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New Perspectives and Challenges in Traffic and Transportation Engineering Supporting Energy Saving in Smart Cities

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "G1: Smart Cities and Urban Management".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2021) | Viewed by 49802

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Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Transport Systems, Traffic Engineering and Logistics, Faculty of Transport and Aviation Engineering, Silesian University of Technology, Krasińskiego 8 Street, 40-019 Katowice, Poland
Interests: road traffic engineering; road and intersections capacity analysis; measurements; traffic modeling; research and traffic flow analysis; transport infrastructure; functional analysis; transport systems and processes modeling; transportation engineering
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Centre for Mechanical Engineering and Automation, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
Interests: sustainable mobility; road transportation impacts; intelligent transportation systems; active transportation modes
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Centre for Mechanical Technology and Automation, Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
Interests: emissions monitoring; emissions modelling; traffic modelling; accident reconstruction; sustainable mobility; smart cities
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Transport, like other spheres of human activity, is constantly changing due to economic development. People are constantly improving the ways of moving using various energy sources, expanding infrastructures, and adapting cities to increasing traffic volumes. An efficient, modern, and demand-driven transport infrastructure is the strength of a growing economy. The development of transport improves the accessibility of regions and labor markets and reduces the nuisance caused by congestion. All these elements translate into economic benefits, competitiveness, increased productivity of enterprises and regions, as well as social benefits. On the other hand, however, transport consumes enormous energy resources; hence, all solutions in the scope of improving transport infrastructure, vehicle construction, as well as modeling users’ and drivers’ behavior may constitute an element contributing to broadly saving energy.

This Special Issue will consist of papers describing the state-of-the-art in methods and solutions in traffic and transportation engineering supporting energy saving in smart cities as well as outlining trends already under way and future developments in this sector. Topics of interest include but are not limited to the following:

- Road traffic measurements, data analyzing;

- Road traffic (micro-, meso-, macro) modelling, simulation models;

- Road and intersection capacity;

- Optimization, route choice;

- Human factor in road traffic and transportation engineering;

- Road safety;

- Pedestrian and bicycle traffic and infrastructure;

- Public transport solutions, parking;

- Contemporary problems of road traffic engineering and sustainable transportation;

- Intelligent transportation systems (ITS), traffic control and management;

- Smart grid services;

- Electric mobility;

- Environmental impacts of transportation systems;

- Life cycle analysis (LCA) of alternative energy vectors for road vehicles;

- Transport systems and process modeling;

- Sustainable transportation development;

- Life cycle impact, fuel consumption and emissions.

Prof. Elżbieta Macioszek
Prof. Anna Granà
Prof. Margarida Coelho
Dr. Paulo Fernandes
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • energy saving solutions
  • traffic engineering
  • sustainable transportation
  • road safety
  • traffic flow modeling
  • capacity
  • public transport
  • parking
  • traffic control
  • traffic safety of vulnerable road users
  • fuel consumption and emissions
  • transport network
  • intelligent transport systems (ITS)
  • smart grid services

Published Papers (17 papers)

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Editorial

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8 pages, 227 KiB  
Editorial
New Perspectives and Challenges in Traffic and Transportation Engineering Supporting Energy Saving in Smart Cities—A Multidisciplinary Approach to a Global Problem
by Elżbieta Macioszek, Anna Granà, Paulo Fernandes and Margarida C. Coelho
Energies 2022, 15(12), 4191; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15124191 - 7 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1802
Abstract
Transportation, like other spheres of human activity, is constantly changing due to economic development [...] Full article

