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Road Traffic Engineering and Sustainable Transportation - The Second Edition

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Sustainable Transportation".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2023) | Viewed by 41723

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Transport Systems, Traffic Engineering and Logistics, Faculty of Transport and Aviation Engineering, Silesian University of Technology, Krasińskiego 8 Street, 40-019 Katowice, Poland
Interests: road traffic engineering; road and intersections capacity analysis; measurements; traffic modeling; research and traffic flow analysis; transport infrastructure; functional analysis; transport systems and processes modeling; transportation engineering
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Centre for Mechanical Engineering and Automation, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
Interests: sustainable mobility; road transportation impacts; intelligent transportation systems; active transportation modes
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Civil, Environmental and Mechanical Engineering, University of Trento, 77-38123 Trento, Italy
Interests: traffic management
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue will consist of papers describing the state of the art in road traffic engineering and sustainable transportation systems development. Activities in the field of road traffic engineering, including road traffic analysis and research—as well as the practical application of knowledge about road traffic in the planning, design, and operation of transport systems and processes—contribute to ensuring sustainable transportation systems development. This is achieved by providing conditions for the safe, efficient, and economic transportation of people and goods that does not have a negative impact on the environment.

Topics of interest include but are not limited to the following:

-Road traffic measurements, data analysis;
-Road traffic modelling (micro, meso, and macro modeling), simulation models;
-Road and intersection capacity;
-Optimization, route choice;
-Human factor in road traffic and transportation engineering;
-Road traffic safety;
-Pedestrian and bicycle traffic and infrastructure;
-Public transport, parking;
-Contemporary problems of road traffic engineering and sustainable transportation;
-Intelligent transportation systems (ITSs), traffic control, and management;
-Impact of transportation systems;
- Life cycle analysis (LCA) of alternative energy vectors for road vehicles;
-Transport systems and processes modelling;
-Sustainable transportation development;
-Environmental impact, fuel consumption, and emissions.

Prof. Dr. Elżbieta Macioszek
Prof. Dr. Margarida Coelho
Prof. Dr. Anna Granà
Prof. Dr. Raffaele Mauro
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • traffic engineering
  • sustainable transportation
  • road traffic safety
  • traffic flow modelling
  • capapcity
  • public transport
  • parking
  • traffic control
  • traffic safety of vulnerable road users
  • fuel consumption and emissions
  • transport network
  • Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS)

Published Papers (22 papers)

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17 pages, 3193 KiB  
Article
Modelling the Coupling Relationship between Urban Road Spatial Structure and Traffic Flow
by Shaobo Zhou, Xiaodong Zang, Junheng Yang, Wanying Chen, Jiahao Li and Shuyi Chen
Sustainability 2023, 15(14), 11142; https://doi.org/10.3390/su151411142 - 17 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 771
Abstract
In order to promote the sustainable development of urban traffic systems, improve the accuracy of traffic system analysis in the urban planning stage and reduce the possibility of traffic congestion in the operation stage of road networks, the coupling relationship and evolution mechanism [...] Read more.
In order to promote the sustainable development of urban traffic systems, improve the accuracy of traffic system analysis in the urban planning stage and reduce the possibility of traffic congestion in the operation stage of road networks, the coupling relationship and evolution mechanism between urban road spatial structure and traffic flow were studied, and a model of the relationship between the metrics was established in this study based on real road network and traffic flow data. First, the road spatial structure model of the study area was established from the perspective of road space, and the spatial syntax method was applied to verify the rationality of the spatial structure of the road network. Secondly, the initial OD matrix was determined by OD backpropagation based on the measured traffic flow data. Thirdly, the coupling rule between the spatial structure and the traffic flow of the road network was explored by loading the increment in the OD matrix to the initial OD matrix step by step based on a simulation experiment. Finally, the relationship between the degree of integration of the spatial syntactic feature parameter and the saturation of the traffic flow feature parameter was modelled on the basis of experimental results and verified by an example. This research shows that the spatial structure of urban roads has a significant impact on the characterisation of the traffic flow distribution of road networks, and a strong correlation can be found between the integration degree and saturation degree. An optimal fit, which can be used as a reference for the design of road spatial structure, was explored in this research. Full article
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19 pages, 5008 KiB  
Article
Identification of Solutions for Vulnerable Road Users Safety in Urban Transport Systems: Grounded Theory Research
by Katarzyna Sosik-Filipiak and Oleksandra Osypchuk
Sustainability 2023, 15(13), 10568; https://doi.org/10.3390/su151310568 - 5 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1632
Abstract
The share of road vehicles in urban transport systems is a challenge for modern and dynamically developing urban areas in accordance with the concept of sustainable and Smart Cities. Increasingly, there is a need to promote and adapt urban space to the movement [...] Read more.
