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Plant Derivatives and Bioactive Food Components for Health Promotion

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Phytochemicals and Human Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (25 May 2024) | Viewed by 1814

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Gastroenterology Unit of the CDI (Italian Diagnostic Center), 20147 Milan, Italy
Interests: gastroenterology; oncology; clinical nutrition
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Unit of Human and Clinical Nutrition, Department of Public Health, Experimental and Forensic Medicine, University of Pavia, 27100 Pavia, Italy
Interests: metabolic disorders; gerontology; clinical nutrition
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Active ingredients made from plant parts, such as leaves, roots or flowers, and food extracts are commonly used in the treatment of many diseases. However, being "natural" does not necessarily mean they are efficacious and safe. Just like conventional medicines, “herbal” medicines will have an effect on the body, and can be potentially harmful if not used correctly. The aim of this Special Issue is to focus on the biology, chemical characterization, mechanism of action, clinical efficacy and safety of herbal and food extracts. This Special Issue will also be dedicated to the therapeutical value of nutritional supplements and will include experimental biology, preclinical and clinical studies and reviews.

Prof. Dr. Attilio Giacosa
Prof. Dr. Mariangela Rondanelli
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • bioactive components
  • food extracts
  • nutrition
  • nutritional supplement
  • plant derivatives
  • health promotion
  • natural treatment

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

14 pages, 1722 KiB  
Article
A Patented Dietary Supplement (Hydroxy-Methyl-Butyrate, Carnosine, Magnesium, Butyrate, Lactoferrin) Is a Promising Therapeutic Target for Age-Related Sarcopenia through the Regulation of Gut Permeability: A Randomized Controlled Trial
by Mariangela Rondanelli, Clara Gasparri, Alessandro Cavioni, Claudia Sivieri, Gaetan Claude Barrile, Francesca Mansueto and Simone Perna
Nutrients 2024, 16(9), 1369; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16091369 - 30 Apr 2024
Viewed by 792
Abstract
Adequate diet, physical activity, and dietary supplementation with muscle-targeted food for special medical purposes (FSMP) or dietary supplement (DS) are currently considered fundamental pillars in sarcopenia treatment. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a DS (containing hydroxy-methyl-butyrate, carnosine, [...] Read more.
Adequate diet, physical activity, and dietary supplementation with muscle-targeted food for special medical purposes (FSMP) or dietary supplement (DS) are currently considered fundamental pillars in sarcopenia treatment. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a DS (containing hydroxy-methyl-butyrate, carnosine, and magnesium, for its action on muscle function and protein synthesis and butyrate and lactoferrin for their contribution to the regulation of gut permeability and antioxidant/anti-inflammation activity) on muscle mass (assessed by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)), muscle function (by handgrip test, chair test, short physical performance battery (SPPB) test, and walking speed test), inflammation (tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a), C-reactive protein (CRP), and visceral adipose tissue (VAT)) and gut axis (by zonulin). A total of 59 participants (age 79.7 ± 4.8 years, body mass index 20.99 ± 2.12 kg/m2) were enrolled and randomly assigned to intervention (n = 30) or placebo (n = 28). The skeletal muscle index (SMI) significantly improved in the supplemented group compared to the placebo one, +1.02 (CI 95%: −0.77; 1.26), p = 0.001; a significant reduction in VAT was observed in the intervention group, −70.91 g (−13.13; −4.70), p = 0.036. Regarding muscle function, all the tests significantly improved (p = 0.001) in the supplemented group compared to the placebo one. CRP, zonulin, and TNF-alpha significantly decreased (p = 0.001) in intervention, compared to placebo, −0.74 mg/dL (CI 95%: −1.30; −0.18), −0.30 ng/mL (CI 95%: −0.37; −0.23), −6.45 pg/mL (CI 95%: −8.71; −4.18), respectively. This DS improves muscle mass and function, and the gut muscle has emerged as a new intervention target for sarcopenia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Derivatives and Bioactive Food Components for Health Promotion)
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12 pages, 3147 KiB  
Article
Osteogenic Effects of the Diospyros lotus L. Leaf Extract on MC3T3-E1 Pre-Osteoblasts and Ovariectomized Mice via BMP2/4 and TGF β Pathways
by Soyeon Hong, Nadzeya Lazerka, Byeong Jun Jeon, Jeong Do Kim, Saruul Erdenebileg, Chu Won Nho and Gyhye Yoo
Nutrients 2024, 16(8), 1247; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16081247 - 22 Apr 2024
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Abstract
Osteoporosis, a disease defined by the primary bone strength due to a low bone mineral density, is a bone disorder associated with increased mortality in the older adult population. Osteoporosis is mainly treated via hormone replacement therapy, bisphosphates, and anti-bone resorption agents. However, [...] Read more.
Osteoporosis, a disease defined by the primary bone strength due to a low bone mineral density, is a bone disorder associated with increased mortality in the older adult population. Osteoporosis is mainly treated via hormone replacement therapy, bisphosphates, and anti-bone resorption agents. However, these agents exert severe side effects, necessitating the development of novel therapeutic agents. Many studies are focusing on osteogenic agents as they increase the bone density, which is essential for osteoporosis treatment. Here, we aimed to investigate the effects of Diospyros lotus L. leaf extract (DLE) and its components on osteoporosis in MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts and ovariectomized mice and to elucidate the underlying related pathways. DLE enhanced the differentiation of MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts, with a 1.5-fold elevation in ALP activity, and increased the levels of osteogenic molecules, RUNX family transcription factor 2, and osterix. This alteration resulted from the activation of bone morphogenic protein 2/4 (BMP2/4) and transformation of growth factor β (TGF β) pathways. In ovariectomized mice, DLE suppressed the decrease in bone mineral density by 50% and improved the expression of other bone markers, which was confirmed by the 3~40-fold increase in osteogenic proteins and mRNA expression levels in bone marrow cells. The three major compounds identified in DLE exhibited osteogenic and estrogenic activities with their aglycones, as previously reported. Among the major compounds, myricitrin alone was not as strong as whole DLE with all its constituents. The osteogenic activity of DLE was partially suppressed by the inhibitor of estrogen signaling, indicating that the estrogenic activity of DLE participated in its osteogenic activity. Overall, DLE suppresses osteoporosis by inducing osteoblast differentiation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Derivatives and Bioactive Food Components for Health Promotion)
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