Research

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28 pages, 6775 KiB  
Article
Assessing the Environmental Performances of Urban Roundabouts Using the VSP Methodology and AIMSUN
by Francesco Acuto, Margarida C. Coelho, Paulo Fernandes, Tullio Giuffrè, Elżbieta Macioszek and Anna Granà
Energies 2022, 15(4), 1371; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15041371 - 14 Feb 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2315
Abstract
In line with globally shared environmental sustainability goals, the shift towards citizen-friendly mobility is changing the way people move through cities and road user behaviour. Building a sustainable road transport requires design knowledge to develop increasingly green road infrastructures and monitoring the environmental [...] Read more.
In line with globally shared environmental sustainability goals, the shift towards citizen-friendly mobility is changing the way people move through cities and road user behaviour. Building a sustainable road transport requires design knowledge to develop increasingly green road infrastructures and monitoring the environmental impacts from mobile crowdsourced data. In this view, the paper presents an empirically based methodology that integrates the vehicle-specific power (VSP) model and microscopic traffic simulation (AIMSUN) to estimate second-by-second vehicle emissions at urban roundabouts. The distributions of time spent in each VSP mode from instantaneous vehicle trajectory data gathered in the field via smartphone were the starting point of the analysis. The versatility of AIMSUN in calibrating the model parameters to better reflect the field-observed speed-time trajectories and to enhance the estimation accuracy was assessed. The conversion of an existing roundabout within the sample into a turbo counterpart was also made as an attempt to confirm the reproducibility of the proposed procedure. The results shed light on new opportunities in the environmental performance evaluation of road units when changes in design or operation should be considered within traffic management strategies and highlighted the potential of the smart approach in collecting big amounts of data through digital communities. Full article
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24 pages, 8804 KiB  
Article
Synergy Effect of Factors Characterising Village Transition Zones on Speed Reduction
by Alicja Sołowczuk and Dominik Kacprzak
Energies 2021, 14(24), 8474; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14248474 - 15 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1813
Abstract
There are various traffic calming measures that can be installed in village transition zones. So far, focus was placed on diversified use of pavement markings, amounts of horizontal deflection, shape of the installed chicanes or central islands, presence of gateway, etc., and their [...] Read more.
There are various traffic calming measures that can be installed in village transition zones. So far, focus was placed on diversified use of pavement markings, amounts of horizontal deflection, shape of the installed chicanes or central islands, presence of gateway, etc., and their location along the transition zone. However, the combined effect of the different transition zone factors on speed reductions has been rarely studied so far. Authors put forward a hypothesis of there being some determinants, which in combination influence speed reduction. To corroborate the hypothesis on the combined impact of the transition zone features on speed reduction in the village transition zones and to validate the established relationships the authors conducted verification study in transition zones containing chicanes or central islands. To verify this hypothesis the authors studied twenty transition zones and managed to confirm the hypothesis at 95% confidence level. The authors used previously adopted binary methods, verified the previously defined factors and added a few new determinants. The contribution of this study is a further investigation of the synergy effect of various relevant factors and the findings can assist in planning new transition zones or suggest additional measures to achieve the desired speed reduction in existing transition zones. Full article
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17 pages, 5017 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Radar Speed Cameras and Panels Indicating the Vehicles’ Speed as Traffic Calming Measures (TCM) in Short Length Urban Areas Located along Rural Roads
by Heriberto Pérez-Acebo, Robert Ziolkowski and Hernán Gonzalo-Orden
Energies 2021, 14(23), 8146; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14238146 - 5 Dec 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2266
Abstract
Traffic calming measures (TCMs) are implemented in urban areas to reduce vehicles’ speed and, generally speaking, results are obtained. However, speed is still a problem in rural roads crossing small villages without a bypass and with short-length urban areas, since drivers do not [...] Read more.
Traffic calming measures (TCMs) are implemented in urban areas to reduce vehicles’ speed and, generally speaking, results are obtained. However, speed is still a problem in rural roads crossing small villages without a bypass and with short-length urban areas, since drivers do not normally reduce their speed for that short segment. Hence, various TCM can be installed. It is necessary to maintain a calm area in these short segments to improve road safety, especially for pedestrian aiming to cross the road, and to save combustible by avoiding a constant increase-decrease of speed. Four villages were selected to evaluate the efficiency of radar speed cameras and panels indicating vehicle’s speed. Results showed that the presence of radar speed cameras reduces the speed in the direction they can fine, but with a lower effect in the non-fining direction. Additionally, a positive effect was observed in the fining direction in other points, such as pedestrian crossings. Nevertheless, the effect does not last long and speed cameras may be considered as punctual measures. If the TCMs are placed far from the start of the village they are not respected. Hence, it is recommended to place them near the real start of the build-up area. Lastly, it was verified that longer urban areas make overall speed decrease. However, when drivers feel that they are arriving to the end of the urban area, due to the inexistence of buildings, they start speeding up. Full article