The share of road vehicles in urban transport systems is a challenge for modern and dynamically developing urban areas in accordance with the concept of sustainable and Smart Cities. Increasingly, there is a need to promote and adapt urban space to the movement of vulnerable road users (VRU). As part of a clear emphasis on the issue of pedestrians and other vulnerable road users, the aim of the article is to define the typology and hierarchy of solutions contributing to the increase in VRU safety in cities. The research process was based on the use of grounded theory. In the adopted research methodology, the use of the Delphi method made it possible to identify the approach of various European cities to the use and implementation of technical, technological and organizational solutions affecting safety. The research made it possible to evaluate individual solutions in VRU safety management and to indicate a list of recommendations for improving security, taking into account the views of international experts. In addition, the results of this study may enrich the current literature, helping to understand the perception of solutions implemented in urban transport systems as a holistic set of interrelated elements supporting pedestrian safety and increasing their role in cities. Full article
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22 pages, 3472 KiB  
Article
Research on Parking Recommendation Methods Considering Travelers’ Decision Behaviors and Psychological Characteristics
by Huanmei Qin, Ning Xu, Yonghuan Zhang, Qianqian Pang and Zhaolin Lu
Sustainability 2023, 15(8), 6808; https://doi.org/10.3390/su15086808 - 18 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2184
Abstract
Intelligent parking services can provide parking recommendations and reservations for travelers. They are an effective method for solving the cruising for parking problems in big cities. This research conducted a sequential parking decision behavior survey and analyzed travelers’ parking choices and reservation behaviors [...] Read more.
Intelligent parking services can provide parking recommendations and reservations for travelers. They are an effective method for solving the cruising for parking problems in big cities. This research conducted a sequential parking decision behavior survey and analyzed travelers’ parking choices and reservation behaviors at different stages of the travel process. Then, a parking recommendation model was established to consider the travelers’ psychological thresholds and the attention to parking factors. The effects of different parking recommendation schemes in different situations were further explored based on parking simulations. It was concluded that travelers were more willing to accept and use the parking recommendation system. A total of 56% of travelers chose to make parking reservations during the travel process. The satisfaction proportion of the psychological threshold for the parking reservation group was higher than that for the non-parking reservation group. A dynamic parking recommendation scheme with a regulation threshold can change the recommendation strategy according to the overall utilization of parking lots. The implementation of the scheme can not only improve travelers’ parking experience, but it can also effectively balance the utilization of parking resources. It can be applied to different parking utilization situations and produce good performance. The research results provide references for the design and application of intelligent parking services in order to solve parking problems. Full article
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19 pages, 7530 KiB  
Article
Backward-Facing Analysis for the Preliminary Estimation of the Vehicle Fuel Consumption
by Stefan Tabacu and Dragos Popa
Sustainability 2023, 15(6), 5344; https://doi.org/10.3390/su15065344 - 17 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1330
Abstract
In this paper, a methodology for the estimation of fuel consumption using backward-facing analysis is presented. The method for the determination of fuel consumption was based on the evaluation of the total work required to drive the vehicle along a specific drive cycle. [...] Read more.
In this paper, a methodology for the estimation of fuel consumption using backward-facing analysis is presented. The method for the determination of fuel consumption was based on the evaluation of the total work required to drive the vehicle along a specific drive cycle. At the same time, the potential fuel economy was estimated using the energy that can be harvested from the wheel. The results obtained using this model were compared with complex MATLAB/Simulink models developed using the forward-facing strategy. The MATLAB Simulink model details conventional and hybrid vehicle models capable of estimating fuel consumption. The components of the longitudinal forces opposing the vehicle during driving were investigated and analyzed using the results of the analytical and simulation models. The procedure can be successfully applied to provide a quick estimate of the fuel consumption performance before detailing complex simulation models. Full article
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24 pages, 10193 KiB  
Article
The Role of Intersection Geometry in Urban Air Pollution Management
by Ammar Šarić, Suada Sulejmanović, Sanjin Albinović, Mirza Pozder and Žanesa Ljevo
Sustainability 2023, 15(6), 5234; https://doi.org/10.3390/su15065234 - 15 Mar 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1940
Abstract
Air pollution represents one of the most complex problems of humanity. Traffic contributes significantly to this by emitting large amounts of harmful gases. This problem is particularly pronounced at urban intersections due to frequent changes in vehicle movement dynamics. This paper primarily presents [...] Read more.
