensity of the combustion of the composite microspheres can be adjusted, which provides a feasible direction for its practical application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preparation and Characterization of Functional Composite Materials)
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14 pages, 8409 KiB  
Article
Study on Magnetic and Plasmonic Properties of Fe3O4-PEI-Au and Fe3O4-PEI-Ag Nanoparticles
by Shuya Ning, Shuo Wang, Zhihui Liu, Naming Zhang, Bin Yang and Fanghui Zhang
Materials 2024, 17(2), 509; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17020509 - 21 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1104
Abstract
Magnetic–plasmonic nanoparticles (NPs) have attracted great interest in many fields because they can exhibit more physical and chemical properties than individual magnetic or plasmonic NPs. In this work, we synthesized Au- or Ag-decorated Fe3O4 nanoparticles coated with PEI (Fe3 [...] Read more.
Magnetic–plasmonic nanoparticles (NPs) have attracted great interest in many fields because they can exhibit more physical and chemical properties than individual magnetic or plasmonic NPs. In this work, we synthesized Au- or Ag-decorated Fe3O4 nanoparticles coated with PEI (Fe3O4-PEI-M (M = Au or Ag) NPs) using a simple method. The influences of the plasmonic metal NPs’ (Au or Ag) coating density on the magnetic and plasmonic properties of the Fe3O4-PEI-M (M = Au or Ag) NPs were investigated, and the density of the plasmonic metal NPs coated on the Fe3O4 NPs surfaces could be adjusted by controlling the polyethyleneimine (PEI) concentration. It showed that the Fe3O4-PEI-M (M = Au or Ag) NPs exhibited both magnetic and plasmonic properties. When the PEI concentration increased from 5 to 35 mg/mL, the coating density of the Au or Ag NPs on the Fe3O4 NPs surfaces increased, the corresponding magnetic intensity became weaker, and the plasmonic intensity was stronger. At the same time, the plasmonic resonance peak of the Fe3O4-PEI-M (M = Au or Ag) NPs was red shifted. Therefore, there was an optimal coverage of the plasmonic metal NPs on the Fe3O4 NPs surfaces to balance the magnetic and plasmonic properties when the PEI concentration was between 15 and 25 mg/mL. This result can guide the application of the Fe3O4-M (M = Au or Ag) NPs in the biomedical field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preparation and Characterization of Functional Composite Materials)
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13 pages, 3117 KiB  
Article
Upcycling of Wood Dust from Particleboard Recycling as a Filler in Lignocellulosic Layered Composite Technology
by Anita Wronka and Grzegorz Kowaluk
Materials 2023, 16(23), 7352; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16237352 - 26 Nov 2023
Viewed by 793
Abstract
The following research aims to investigate selected properties of three-layer plywood, manufactured using dust from the milling of three-layer particleboard as a filler in the bonding mass. Four types of fillers were considered in the study: commercial rye flour, wood dust naturally occurring [...] Read more.
The following research aims to investigate selected properties of three-layer plywood, manufactured using dust from the milling of three-layer particleboard as a filler in the bonding mass. Four types of fillers were considered in the study: commercial rye flour, wood dust naturally occurring in the composition of particles used industrially for particleboard production, wood dust from the first batch of shredded particleboard, and dust from the second round of milled particleboard. The highest modulus of elasticity (MOE) values were observed for the reference samples. Notably, in the samples containing filler sourced from the secondary milling of particleboard, the MOE exhibited an upward trend in conjunction with increasing filler content. The modulus of rupture (MOR) decreased with an elevated degree of filler milling from 73.1 N mm−2 for the native filler, through to 68.9 N mm−2 for the filler after 1st milling, and to 54.5 N mm−2 for the filler after 2nd milling (with 10 parts per weight (pbw) of filler used as an reference), though it increased slightly as the filler content increased. The most favorable outcomes in shear strength were achieved in samples containing filler material from the initial milling of particleboard. The thickness swelling peaked in variants utilizing filler material from both the initial and secondary milling of particleboards (20.1% and 16.6% after 24 h of soaking for samples with 10 pbw filler after the 1st and 2nd milling, respectively, compared to 13.0% for the reference samples). Water absorption testing exhibited a more pronounced response in the newly introduced variants, although the samples containing filler from the initial and secondary milling processes eventually yielded results akin to the reference sample, with naturally occurring dust displaying higher water absorption values. The highest density values (about 1224 kg m−3) were observed in the reference samples. A similar density profile was recorded for samples with five parts of wood flour as filler, although the density of the bonding line was slightly lower in these instances (1130 kg m−3). This research confirms the feasibility of applying the aforementioned dust as an alternative to conventional fillers in plywood technology. It also raises the question of how to effectively remove glue residues from wood-based composite dust, which would enhance their absorption properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preparation and Characterization of Functional Composite Materials)
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15 pages, 4661 KiB  
Article
Robotization of Three-Point Bending Mechanical Tests Using PLA/TPU Blends as an Example in the 0–100% Range
by Julia Głowacka, Łukasz Derpeński, Miłosz Frydrych, Bogna Sztorch, Błażej Bartoszewicz and Robert E. Przekop
Materials 2023, 16(21), 6927; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16216927 - 28 Oct 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1359
Abstract
This article presents the development of an automated three-point bending testing system using a robot to increase the efficiency and precision of measurements for PLA/TPU polymer blends as implementation high-throughput measurement methods. The system operates continuously and characterizes the flexural properties of PLA/TPU [...] Read more.
This article presents the development of an automated three-point bending testing system using a robot to increase the efficiency and precision of measurements for PLA/TPU polymer blends as implementation high-throughput measurement methods. The system operates continuously and characterizes the flexural properties of PLA/TPU blends with varying TPU concentrations. This study aimed to determine the effect of TPU concentration on the strength and flexural stiffness, surface properties (WCA), thermal properties (TGA, DSC), and microscopic characterization of the studied blends. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preparation and Characterization of Functional Composite Materials)
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10 pages, 4145 KiB  
Article
The Influence of the Content of Recycled Natural Leather Residue Particles on the Properties of High-Density Fiberboards
by Katarzyna Bartoszuk and Grzegorz Kowaluk
Materials 2023, 16(15), 5340; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16155340 - 29 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 819
Abstract
During the production of furniture, large amounts of waste materials are generated, which are most often stored in warehouses without a specific purpose for their subsequent use. In highly developed countries, as many as 25 million tons of textile waste are produced annually, [...] Read more.
During the production of furniture, large amounts of waste materials are generated, which are most often stored in warehouses without a specific purpose for their subsequent use. In highly developed countries, as many as 25 million tons of textile waste are produced annually, of which approximately 40% is non-clothing waste such as carpets, furniture and car upholstery. The aim of this research was to produce and evaluate dry-formed high-density fiberboards (HDF) bonded with urea-formaldehyde resin, 12% resination, with various shares of recycled particles of natural leather used in upholstery furniture production at different contents (1, 5 and 10% by weight). The panels were hot-pressed (200 °C, 2.5 MPa, pressing factor 20 s mm−1). Mechanical properties (modulus of rupture, modulus of elasticity and screw withdrawal resistance) and physical properties (density profile, thickness swelling after water immersion, water absorption and surface absorption) were tested. The density profile and contact angle of natural leather have been also characterized. The results show that increasing the content of leather particles in HDF mostly has a positive effect on mechanical properties, especially screw withdrawal resistance and water absorption. It can be concluded that, depending on the further use of HDF, it is possible to use recovered upholstery leather particles as a reasonable addition to wood fibers in HDF technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preparation and Characterization of Functional Composite Materials)
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