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30 pages, 1051 KiB  
Article
A Comparison of Three Ridesharing Cost Savings Allocation Schemes Based on the Number of Acceptable Shared Rides
by Fu-Shiung Hsieh
Energies 2021, 14(21), 6931; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14216931 - 21 Oct 2021
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 1696
Abstract
Shared mobility based on cars refers to a transportation mode in which travelers/drivers share vehicles to reduce the cost of the journey, emissions, air pollution and parking demands. Cost savings provide a strong incentive for the shared mobility mode. As cost savings are [...] Read more.
Shared mobility based on cars refers to a transportation mode in which travelers/drivers share vehicles to reduce the cost of the journey, emissions, air pollution and parking demands. Cost savings provide a strong incentive for the shared mobility mode. As cost savings are due to cooperation of the stakeholders in shared mobility systems, they should be properly divided and allocated to relevant participants. Improper allocation of cost savings will lead to dissatisfaction of drivers/passengers and hinder acceptance of the shared mobility mode. In practice, several schemes based on proportional methods to allocate cost savings have been proposed in shared mobility systems. However, there is neither a guideline for selecting these proportional methods nor a comparative study on effectiveness of these proportional methods. Although shared mobility has attracted much attention in the research community, there is still a lack of study of the influence of cost saving allocation schemes on performance of shared mobility systems. Motivated by deficiencies of existing studies, this paper aims to compare three proportional cost savings allocation schemes by analyzing their performance in terms of the numbers of acceptable rides under different schemes. We focus on ridesharing based on cars in this study. The main contribution is to develop theory based on our analysis to characterize the performance under different schemes to provide a guideline for selecting these proportional methods. The theory developed is verified by conducting experiments based on real geographical data. Full article
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23 pages, 3664 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Sustainable Effects of Urban-Port Road System Reconstruction
by Dariusz Bernacki and Christian Lis
Energies 2021, 14(20), 6512; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14206512 - 11 Oct 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1675
Abstract
The aim of the research is to identify and quantify the direct sustainable effects resulting from the improved road infrastructure in the local urban-port transport system. This case study considers the city port of Szczecin (Poland). The effects are identified for the local [...] Read more.
The aim of the research is to identify and quantify the direct sustainable effects resulting from the improved road infrastructure in the local urban-port transport system. This case study considers the city port of Szczecin (Poland). The effects are identified for the local road transport system by comparing freight road transport performance in two options: with the investment and without the investment. The sustainable effects are quantified in terms of money and physical units. Sustainable economic, social, and environmental effects concern generalized freight road transport cost, i.e., truck operating costs and costs of truck drivers’ working time, as well as freight transit time, energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, and environmental savings. To capture effects, the forecast of truck traffic demand, as well as unit vehicle operating costs, values of time, and air pollution and climate change, values are elaborated and revealed in freight road transport. The investigations show that the primary effect of investment is the reduced traffic congestion, which enhance the velocity of trucks in the transport system. The increased trucks′ speed affect freight road traffic performance, time of delivery, and environmental externalities. Full article
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36 pages, 39077 KiB  
Article
Bicycle Traffic Model for Sustainable Urban Mobility Planning
by Jacek Oskarbski, Krystian Birr and Karol Żarski
Energies 2021, 14(18), 5970; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14185970 - 20 Sep 2021
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 5202
Abstract
Modelling tools and transport models are required to assess the impact of measures for the effective planning of cycling routes in cities. This paper presents the methodology for developing a four-stage macroscopic model of bicycle traffic for the city of Gdynia, and its [...] Read more.
Modelling tools and transport models are required to assess the impact of measures for the effective planning of cycling routes in cities. This paper presents the methodology for developing a four-stage macroscopic model of bicycle traffic for the city of Gdynia, and its use in planning new bicycle routes, considering a modal shift. The model presented in this paper allows for the evaluation of the influence of the characteristics of the cycling infrastructure, along with the development of the cycling network based on the choice of cycling as an alternative to other modes of transport, by taking into account the modal shift. The model takes into account the influence of the longitudinal gradient, link, and surface type of cycling routes on the distribution and demand for bicycle traffic. The results of our research allow us to assess the impact of planned cycling routes on the reduction in the volume of car traffic, which is crucial for reducing energy consumption and negative environmental impacts. Experiences from the application of the model in Gdynia suggest that the model provides a strong basis to support mobility planning and monitoring processes in cities worldwide. Cities should take into account the methods proposed in this paper when planning the development of their transport systems. Full article
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21 pages, 12597 KiB  
Article
Effect of Traffic Calming in a Downtown District of Szczecin, Poland
by Alicja Sołowczuk
Energies 2021, 14(18), 5838; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14185838 - 15 Sep 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2620
Abstract