Air pollution represents one of the most complex problems of humanity. Traffic contributes significantly to this by emitting large amounts of harmful gases. This problem is particularly pronounced at urban intersections due to frequent changes in vehicle movement dynamics. This paper primarily presents the influence of intersection geometry on pollutant emissions levels. In addition, the influence of various traffic policies promoting greater use of public transport and zero-emission vehicles is also examined. The research combines the field part of recording existing intersections in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina with traffic microsimulation. Detailed data on vehicles’ movements were obtained by advanced video processing using the DataFromSky tool, while the PTV Vissim 2022 and Bosch ESTM (2022) software were used to simulate traffic and estimate emissions at geometrically different intersections. The results showed that, in saturated traffic conditions, signalized intersections cause up to 50% lower emissions compared with two-lane and turbo roundabouts and that the impact of the geometric change is more significant than the impact of zero-emission vehicles. In unsaturated conditions, the differences in emissions at different intersections are negligible, with the highest reductions in pollution achieved by using zero-emission vehicles. Full article
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14 pages, 3378 KiB  
Article
Fuzzy-Logic Approach to Estimating the Fleet Efficiency of a Road Transport Company: A Case Study of Agricultural Products Deliveries in Kazakhstan
by Igor Taran, Asem Karsybayeva, Vitalii Naumov, Kenzhegul Murzabekova and Marzhan Chazhabayeva
Sustainability 2023, 15(5), 4179; https://doi.org/10.3390/su15054179 - 25 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1400
Abstract
The estimation of the efficiency of road transport vehicles remains a significant problem for contemporary transport companies, as numerous stochastic impacts, such as demand stochasticity, road conditions uncertainty, transport market fluctuations, etc., influence the technological process. A fuzzy-logic approach is proposed to consider [...] Read more.
The estimation of the efficiency of road transport vehicles remains a significant problem for contemporary transport companies, as numerous stochastic impacts, such as demand stochasticity, road conditions uncertainty, transport market fluctuations, etc., influence the technological process. A fuzzy-logic approach is proposed to consider the uncertainty relating to estimating vehicle fleet efficiency. According to the developed approach, vehicle efficiency is described based on a membership function, whereas the efficiency of the whole vehicle fleet is evaluated as a fuzzy set. To demonstrate the developed approach, a case study is depicted for using cargo vehicles to deliver agricultural products in the Republic of Kazakhstan. The numeric results are presented for the selected models of vehicles that a transport company uses to service a set of clients located in Northern Kazakhstan: the transport services provided for each of the clients are characterized by numeric demand parameters—the consignment weight and the delivery distance. The completed calculations allowed us to obtain the membership functions for the alternative vehicle models and to present the transport company’s vehicle fleet as a fuzzy set. Full article
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19 pages, 3878 KiB  
Article
Effects of Road Slope and Vehicle Weight on Truck Fuel Consumption
by John Jairo Posada-Henao, Iván Sarmiento-Ordosgoitia and Alexánder A. Correa-Espinal
Sustainability 2023, 15(1), 724; https://doi.org/10.3390/su15010724 - 31 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3411
Abstract
In this paper, we developed truck fuel consumption models for the particular assistance of professionals in charge of road project valuation in terms of predicting fuel used by trucks, which is an important topic on vehicle operating costs to be considered in the [...] Read more.
In this paper, we developed truck fuel consumption models for the particular assistance of professionals in charge of road project valuation in terms of predicting fuel used by trucks, which is an important topic on vehicle operating costs to be considered in the benefit–cost analysis of road projects. On the other hand, fuel consumption has a direct impact on emissions to the atmosphere, and thus future research can be conducted regarding estimations about emissions by trucks. In this research, we identified the effect of overall vehicle weight on truck fuel consumption in a free-flow regime. The methodology includes the design of experiments and factorial design as statistical techniques to obtain data, as well as linear and non-linear regressions to obtain models for two types of trucks: rigid (three axles) and articulated (six axles). Notably, there is no evidence of research previously conducted on the latter. We used statistical methods for the selection of trucks, equipment, road segments, and other aspects, obtaining good control in tests verifying the appropriate values for factors according to the planned ones. The results satisfy the expectations of the research, and it was demonstrated that the vehicle weight and roadway slope were significantly more important than speed alone, which was typically considered the main variable in other studies. On the other hand, longitudinal slopes higher than 5% were found to not be suitable for freight road corridors. It is recommended that 6-axle trucks instead of 3-axle trucks be used for a 16 t amount of cargo transported on a plain road (longitudinal slope under 3%). The HDM-4 model did not represent fuel consumption adequately for the current vehicle fleet operating on roads. Fuel consumption models must be updated, for instance, every 10 years, such that they can adapt to vehicle technological advances and the energetic improvement of fuels, including the proportion of biofuels and gas. Full article
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20 pages, 7464 KiB  
Article
Impact of Landscape Factors on Automobile Road Deformation Patterns—A Case Study of the Almaty Mountain Road
by Ainur Kairanbayeva, Gulnara Nurpeissova, Zhumabek Zhantayev, Roman Shults, Dina Panyukova, Saniya Kiyalbay and Kerey Panyukov
Sustainability 2022, 14(22), 15466; https://doi.org/10.3390/su142215466 - 21 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1745
Abstract
The geography of Kazakhstan is characterized by a diverse landscape and a small population. Therefore, certain automobile roads pass through unpopulated mountain regions, where physical road diagnostics are rare or almost absent, while landscape factors continue to affect the road. However, modern geo-information [...] Read more.
