nutrients-logo

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

The Relationship between Dieting, Dietary Restraint, Caloric Restriction, Intermittent Fasting and Eating Disorders

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutrition and Public Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (25 January 2023) | Viewed by 6980

Special Issue Editor


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Responsible Director of the U.O. Dietetics and Clinical Nutrition – San Martino GE Polyclinic Hospital, Genova, Italy
Interests: eating disorders; intermittent fasting; nutrition; diet
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The literature indicates that calorie restriction—that is, continued reduction of nutrient intake—plays an important role in improving health conditions and increases survival in all species studied. The body adapts to this bioenergetic challenge by activating signaling pathways that strengthen mitochondrial function, which is helpful for withstanding stress and amplifying antioxidant defenses. During the energy-restriction period, the cells adopt a mode of stress resistance through the reduction of insulin signaling, which can also be associated with the activation of anabolic and proliferative pathways that facilitate cellular and oncological degenerative processes.

More recently, it has been observed that calorie restriction mechanisms can be amplified or partially replaced by fasting. Physiological fasting is the reduction of the physiological duration of caloric and protein intake for about 12 hours. A change in the duration of fasting can induce effects, both at the cellular level and at the systemic level, which are more intense than simple calorie restriction. Depending on the duration of the fast, it can activate metabolic pathways such as macroautophagy and microautophagy that have a different set point activation depending on the duration of the restriction. From this point of view, we can distinguish hourly calorie restrictions with fasting duration that can vary from 14 to 16 hours up to full days (defined intermittent fasts), with a ratio of 1:1, 5:2, depending on the length in fasting days.

However, in spite of its efficacy on the mechanisms of autophagy, caloric restriction and fasting can be associated with malnutrition when excessive or in the presence of pathology. Therefore, it is crucial that in clinical situations such as eating disorders and cancer, paying attention to these methods is mandatory.

This Special Issue aims to focus on possible retrospective or prospective studies, as well as narrative or systematic reviews, meta-analyses of fasting and calorie restriction for both preventive and therapeutic purposes in the animal and human models in the presence of conditions at risk of malnutrition, such as cancer.

Prof. Dr. Samir Giuseppe Sukkar
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • calorie restriction
  • eating disorders
  • cancer malnutrition
  • dietary restraints
  • intermittent fasting
  • hour restriction
  • fasting