The increasing use of road vehicles has caused a number of transport and environmental issues throughout the world. To cope with them, traffic calming schemes are being increasingly implemented in built-up areas. An example of such schemes are Tempo-30 zones. The traffic calming [...] Read more.
The increasing use of road vehicles has caused a number of transport and environmental issues throughout the world. To cope with them, traffic calming schemes are being increasingly implemented in built-up areas. An example of such schemes are Tempo-30 zones. The traffic calming measures applied as part of this scheme must be carefully planned in terms of location and design details in order to obtain the desired reduction in speed, traffic volume and exhaust emissions and, last but foremost, to increase the safety and facilitate the movement of vulnerable road users. The coexistence and combined effect of these measures and their design details must also be taken into account. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the applied traffic calming measures had a considerable bearing on the reduction in speed to the desired level, as assumed in the traffic calming plan. Three street sections starting and ending with different intersection types were chosen to examine the synergy of the applied traffic calming measures. The numbers and speeds of vehicles were measured in three day-long continuous surveys. As it was expected, the amount of speed reduction depended on the hourly traffic volume on a one-way street and various other traffic engineering aspects. The obtained results may be used to modify the existing speed profile models and can guide traffic engineers in choosing the most effective traffic calming measures. Full article
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14 pages, 8828 KiB  
Article
Investigating the Impact of Public Transport Service Disruptions upon Passenger Travel Behaviour—Results from Krakow City
by Arkadiusz Adam Drabicki, Md Faqhrul Islam and Andrzej Szarata
Energies 2021, 14(16), 4889; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14164889 - 10 Aug 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1960
Abstract
Public transport (PT) service disruptions are common and unexpected events which often result in major impediment to passengers’ typical travel routines. However, attitudes and behavioural responses to unexpected PT disruptions are still not fully understood in state-of-the-art research. The objective of this study [...] Read more.
Public transport (PT) service disruptions are common and unexpected events which often result in major impediment to passengers’ typical travel routines. However, attitudes and behavioural responses to unexpected PT disruptions are still not fully understood in state-of-the-art research. The objective of this study is to examine how PT users adapt their travel choices and what travel information sources they utilize once they encounter sudden PT service disruptions. To this end, we conduct a passenger survey among PT users in the city of Kraków (Poland), consisting of a series of stated- and revealed-preference questions. Results show that passengers’ reported choices during past PT disruptions mostly involve adjusting the current PT travel routine, exposing a certain bias with their stated choices (which tend to overestimate the probability of modal shifts). Factors influencing travel behaviour shifts include frequency and recency of PT disruption experience, as well as propensity to arrive on-time. With regards to travel information sources, staff announcement and personal experience play an important role in recognizing the emerging disruption, but real-time information (RTI) sources are the most useful in planning the onward journey afterwards. Based on these, we highlight the implications for future RTI policy during PT service disruptions; in particular, the provision of a reliable time estimate until normal service conditions are resumed. Such RTI content could foster passengers’ tendency to use PT services in uncertain conditions, especially as their stated wait time tolerance often matches the actual duration of PT disruptions. Full article
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15 pages, 4644 KiB  
Article
Identifying the Optimal Packing and Routing to Improve Last-Mile Delivery Using Cargo Bicycles
by Vitalii Naumov and Michał Pawluś
Energies 2021, 14(14), 4132; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14144132 - 8 Jul 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3722
Abstract
Efficient vehicle routing is a major concern for any supply chain, especially when dealing with last-mile deliveries in highly urbanized areas. In this paper problems considering last-mile delivery in areas with the restrictions of motorized traffic are described and different types of cargo [...] Read more.
Efficient vehicle routing is a major concern for any supply chain, especially when dealing with last-mile deliveries in highly urbanized areas. In this paper problems considering last-mile delivery in areas with the restrictions of motorized traffic are described and different types of cargo bikes are reviewed. The paper describes methods developed in order to solve a combination of problems for cargo bicycle logistics, including efficient packing, routing and load-dependent speed constraints. Proposed models apply mathematical descriptions of problems, including the Knapsack Problem, Traveling Salesman Problem and Traveling Thief Problem. Based on synthetically generated data, we study the efficiency of the proposed algorithms. Models described in this paper are implemented in Python programming language and will be further developed and used for solving the problems of electric cargo bikes’ routing under real-world conditions. Full article
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25 pages, 14868 KiB  
Article
Identification of the Determinants of the Effectiveness of On-Road Chicanes in the Village Transition Zones Subject to a 50 km/h Speed Limit
by Alicja Barbara Sołowczuk and Dominik Kacprzak
Energies 2021, 14(13), 4002; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14134002 - 2 Jul 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2265
Abstract
In recent years, in which a considerable increase in the road traffic volumes has been witnessed, traffic calming has become one the key issues in the area of road engineering. This concerns, in particular, trunk roads passing through small villages with a population [...] Read more.