The geography of Kazakhstan is characterized by a diverse landscape and a small population. Therefore, certain automobile roads pass through unpopulated mountain regions, where physical road diagnostics are rare or almost absent, while landscape factors continue to affect the road. However, modern geo-information approaches and remote sensing could effectively provide the road diagnostics necessary to make timely control decisions regarding a road’s design, construction, and maintenance. To justify this assumption, we researched the deformation of a mountain road near Almaty city. Open access satellite images of and meteorological archival data for the region were processed. The resulting data were compared to validate the road’s deformation triggers. Extreme weather conditions’ impacts could be identified via road destruction (nearly 40 m longitudinal cracks, 15 m short transversal cracks, and two crack networks along a 50 m road section). The remotely sensed parameters (vertical displacement velocity, slope exposure, dissections, topographic wetness index, aspect, solar radiation, SAVI, and snow melting) show the complexity of triggers of extensive road deformations. The article focuses only on open access data from remote sensing images and meteorological archives. All the resulting data are available and open for all interested parties to use. Full article
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17 pages, 3001 KiB  
Article
A Multi-Objective Model to Find the Sustainable Location for Citrus Hub
by Emad Alzubi and Bernd Noche
Sustainability 2022, 14(21), 14463; https://doi.org/10.3390/su142114463 - 3 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2661
Abstract
Citrus supply chains (CSC) are increasingly important in research due to high loss and waste, increasing demand, wide application for other industries, and differences in CSCs from country to country. This study proposes a new structure for CSC by introducing collection points to [...] Read more.
Citrus supply chains (CSC) are increasingly important in research due to high loss and waste, increasing demand, wide application for other industries, and differences in CSCs from country to country. This study proposes a new structure for CSC by introducing collection points to collect citrus from the farms in Jordan Valley and transport it to a citrus hub responsible for receiving, packaging, and transporting the citrus to distribution centers. The objective of this structure is to minimize the loss and waste and provide a new supply chain (SC) with stable infrastructure to track citrus from the initial stages and implement technologies such as the Cold SC. Therefore, it is crucial to find the optimum number of collection points, citrus hubs, and locations based on carbon footprint and transportation costs. The model introduced was solved using Open Solver Adds-ins after collecting data such as distances and coordinates using Google Maps and the altitude of those coordinates from SolarGIS. After running the model, it was found that the optimum number of collection points is 52 and the optimum number of citrus hubs is two. The results showed that the transportation costs of one hub are lower by 30%, whereas for two hubs are lower by 60% compared to the current location of the central market of fruits and vegetables (CM). The “kg CO2 e/kg citrus” values are 0.48 and 0.24 for one hub and two hubs, respectively, which showed a significant reduction compared to CM, which was 0.69 kg CO2 e/kg citrus. Therefore, installing two citrus hubs will improve the overall sustainable performance of CSC. Future research might be directed to integrate the circular economy into CSC and find possible applications for citrus loss and waste. Full article
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10 pages, 805 KiB  
Article
The Significance of Urban Rail Transit Systems in Mitigating Air Pollution Effects: The Case of China
by Jing Sun, Muhammad Safdar Sial, Dasong Deng, Darina Saxunova, Ahsanuddin Haider and Mohammed Arshad Khan
Sustainability 2022, 14(21), 13944; https://doi.org/10.3390/su142113944 - 27 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1390
Abstract
Air pollution is a global problem and the transportation industry is one of its major causes, yet the impact of transportation infrastructure on air quality is little understood. It is vital to know about evaluating the effects of transportation infrastructure on air quality. [...] Read more.
Air pollution is a global problem and the transportation industry is one of its major causes, yet the impact of transportation infrastructure on air quality is little understood. It is vital to know about evaluating the effects of transportation infrastructure on air quality. The urban road has a role in defining air pollution and automobiles significantly contribute to the air quality in urban areas. The issues are a result of the automobile’s impact on air quality. China put substantial investments in its metropolitan subway networks. The information on air quality on an hourly basis, daily metrological data, and demographic profiles of various cities with significant subways from the year 2013 to the year 2014 used. This study examines the effect of substantial investment on urban air quality. The Discontinuity Based Ordinary Least Squares (DB-OLS) on data for further analysis with results are incorporated in the study. The researchers witnessed a 14% reduction in air pollution during the daytime in those not rushed cities. Researchers discovered that the impacts are less severe in urban areas with a lower population density and a higher income. The results will be less dangerous if more subways affect the air quality. Full article
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13 pages, 305 KiB  
Article
A Random Parameters Approach to Investigate Injury Severity of Two-Vehicle Crashes at Intersections
by Mostafa Sharafeldin, Ahmed Farid and Khaled Ksaibati
Sustainability 2022, 14(21), 13821; https://doi.org/10.3390/su142113821 - 25 Oct 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1378
Abstract
Roadway intersections are crash-prone locations and, hence, ensuring the safety of road users at intersections has been a major concern for transportation professionals. It is critical to identify the risk factors that contribute to severe crashes at intersections to implement the appropriate countermeasures. [...] Read more.