Published Papers (4 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

13 pages, 1547 KiB  
Article
The Real-Life Use of a Protein-Sparing Modified Fast Diet by Nasogastric Tube (ProMoFasT) in Adults with Obesity: An Open-Label Randomized Controlled Trial
by Elena Formisano, Irene Schiavetti, Raffaella Gradaschi, Paolo Gardella, Carlotta Romeo, Livia Pisciotta and Samir Giuseppe Sukkar
Nutrients 2023, 15(22), 4822; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15224822 - 17 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1250
Abstract
Background: Protein-sparing modified fast (PSMF) diet is a very-low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet administered to patients with obesity, which preserves lean mass and suppresses appetite as well as continuous enteral feeding. Thus, we aim to evaluate the effect of the PSMF diet administered continuously by [...] Read more.
Background: Protein-sparing modified fast (PSMF) diet is a very-low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet administered to patients with obesity, which preserves lean mass and suppresses appetite as well as continuous enteral feeding. Thus, we aim to evaluate the effect of the PSMF diet administered continuously by nasogastric tube (NGT) or orally. Methods: Patients with a body mass index (BMI) > 34.9 kg/m2 were randomly assigned to receive a whey protein PSMF formula through NGT (ProMoFasT) or orally. Data were collected at baseline and after 150 days. The endpoints were assessed in the intention-to-treat population. Results: We enrolled 20 patients in the ProMoFasT group and 24 in the oral group. No differences in body weight, BMI or waist circumference between the two groups were found after 150 days. At follow-up, FFM (%) and MM (%) results were higher in the ProMoFasT group than the oral group (63.1% vs. 52.9%, p = 0.012 and 45.0% vs. 36.1%, p = 0.009, respectively) and FM (kg) and FM (%) were significantly lower in the ProMoFasT group (36.9 kg vs. 44.0 kg, p = 0.033 and 37.4% vs. 44.9%, p = 0.012, respectively). Insulin levels were lower in the ProMoFasT group than the oral group at follow-up (11.8 mU/L vs. 28.0 mU/L, p = 0.001, respectively). Conclusion: The ProMoFasT is more effective in improving body composition and glucometabolic markers than the same diet administered orally. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 4153 KiB  
Article
Effects of Parental Dietary Restriction on Offspring Fitness in Drosophila melanogaster
by Hye-Yeon Lee, Bora Lee, Eun-Ji Lee and Kyung-Jin Min
Nutrients 2023, 15(5), 1273; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15051273 - 03 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2126
Abstract
Dietary restriction (DR) is a well-established strategy to increase lifespan and stress resistance in many eukaryotic species. In addition, individuals fed a restricted diet typically reduce or completely shut down reproduction compared to individuals fed a full diet. Although the parental environment can [...] Read more.
Dietary restriction (DR) is a well-established strategy to increase lifespan and stress resistance in many eukaryotic species. In addition, individuals fed a restricted diet typically reduce or completely shut down reproduction compared to individuals fed a full diet. Although the parental environment can lead to changes epigenetically in offspring gene expression, little is known about the role of the parental (F0) diet on the fitness of their offspring (F1). This study investigated the lifespan, stress resistance, development, body weight, fecundity, and feeding rate in offspring from parental flies exposed to a full or restricted diet. The offspring flies of the parental DR showed increases in body weight, resistance to various stressors, and lifespan, but the development and fecundity were unaffected. Interestingly, parental DR reduced the feeding rate of their offspring. This study suggests that the effect of DR can extend beyond the exposed individual to their offspring, and it should be considered in both theoretical and empirical studies of senescence. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 966 KiB  
Article
Circulating Levels of Nesfatin-1 and Spexin in Children with Prader-Willi Syndrome during Growth Hormone Treatment and Dietary Intervention
by Joanna Gajewska, Katarzyna Szamotulska, Witold Klemarczyk, Magdalena Chełchowska, Małgorzata Strucińska and Jadwiga Ambroszkiewicz
Nutrients 2023, 15(5), 1240; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15051240 - 01 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1338
Abstract
Background: Despite observable improvement in the treatment outcomes of patients with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), adequate weight control is still a clinical problem. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the profiles of neuroendocrine peptides regulating appetite—mainly nesfatin-1 and spexin—in children with [...] Read more.
Background: Despite observable improvement in the treatment outcomes of patients with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), adequate weight control is still a clinical problem. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the profiles of neuroendocrine peptides regulating appetite—mainly nesfatin-1 and spexin—in children with PWS undergoing growth hormone treatment and reduced energy intake. Methods: Twenty-five non-obese children (aged 2–12 years) with PWS and 30 healthy children of the same age following an unrestricted age-appropriate diet were examined. Serum concentrations of nesfatin-1, spexin, leptin, leptin receptor, total adiponectin, high molecular weight adiponectin, proinsulin, insulin-like growth factor-I, and total and functional IGF-binding protein-3 concentrations were determined using immunoenzymatic methods. Results: The daily energy intake in children with PWS was lower by about 30% (p < 0.001) compared with the controls. Daily protein intake was similar in both groups, but carbohydrate and fat intakes were significantly lower in the patient group than the controls (p < 0.001). Similar values for nesfatin-1 in the PWS subgroup with BMI Z-score < −0.5 and the control group, while higher values in the PWS subgroup with BMI Z-score ≥ −0.5 (p < 0.001) were found. Spexin concentrations were significantly lower in both subgroups with PWS than the controls (p < 0.001; p = 0.005). Significant differences in the lipid profile between the PWS subgroups and the controls were also observed. Nesfatin-1 and leptin were positively related with BMI (p = 0.018; p = 0.001, respectively) and BMI Z-score (p = 0.031; p = 0.027, respectively) in the whole group with PWS. Both neuropeptides also correlated positively in these patients (p = 0.042). Conclusions: Altered profiles of anorexigenic peptides—especially nesfatin-1 and spexin—in non-obese children with Prader-Willi syndrome during growth hormone treatment and reduced energy intake were found. These differences may play a role in the etiology of metabolic disorders in Prader-Willi syndrome despite the applied therapy. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 320 KiB  
Article
Diet Quality and Level of Nutrition Knowledge among Young People with Orthorexic Tendencies
by Natalia Kaźmierczak-Wojtaś and Mariola Drozd
Nutrients 2022, 14(20), 4333; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14204333 - 17 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1741
Abstract
The aim of the study was to determine the level of nutrition knowledge and diet quality, understood in terms of healthy and unhealthy eating habits, among young people with orthorexic tendencies. The participants were school students, university students, and those employed in the [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to determine the level of nutrition knowledge and diet quality, understood in terms of healthy and unhealthy eating habits, among young people with orthorexic tendencies. The participants were school students, university students, and those employed in the Lublin region (N = 473). The data were collected by means of a questionnaire. The participants were asked to provide socio-demographic data through filling in the ORTO-15 questionnaire and the Dietary Habits and Nutrition Beliefs Questionnaire (KomPAN). The participants obtained results ranging from 9.3 to 100 (M = 31.15; SD = 11.81) in the non-healthy diet index, from 0.4 to 78.6 in the pro-healthy diet index (M = 21.79; SD = 11.08), and from 0 to 23 in the domain of nutrition knowledge (M = 13; SD = 4.23). A variance analysis showed no significant differences between the pro-healthy diet index and the level of nutrition knowledge. The group with orthorexia obtained statistically higher results in the pro-healthy diet index. Those with a tendency toward orthorexia obtained statistically higher results in the non-healthy diet index. The variance analysis showed that the level of nutrition knowledge of those not focused on healthy foods was significantly lower than in the other groups. The results of the ORTO-15 questionnaire correlated negatively with the pro-healthy diet index and the level of nutrition knowledge, and positively with the non-healthy diet index. We concluded that: 1. the orthorexic group and the group with a tendency toward orthorexia could be characterized with a moderate intensity of a healthy diet and a low intensity of a non-healthy diet; and 2. the level of nutrition knowledge in the orthorexic group did not significantly differ from that of the other groups. Full article
Back to TopTop