In recent years, in which a considerable increase in the road traffic volumes has been witnessed, traffic calming has become one the key issues in the area of road engineering. This concerns, in particular, trunk roads passing through small villages with a population of up to 500 and the road section length within the village limits of ca. 1400–1700 m. A successful traffic calming scheme must involve primarily effective reduction in inbound traffic speed. A review of the data from various countries revealed that chicanes installed in the transition zones may have a determining effect on the success of the traffic calming project. The effectiveness of such chicanes depends mainly on the type of chicane, its location on the carriageway, its shape and the size of the lateral deflection imposed by the chicane on the inbound lane. The purpose of this study was to identify the speed reduction determinants in traffic calming schemes in village transition zones, based on a central island horizontally deflecting one lane of a two-lane two-way road with 50 km/h speed restriction. As part of the study, vehicle speeds were measured just before and after the chicanes under analysis. Furthermore, the inbound lane traffic volumes were measured in field and a number of factors were identified, including the applied traffic management scheme, road parameters, view of the road ahead and of the village skyline, isolated buildings, road infrastructure and adjacent roadside developments. The obtained data were analysed with a method employing tautologies of the selected 32 factors affecting the drivers’ perception. A single aggregate parameter was proposed for assessing the coincidence of the influence of selected factors on speed reduction. The analysis of the existing schemes and the results of statistical analyses carried out in this study confirmed the authors’ hypothesis that the combined selected factors produce a desirable effect and that they should be additionally enhanced by the application of solar powered devices. Full article
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18 pages, 54669 KiB  
Article
Modelling the Effects of Traffic-Calming Introduction to Volume–Delay Functions and Traffic Assignment
by Jan Paszkowski, Marcus Herrmann, Matthias Richter and Andrzej Szarata
Energies 2021, 14(13), 3726; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14133726 - 22 Jun 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2311
Abstract
Traffic calming is introduced to minimise the negative results of motor vehicle use, for example, low safety level or quality of life, high noise and pollution. It can be implemented through the introduction of road infrastructure reducing the velocity and the traffic volume. [...] Read more.
Traffic calming is introduced to minimise the negative results of motor vehicle use, for example, low safety level or quality of life, high noise and pollution. It can be implemented through the introduction of road infrastructure reducing the velocity and the traffic volume. In this paper, we studied how traffic-calming influences the traffic assignment. For the research, a traffic-calming measure of speed cushions on the Stachiewicza street in Krakow was taken. A method of extracting trajectories from aerial footage was shown, and it was used to build a model. For a given example, through driving characteristics research and microscopic modelling, volume–delay BPR functions were estimated—for a street with and without traffic calming. Later, a toy network of two roads of the same length, connecting the same origin and destination, was simulated using an equilibrium traffic assignment method. Simulations were conducted both with the use of PTV Vissim and Visum software and through individual calculations. According to the results of this paper, there was a difference in traffic volume according to the equilibrium traffic assignment in the aforementioned toy network as a function of total network traffic volume. Full article
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14 pages, 4365 KiB  
Article
Investigations of the Dynamic Travel Time Information Impact on Drivers’ Route Choice in an Urban Area—A Case Study Based on the City of Bialystok
by Robert Ziółkowski and Zbigniew Dziejma
Energies 2021, 14(6), 1645; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14061645 - 16 Mar 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1347
Abstract
Increasing traffic volumes in cities leads to common traffic congestions building up, especially during peak hours. To protect city dwellers from excessive fuel exhaust and traffic noise and to prevent drivers from time loss due to overloaded routes, it is important to inform [...] Read more.
Increasing traffic volumes in cities leads to common traffic congestions building up, especially during peak hours. To protect city dwellers from excessive fuel exhaust and traffic noise and to prevent drivers from time loss due to overloaded routes, it is important to inform them about real-time traffic conditions and possible delays in advance. Effectively influencing drivers’ decisions to divert from an original route choice in case of traffic hinderance is essential, and application of dynamic travel information in the form of variable message signs (VMSs) is believed to be effective in these terms. The paper examines drivers’ willingness to divert from an initial route choice due to the information provided on VMS boards. Their behavior was analyzed in terms of their response to everyday and artificially elongated travel times displayed on the VMSs. Maximum simulated elongation reached 200% and 300% of the initial state, depending on the characteristics of the pre-peak conditions. To assess the effectiveness of VMSs, the changes in traffic intensities were statistically analyzed. In general, apart from few significant differences, the results revealed drivers’ ignorance of the travel time information provided on the VMS, regardless of the extension of the original times. Full article
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25 pages, 7160 KiB  
Article
A Back-of-Queue Model of a Signal-Controlled Intersection Approach Developed Based on Analysis of Vehicle Driver Behavior
by Elżbieta Macioszek and Damian Iwanowicz
Energies 2021, 14(4), 1204; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14041204 - 23 Feb 2021
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 3243
Abstract
In smart cities, it is expected that transport, communication as well as the movement of people and goods will take place in the shortest possible time while maintaining a high level of safety. In recent years, due to the significant increase in the [...] Read more.