Roadway intersections are crash-prone locations and, hence, ensuring the safety of road users at intersections has been a major concern for transportation professionals. It is critical to identify the risk factors that contribute to severe crashes at intersections to implement the appropriate countermeasures. Greater emphasis is needed on two-vehicle crashes since they represent the majority of intersection crashes. In this study, a random parameter ordinal probit model was developed to estimate the contributing factors of injury severity of two-vehicle crashes at intersections. Nine years of intersection crash data in Wyoming were analyzed in this model. The study involved the investigation of the influence of a set of intersection, drivers, environmental, and crash characteristics on crash injury severity. The results demonstrated urban and signalized intersections were related to lower severity levels. In addition, higher pavement friction is more likely to be associated with less severe crashes. Crashes that involved drivers who are females or impaired and crashes on weekends were associated with higher severity levels. Intersection crashes that occurred on non-dry road surfaces, in adverse weather conditions, or that involved large vehicles, or out-of-state drivers were less likely to be severe. Full article
33 pages, 5091 KiB  
Article
Comparison of the Performance of Hybrid Traffic Signal Patterns and Conventional Alternatives When Accounting for Both Pedestrians and Vehicles
by Farzaneh Montazeri, Fausto Errico and Luc Pellecuer
Sustainability 2022, 14(20), 13667; https://doi.org/10.3390/su142013667 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1587
Abstract
Traffic control systems are crucial for managing traffic flows. Their main function is to reduce interactions among users for safety reasons, while minimizing the travel times. Researchers often concentrate on the cycle length, whose impact on travel times is directly measurable. However, the [...] Read more.
Traffic control systems are crucial for managing traffic flows. Their main function is to reduce interactions among users for safety reasons, while minimizing the travel times. Researchers often concentrate on the cycle length, whose impact on travel times is directly measurable. However, the choice of the signal pattern may also have a great potential to reduce travel times and unsafe situations. This potential is yet to be thoroughly investigated. In this work, we are interested in comparing different signal patterns in terms of the number of potential conflicts and delay time for both drivers and pedestrians. To this end, we first select three commonly adopted signal patterns, namely the Exclusive Pedestrian Phase (EPP), the Leading Through Interval (LTI) and the Two-Way Crossing (TWC). We then generalize existing methods for measuring user delay and safety for these three signal patterns. Moreover, we investigate a hypothetical hybrid pattern obtained by dynamically adapting the signal pattern to real-time data. The proposed methodology is applied to a case study considering an isolated intersection in Montreal, Canada. We perform computational experiments geared towards determining the best pattern according to ad hoc performance indicators and user flows. Results show that the EPP and LTI patterns generally perform better than TWC. EPP generally outperforms LTI when measuring the number of potential conflicts, while LTI outperforms EPP when considering delay times. Furthermore, the hypothetical hybrid pattern shows a positive but overall limited impact regarding both delay times and number of potential conflicts. Full article
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17 pages, 2537 KiB  
Article
Lane Optimization of Highway Reconstruction and Expansion Work Zone Considering Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors
by Chi Sun, Weiqi Hong, Hao Li and Chenjing Zhou
Sustainability 2022, 14(19), 12090; https://doi.org/10.3390/su141912090 - 24 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1227
Abstract
During the highway reconstruction and expansion, some lanes are often closed on the construction side to ensure that the construction is carried out normally. The presence of the work zone increases the traffic pressure on the construction side of the highway, causing traffic [...] Read more.
During the highway reconstruction and expansion, some lanes are often closed on the construction side to ensure that the construction is carried out normally. The presence of the work zone increases the traffic pressure on the construction side of the highway, causing traffic congestion, increased CO2 emissions from motor vehicles, and increasing environmental pollution. The bi-level programming model was developed based on the objective of minimizing the travel time and total CO2 emissions of the system so as to solve it using a quantum particle swarm algorithm with high convergence speed and high intelligence to form the lane optimization scheme for the three forms of reclosing and expanding six-lane highways in both directions. The results show that reasonable use of opposite non-construction lanes in the work zone of a partially closed highway expansion can reduce the total system travel cost, alleviate traffic congestion, reduce CO2 emissions, and contribute to the sustainable development of transportation, as well as the environment. Full article
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14 pages, 2395 KiB  
Article
A Novel Safety Assessment Framework for Pavement Friction Evolution Due to Traffic on Horizontal Curves
by Guilong Xu, Jinliang Xu, Chao Gao, Rishuang Sun, Huagang Shan, Yongji Ma and Jinsong Ran
Sustainability 2022, 14(17), 10714; https://doi.org/10.3390/su141710714 - 28 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1211
Abstract
The friction coefficient is one of the dominant parameters affecting vehicle driving stability on horizontal curves. However, there is no comprehensive framework to assess the traffic safety on the horizontal curve with the evolution of the friction coefficient caused by the traffic flow. [...] Read more.
