Association between Nutrition, Diet Quality, Dietary Patterns, and Human Health and Diseases

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutrition and Public Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 July 2024 | Viewed by 2603

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Athletic Training and Clinical Nutrition, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0200, USA
Interests: nutrient analysis; vitamin D; cholecalciferol; vitamin D receptor; protein; skeletal muscle; blood glucose; resistance exercise; vitamin B12; cobalamin; aging; multiomics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

It is increasingly recognized that overall dietary patterns and diet quality influence human health. Some dietary patterns, for example the Mediterranean diet, have been associated with favorable outcomes for many chronic diseases. Dietary patterns also encompass behavioral approaches to eating. For example, chronobiology-related patterns, such as meal timing and time-restricted feeding, have emerged as potentially relevant considerations for metabolic health. Social interactions and environmental factors are also important components of diet and eating patterns.

Studies of diet quality assess how routine eating practices provide diversity, essential nutrients, and other beneficial food components, while also limiting components that are known to be detrimental to health (e.g., trans fat and added sugars) or may negatively impact health (e.g., erythritol). Recent research has also considered aspects of diet quality including the level of food processing, overall adequacy of the complete nutrient profile, inclusion/exclusion and distribution of food groups, sustainability, and precision nutrition.

Given the timeliness and importance of this topic, we hope that you will consider submitting your manuscript to this Special Issue. We look forward to your contribution.

Dr. Jean L. Fry
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • dietary patterns
  • diet quality
  • dietary quality indices
  • healthy eating index
  • time-restricted feeding
  • chronic disease
  • sustainability
  • successful aging
  • food security
  • ultra-processed foods
  • principal component analysis
  • plant-based diet

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

14 pages, 973 KiB  
Article
Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Individuals Following Plant-Based Dietary Patterns Compared to Regular Meat-Eaters
by Grace Austin, Jessica J. A. Ferguson, Shaun Eslick, Christopher Oldmeadow, Lisa G. Wood and Manohar L. Garg
Nutrients 2024, 16(7), 1063; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16071063 - 05 Apr 2024
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Abstract
Plant-based diets (PBDs) have been associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim was to investigate the predicted 5-year and 10-year risk of developing CVD in individuals following PBDs compared to regular meat-eating diets. This cross-sectional study included n = [...] Read more.
Plant-based diets (PBDs) have been associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim was to investigate the predicted 5-year and 10-year risk of developing CVD in individuals following PBDs compared to regular meat-eating diets. This cross-sectional study included n = 240 middle-aged adults habitually consuming dietary patterns for ≥6 months: vegan, lacto-ovo vegetarian (LOV), pesco-vegetarian (PV), semi-vegetarian (SV) or regular meat-eater (RME) (n = 48 per group). Predicted 5-year and 10-year CVD risks were quantified using the Framingham Risk Equation and the Australian Absolute CVD risk calculator, respectively. Multivariable regression analysis was used to adjust for age, sex, smoking status, physical activity, alcohol use and BMI. Over three-quarters of the participants were women, mean age of 53.8 yrs. After adjustments for potential confounders, there was no difference in the predicted risk of CVD between regular-meat diets and PBDs, although crude analyses revealed that vegans had a lower 5-year and 10-year predicted risk of CVD compared to RMEs. SVs, PVs and LOVs had lower CVD risk scores, however, not significantly. Vegans had a favourable cardiometabolic risk profile including significantly lower serum lipid levels, fasting blood glucose and dietary fats and higher dietary fibre intake compared to RMEs. This was the first study to purposefully sample Australians habitually following PBDs. We found that PBDs do not independently influence the predicted risk of CVD, although PBDs tended to have lower risk and vegans had significantly lower cardiometabolic risk factors for CVD. Full article
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14 pages, 586 KiB  
Article
Adherence to a Traditional Mexican Diet Is Associated with Lower Hepatic Steatosis in US-Born Hispanics of Mexican Descent with Overweight or Obesity
by Melissa Lopez-Pentecost, Martha Tamez, Josiemer Mattei, Elizabeth T. Jacobs, Cynthia A. Thomson and David O. Garcia
Nutrients 2023, 15(23), 4997; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15234997 - 02 Dec 2023
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Abstract
Hispanics of Mexican descent have disproportionate rates of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The purpose of this work is to investigate the association between the traditional Mexican diet score (tMexS) and hepatic steatosis and fibrosis, two NAFLD-related clinical endpoints, in Hispanic adults of [...] Read more.
Hispanics of Mexican descent have disproportionate rates of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The purpose of this work is to investigate the association between the traditional Mexican diet score (tMexS) and hepatic steatosis and fibrosis, two NAFLD-related clinical endpoints, in Hispanic adults of Mexican descent. Data from 280 Hispanic adults of Mexican descent (n = 102 men, 178 women) with overweight or obesity enrolled in a cross-sectional observational study were analyzed. The tMexS was calculated from 24 h dietary recalls. Hepatic steatosis and fibrosis measurements were assessed using transient elastography (Fibroscan®). Linear regression models testing the association between tMexS and hepatic steatosis and fibrosis were run individually and through the stratification of significant modifiers. Mean tMexS were 5.9 ± 2.1, hepatic steatosis scores were 288.9 ± 48.9 dB/m, and fibrosis scores were 5.6 ± 2.2 kPa. Among the US-born group, with every point increase in the tMexS, there was a statistically significant 5.7 lower hepatic steatosis point (95% CI: −10.9, −0.6, p-value = 0.07). Higher adherence to a traditional Mexican diet was associated with lower hepatic steatosis in US-born Hispanics of Mexican descent. Findings from the current work may serve to inform future culturally relevant interventions for NAFLD prevention and management in individuals of Mexican descent. Full article
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