In smart cities, it is expected that transport, communication as well as the movement of people and goods will take place in the shortest possible time while maintaining a high level of safety. In recent years, due to the significant increase in the number of passengers and vehicles on the road and the capacity limitations of transport networks, it has become necessary to use new technologies for intelligent control and traffic management. Intelligent transport systems use advanced technologies in the field of data gathering, information processing, and traffic control to meet current transport needs. To be able to effectively control and manage road traffic, it is necessary to have reliable mathematical models that allow for a faithful representation of the real traffic conditions. Models of this type are usually the basis of complex algorithms used in practice in road traffic control. The application of appropriate models reflecting the behavior of road users contributes to the reduction of congestion, the vehicles travel time on the transport network, fuel consumption and the emissions, which in turn support broadly understood energy savings. The article proposes a model that allows for the estimation of the maximum queue size at the signal-controlled intersection approach (so-called: maximum back-of-queue). This model takes into account the most important traffic characteristics of the vehicles forming this queue. The verification allowed for the conclusion that the proposed model is characterized by high compliance with the actual traffic and road conditions at the intersections with signal controllers located in built-up areas in Poland. The obtained compliance confirms the possibility of using the model for practical applications in calculating the maximum back-of-queue at signal-controlled intersections located in built-up areas in Poland. Full article
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28 pages, 2393 KiB  
Article
The Economic Effects of Electromobility in Sustainable Urban Public Transport
by Oliwia Pietrzak and Krystian Pietrzak
Energies 2021, 14(4), 878; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14040878 - 8 Feb 2021
Cited by 30 | Viewed by 5192
Abstract
This paper focuses on effects of implementing zero-emission buses in public transport fleets in urban areas in the context of electromobility assumptions. It fills the literature gap in the area of research on the impact of the energy mix of a given country [...] Read more.
This paper focuses on effects of implementing zero-emission buses in public transport fleets in urban areas in the context of electromobility assumptions. It fills the literature gap in the area of research on the impact of the energy mix of a given country on the issues raised in this article. The main purpose of this paper is to identify and analyse economic effects of implementing zero-emission buses in public transport in cities. The research area was the city of Szczecin, Poland. The research study was completed using the following research methods: literature review, document analysis (legal acts and internal documents), case study, ratio analysis, and comparative analysis of selected variants (investment variant and base variant). The conducted research study has shown that economic benefits resulting from implementing zero-emission buses in an urban transport fleet are limited by the current energy mix structure of the given country. An unfavourable energy mix may lead to increased emissions of SO2 and CO2 resulting from operation of this kind of vehicle. Therefore, achieving full effects in the field of electromobility in the given country depends on taking concurrent actions in order to diversify the power generation sources, and in particular on increasing the share of Renewable Energy Sources (RES). Full article
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31 pages, 14342 KiB  
Article
Identification of the Determinants of the Effectiveness of On-Road Chicanes in Transition Zones to Villages Subject to a 70 km/h Speed Limit
by Alicja Sołowczuk and Dominik Kacprzak
Energies 2020, 13(20), 5244; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13205244 - 9 Oct 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2557
Abstract
In recent decades traffic calming, especially in villages situated on through roads, has become an urgent issue. Various schemes are applied in the transition zones to reduce the inbound traffic speeds and thus improve the traffic safety. The studies conducted in several countries [...] Read more.
In recent decades traffic calming, especially in villages situated on through roads, has become an urgent issue. Various schemes are applied in the transition zones to reduce the inbound traffic speeds and thus improve the traffic safety. The studies conducted in several countries point to different determinants of the speed reduction obtained in this way. This article deals with the schemes including a central island horizontally deflecting one lane, located in transition zones to villages with 70 km/h speed restriction on two-lane roads (6 m carriageway width). In order to identify the speed reduction determinants, the speeds before and after chicanes were measured and the effect of the three criteria was investigated, characterising: the traffic management scheme, road design parameters, landscape elements present in the surroundings of the transition zone and visibility conditions. Based on the confirmation of logical tautology of many pre-selected factors, one aggregate parameter was proposed for the assessment of the practicable level of speed reduction, combining the effect of the selected factors in the above-mentioned criteria. Statistical analysis of the obtained results confirmed a statistically significant relationship between both the speed reduction value and the speed reduction index, and the aggregate parameter proposed by the authors. Factors related to the surrounding landscape and visibility conditions were found to have the greatest direct effect on speed reduction. The chicanes chosen in the final step of the proposed design process should be enhanced by additional solar-powered elements ensuring their improved visibility. These devices should not, however, require any additional energy supply and should not increase the construction or maintenance costs. Full article
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Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