The friction coefficient is one of the dominant parameters affecting vehicle driving stability on horizontal curves. However, there is no comprehensive framework to assess the traffic safety on the horizontal curve with the evolution of the friction coefficient caused by the traffic flow. In light of this, this paper developed an integrated risk-assessment framework to evaluate the safety on the horizontal curve with the friction coefficient evolving under different traffic characteristics. The speed distribution on the horizontal curve of the freeway is obtained through field experiments that serve as the basic parameters of the model. A new multi-vehicle risk index (MRI) is introduced to assess the traffic safety risk for the horizontal curve by coupling the reliability theory and negative binomial. Three traffic characteristics are considered in the analysis: cumulative traffic volume (CTV), annual average daily traffic (AADT), and average daily traffic of heavy goods vehicles (AADTHGV). The results show that the AADT and AADTHGV have a considerable impact on the road risk level. When the truck traffic volume is less than 1000 veh/d, the risk of horizontal curves changes less as road operational time goes. The research results can provide a reference for the road maintenance department to determine the timing of road maintenance. Full article
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20 pages, 4744 KiB  
Article
Receding-Horizon Prediction of Vehicle Velocity Profile Using Deterministic and Stochastic Deep Neural Network Models
by Jakov Topić, Branimir Škugor and Joško Deur
Sustainability 2022, 14(17), 10674; https://doi.org/10.3390/su141710674 - 26 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1415
Abstract
The paper firstly proposes a deterministic deep feedforward neural network model aimed at predicting the city bus velocity profile over receding time horizon based on the following inputs: actual vehicle position, actual velocity or short-term history of vehicle velocities, time of day and [...] Read more.
The paper firstly proposes a deterministic deep feedforward neural network model aimed at predicting the city bus velocity profile over receding time horizon based on the following inputs: actual vehicle position, actual velocity or short-term history of vehicle velocities, time of day and day of week. A systematic analysis of the influence of different input subsets, history interval length and prediction horizon length is carried out to find an optimal configuration of NN model inputs and hyperparameters. Secondly, a stochastic version of neural network prediction model is proposed, which predicts expectations and standard deviations of velocity patterns over the receding time horizon. The stochastic model prediction accuracy is verified against the recorded test dataset features, as well as by comparing the predicted velocity expectation with the deterministic model prediction and correlating the predicted velocity standard deviation with deterministic model prediction uncertainty metrics. The verification results indicate that: (i) the deterministic model velocity prediction accuracy is characterized by the R2 score greater than 0.8 for the prediction horizon length of 10 s and remains to be solid (greater than 0.6) for the horizon lengths up to 25 s; (ii) the actual vehicle position and the velocity history are the most significant input features, where the optimal value of history interval length lies in the range from 30 to 50 s; (iii) the stochastic model have only slightly lower accuracy of predicting the velocity expectation along the receding horizon when compared to the deterministic model (the root mean square error is higher by 2.2%), and it outputs consistent standard deviation prediction. Full article
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20 pages, 31634 KiB  
Article
Utilizing the Harvesting of Rainwater to Provide Safe Road Transportation Efficiency and Increase Water Resources in the Context of Climatic Change
by Mohamed Elsayed Gabr, Amira Mahmoud El Shorbagy and Hamdy Badee Faheem
Sustainability 2022, 14(15), 9656; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14159656 - 5 Aug 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1775
Abstract
This research investigates the effect of heavy rain on highway traffic volume and average speed, and proposes a recharging well harvesting system as an alternative freshwater source in the context of climate change. The Cairo Autostorad highway was taken as a case study. [...] Read more.
This research investigates the effect of heavy rain on highway traffic volume and average speed, and proposes a recharging well harvesting system as an alternative freshwater source in the context of climate change. The Cairo Autostorad highway was taken as a case study. The highway climate data were collected, and traffic was measured using Metrocount equipment during the period from 2008 to 2020. The results show that the studied road is about 12 km long, and about 40 water ponds exist along the route. Each pond has an estimated water volume of 300 m3, and a 30 cm recharging well, with a maximum recharging capacity of 25 m3/h with satisfactory performance, is recommended to be constructed for rainwater harvesting. The recharging wells will clear the ponding volume within 2.5 to 3.5 h after the rainfall has stopped. The design incorporates a 1.2 safety factor against blockage inside the well. In addition, a model was established between the average rainfall depth and the average measured highway speed for the period (2008–2020) during rainy months, indicating an exponential function with a determination factor R2 = 0.7076. The present rainfall (2020) and the representative concentration path (RCP) for 4.5 and 8.5 emissions scenarios were used to simulate the rainfall for future years: the 2040s, 2060s, 2080s, and 2100s. The results show that in the winter season for the current scenario (2020), the average rainfall depth was 45 mm, and the highway speed was 78 km/h. For the RCP 4.5 emission scenarios for the 2040s, 2060s, 2080s, and 2100s, the rainfall depths were 67.8, 126.4, 131.2, and 143.9 mm, and the corresponding reductions in the highway speeds were 23, 34, 35.3, and 36.9%, respectively, compared to the baseline scenario (2020). On the other hand, the RCP 8.5 emission scenarios show a reduction in the highway speed of 23, 34.5, 36.9, and 36.9% for the years 2040, 2060, 2080, and 2100, respectively, due to rainfall depths of 68.7, 128.4, 143.9, and 143.9 mm, respectively. This study helps policymakers to make wise decisions regarding sustainable water resource management and highway traffic problems related to rainwater depths in the context of climate change. Full article
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14 pages, 501 KiB  
Article
Accident Frequency Prediction Model for Flat Rural Roads in Serbia
by Spasoje Mićić, Radoje Vujadinović, Goran Amidžić, Milanko Damjanović and Boško Matović
Sustainability 2022, 14(13), 7704; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14137704 - 24 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1581
Abstract
Traffic accidents, by their nature, are random events; therefore, it is difficult to estimate the exact places and times of their occurrences and the true nature of their impacts. Although they are hard to precisely predict, preventative actions can be taken and their [...] Read more.
Traffic accidents, by their nature, are random events; therefore, it is difficult to estimate the exact places and times of their occurrences and the true nature of their impacts. Although they are hard to precisely predict, preventative actions can be taken and their numbers (in a certain period) can be approximately predicted. In this study, we investigated the relationship between accident frequency and factors that affect accident frequency; we used accident data for events that occurred on a flat rural state road in Serbia. The analysis was conducted using five statistical models, i.e., Poisson, negative binomial, random effect negative binomial, zero-inflated Poisson, and zero-inflated negative binomial models. The results indicated that the random effect negative binomial model outperformed the other models in terms of goodness-of-fit measures; it was chosen as the accident prediction model for flat rural roads. Four explanatory variables—annual average daily traffic, segment length, number of horizontal curves, and access road density—were found to significantly affect accident frequency. The results of this research can help road authorities make decisions about interventions and investments in road networks, designing new roads, and reconstructing existing roads. Full article
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17 pages, 2645 KiB  
Article
Shaping the Optimal Technology for Servicing the Long-Distance Deliveries of Packaged Cargo by Road Transport
by Vitalii Naumov, Olha Shulika, Oleksandra Orda, Hanna Vasiutina, Marek Bauer and Myroslav Oliskevych
Sustainability 2022, 14(12), 7283; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14127283 - 14 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1497
Abstract
The concept of sustainable transportation of goods as the primary paradigm for designing contemporary logistics systems assumes the use of energy-efficient and affordable modes of transport in a way that guarantees the most cost-efficient variant of the delivery scheme. That especially applies to [...] Read more.
The concept of sustainable transportation of goods as the primary paradigm for designing contemporary logistics systems assumes the use of energy-efficient and affordable modes of transport in a way that guarantees the most cost-efficient variant of the delivery scheme. That especially applies to road transport deliveries, where the number of alternatives for organizing the transportation process is numerous and the choice of the optimal solution is complicated by the multiple stochastic influences of the environment on the technological processes. In this paper, we contribute to solving the problem of shaping the sustainable delivery schemes by proposing an approach to shape the complete set of alternative transport and technological schemes for packaged cargo delivery by road transport. The developed mathematical model allows estimating the efficiency of each alternative delivery scheme for the given request and chooses the best variant that minimizes the total costs of all participants in the delivery process. The proposed algorithms are implemented in the C# programming language within the frame of a class library for modeling transport delivery processes. A case of transport processes for Delivery Ltd. (Kharkiv, Ukraine) is applied to illustrate the procedure of using the developed approach to choose the optimal transport and technological schemes for long-distance deliveries. As the result of simulating the goods transportation processes, we show the regression models that represent dependencies of the total costs for the implementation of a delivery scheme from the parameters of demand for the transportation of goods. These regression models allow estimating the most efficient delivery schemes based on the functional analysis of the obtained dependencies for the given demand parameters. Full article
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15 pages, 1571 KiB  
Article
Selecting a Rational Scheme of Delivery by Road Transport: A Case Study of Goods Deliveries from China to Russia through Kazakhstan
by Vitalii Naumov, Gaziza Zhumatayeva, Igor Taran, Madina Bazarbekova and Batyrbek Kenzhegaliyev
Sustainability 2022, 14(9), 4954; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14094954 - 20 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2029
Abstract
Road transport is in most cases the only available transport option in rural regions with undeveloped railway infrastructure. The problem of choosing the structure of the logistics chain is one of the most important ones that forwarding companies must solve when planning freight [...] Read more.