19 pages, 876 KiB  
Review
Evaluating the Environmental Impact of Using Cargo Bikes in Cities: A Comprehensive Review of Existing Approaches
by Hanna Vasiutina, Andrzej Szarata and Stanisław Rybicki
Energies 2021, 14(20), 6462; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14206462 - 9 Oct 2021
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 5355
Abstract
The impact of the use of cargo bicycles for delivery processes on the environment is undeniably positive: it leads to the reduction of pollutants, noise, and vibrations caused by traditional vehicles; decreases traffic jams; causes more effective use of public space; and others. [...] Read more.
The impact of the use of cargo bicycles for delivery processes on the environment is undeniably positive: it leads to the reduction of pollutants, noise, and vibrations caused by traditional vehicles; decreases traffic jams; causes more effective use of public space; and others. But how should such an effect be measured? What tools should be used to justify the necessity for change to more sustainable means of transport? How can we improve the state of the environment considering the interests of logistics service providers? There is a large amount of scientific literature dedicated to this problem: by using different modeling approaches, authors attempt to address the issue of sustainable transport. This paper conducts a literature review in the field of green cargo deliveries, investigates the benefits and drawbacks of integrating cargo bikes in urban logistics schemes, and examines methodologies and techniques for evaluating the impact of using cargo bicycles on the environment. By providing an opportunity to get acquainted with the situation in the sphere of green deliveries, the authors aim to encourage a breakthrough in the field of sustainable transport that may be achieved by using cargo bikes in modern cities. We review the existing approaches and tools for modeling transport emissions and state the significant positive environmental consequences. Full article
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