Road transport is in most cases the only available transport option in rural regions with undeveloped railway infrastructure. The problem of choosing the structure of the logistics chain is one of the most important ones that forwarding companies must solve when planning freight transportation. Due to political peculiarities, transportation of goods by road through the territory of Kazakhstan must be carried out by national forwarders, which results in centralizing the decision-making process and shifting the tasks of designing the structure of supply chains to the Kazakh forwarding companies. In this paper, we develop a mathematical model to solve the problem of choosing the right structure for a logistics chain. The proposed model considers the existing legal constraints in the region. Based on a simulated demand for cargo deliveries from China to Russia, we use a numerical example to show how to justify the structure of the logistics chain characterized by minimal total costs of the companies involved in the delivery process. Full article
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12 pages, 3228 KiB  
Article
Neural Network-Based Prediction of Vehicle Fuel Consumption Based on Driving Cycle Data
by Jakov Topić, Branimir Škugor and Joško Deur
Sustainability 2022, 14(2), 744; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14020744 - 10 Jan 2022
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2840
Abstract
This paper deals with fuel consumption prediction based on vehicle velocity, acceleration, and road slope time series inputs. Several data-driven models are considered for this purpose, including linear regression models and neural network-based ones. The emphasis is on accounting for the road slope [...] Read more.
This paper deals with fuel consumption prediction based on vehicle velocity, acceleration, and road slope time series inputs. Several data-driven models are considered for this purpose, including linear regression models and neural network-based ones. The emphasis is on accounting for the road slope impact when forming the model inputs, in order to improve the prediction accuracy. A particular focus is devoted to conversion of length-varying driving cycles into fixed dimension inputs suitable for neural networks. The proposed prediction algorithms are parameterized and tested based on GPS- and CAN-based tracking data recorded on a number of city buses during their regular operation. The test results demonstrate that a proposed neural network-based approach provides a favorable prediction accuracy and reasonable execution speed, thus making it suitable for various applications such as vehicle routing optimization, synthetic driving cycle validation, transport planning and similar. Full article
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19 pages, 1759 KiB  
Article
Ensuring Sustainable Freight Carriage through Interoperability between Maritime and Rail Transport
by Aldona Jarašūnienė and Kristina Čižiūnienė
Sustainability 2021, 13(22), 12766; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132212766 - 18 Nov 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2109
Abstract
With increasing freight flows and their carriage, sustainability in the transport sector is one of today’s key challenges. With expanding geographical coverage of consumers, manufacturers and all participants in the logistics chain, sustainable carriage is becoming a considerable challenge, which can possibly be [...] Read more.
With increasing freight flows and their carriage, sustainability in the transport sector is one of today’s key challenges. With expanding geographical coverage of consumers, manufacturers and all participants in the logistics chain, sustainable carriage is becoming a considerable challenge, which can possibly be tackled by interoperability between different modes of transport. However, even in this context, there are endless difficulties, such as the compatibility of modes of transport, completion of documentation, compatibility of information systems and technologies, and the like. This article examines the importance of interoperability between maritime and rail transport in the development of international freight carriage. A theoretical assessment of maritime and rail transport interoperability covering the need for the application of information systems (IS) in the field of maritime and rail transport is presented, as well as distinguishing research problems relating to this interoperability and the presentation of key results. The quantitative and qualitative research methods applied in this article, the results of the research as well as the expert assessment of the activities of companies providing maritime and rail transport services are presented to verify the adaptation of the developed model. Full article
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Review

Jump to: Research

19 pages, 2183 KiB  
Review
A Bibliometric Analysis of the Trends and Characteristics of Railway Research
by Diogo Da Fonseca-Soares, Josicleda Domiciano Galvinicio, Sayonara Andrade Eliziário and Angel Fermin Ramos-Ridao
Sustainability 2022, 14(21), 13956; https://doi.org/10.3390/su142113956 - 27 Oct 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2026
Abstract
A retrospective bibliometric analysis of the railway sector covering the 20-year period between 2002 and 2021 was carried out to better understand the characteristics of the railway research. The Scopus database contained 1918 articles published with the keywords “Rail System”. VOSviewer software was [...] Read more.
A retrospective bibliometric analysis of the railway sector covering the 20-year period between 2002 and 2021 was carried out to better understand the characteristics of the railway research. The Scopus database contained 1918 articles published with the keywords “Rail System”. VOSviewer software was used to create network maps from each of the variables studied. The results showed a huge increase in the number of publications over this period—notably, work written by Zhang, Y.T., who was found to be the most productive author. Engineering was found to be the most studied subject area of knowledge; Transportation Research Record was the journal with the highest number of publications; and China was revealed to be the leading country regarding this research field, Southwest Jiaotong University being the leading institution in this topic. Finally, there was a lack of research on the environmental impact and sustainability of railway systems, an area that could be opened up for future study. Full article
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