State-of-the-Art Membrane Science and Technology in North America

A special issue of Membranes (ISSN 2077-0375).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2022) | Viewed by 30706

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2R3, Canada
Interests: membrane; water and gas treatment
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Center for Inorganic Membrane Studies, Department of Chemical Engineering, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, 100 Institute Road, Worcester, MA 01609, USA
Interests: inorganic membranes; catalytic membrane reactors; gas separation; hydrogen production; modeling and simulation; inorganic membrane transport

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Department of Food Sciences, Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods (INAF), Dairy Research Center (STELA) & Laboratory of Food Processing and Electro Membrane Processes (LTAPEM), Université Laval, Québec, QC G1V 0A6, Canada
Interests: membrane processes; electrodialytic phenomena; membrane characterization and predictive model; separation; bio-food compounds; plant proteins; bioactive peptides; dairy products; health benefits; eco-efficiency; food production lines; valorization of co-products; circular economy
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Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221, USA
Interests: membrane science and nanotechnology
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College of Engineering, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487, USA
Interests: membranes; wastewater treatment; desalination
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,  

Membrane science and technology is a broad and highly interdisciplinary field where materials science and engineering, chemistry, chemical engineering, process engineering, separation technologies, environmental science, sustainability, and
molecular simulation converge to produce membranes that have a wide range of applications. North America is the leading region for this field across the world in terms of market share, scholarly outcomes, globally active researchers and entrepreneurs, and membrane manufacturing and water treatment companies and startups. For years, the synergy of high-impact research and development by accomplished and inspiring fellows from academia and industry; exceptional infrastructure and expertise in membrane fabrication and characterization and nanoscale materials; and strong membrane associations, such as the North American Membrane Society (https://membranes.org) and American Membrane Technology Association (https://www.amtaorg.com), have served as a platform on which the transition of research results to the market has been facilitated. However, the development of energy and cost-efficient membrane materials and processes, with sustainable high product recovery and quality, has always been a challenging endeavor and kept the membrane community creative and vibrant. Despite many successful and continuing efforts to develop high-performance and innovative membranes and membrane-based hybrid processes, there is still a great deal of work to do. 

This Special Issue is devoted to providing an overview of recent advancements in membrane science and technology in North America. Original research works, review articles, and state-of-the-art communications are welcomed. Research topics include but are not limited to:

- Novel membrane materials

  • Composite and nanocomposite membranes
  • Active/reactive membranes
  • Stimuli-responsive membranes 
  • Protein-based membranes
  • Electrospun nanofibrous membranes
  • Affinity membranes  
  • Inorganic membranes
  • Hollow fiber membranes
  • Thermomechanical and chemical stable membranes
  • 3D-printed membranes
  • New synthesis routes of porous and dense membranes
  • Prospective of carbon-based nanomaterials (e.g., graphene, CNT, CNF) in membrane fabrication 
  • Prospective of metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) in membrane fabrication  
  • Prospective of zeolites and other minerals in membrane fabrication
  • Prospective of agricultural materials (e.g., lignin and nanocrystalline cellulose) for membrane fabrication     

- Membrane processes

  • New membrane processes for water treatment and gas separation
  • Membrane-based integrated processes
  • Thermally driven membrane processes (e.g., membrane distillation)
  • Osmotically driven membrane processes (e.g., forward osmosis)
  • Pressure-driven membrane processes for water treatment (e.g., MF, UF, NF, RO)  
  • Electrically driven membrane processes (e.g., electrodialysis)
  • Membrane contactors
  • Membrane bioreactors
  • Organic solvent nanofiltration
  • New membrane module designs  
  • Water–energy nexus in membrane processes
  • Energy management and technoeconomic analysis of membrane processes
  •  Artificial intelligence and data analysis in membrane technology  

- Transport phenomena

  • Mathematical modeling of membrane processes
  • Transport phenomena through porous and dense membranes
  • CFD simulation
  • Concentration and temperature polarization effects  

- Fouling mitigation and membrane cleaning

  • Innovative methods to mitigate membrane fouling, e.g., ultrasound
  • Novel Membrane cleaning methods
  • Water pretreatment methods for fouling mitigation

- Characterization methods

  • Advanced membrane characterization techniques
  • Microfluidic membrane mimics for fouling study at the pore scale
  • Novel microscopy methods for membrane and fouling characterization
  • Fouling study by surface energetics analysis methods, e.g., DLVO 
  • Quartz crystal microbalance method for fouling study
  • New methods to measure diffusivity and solubility of gases in membranes, e.g., new time-lag method 

- Membrane surface modification methods

  • Chemical grafting
  • Surface coating
  • Layer-by-layer assembly
  • Surface patterning

- Application of membrane technology 

  • Prospective of membranes in the oil and gas industry
  • Prospective of membranes in the food industry
  • Prospective of membranes in agricultural wastewater treatment
  • Prospective of membranes in the textile industry  
  • Medical applications of membranes
  • Removal of volatile organic materials by pervaporation
  • Membrane processes in biotechnology  

Prof. Mohtada Sadrzadeh
Prof. Anthony G. Dixon
Prof. Laurent Bazinet
Prof. Soryong Chae
Prof. Milad Rabbani Esfahani
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Membranes is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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13 pages, 2570 KiB  
Article
Microbubble-Assisted Cleaning-in-Place Process for Ultrafiltration System and Its Environmental Performance
by Monique Mi Song Chung, April J. Arbour and Jen-Yi Huang
Membranes 2023, 13(4), 424; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes13040424 - 10 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1956
Abstract
Membrane filtration is a key technology in dairy processing for the separation of dairy liquids to clarify, concentrate, and fractionate a variety of dairy products. Ultrafiltration (UF) is widely applied for whey separation, protein concentration and standardization, and lactose-free milk production, though its [...] Read more.
Membrane filtration is a key technology in dairy processing for the separation of dairy liquids to clarify, concentrate, and fractionate a variety of dairy products. Ultrafiltration (UF) is widely applied for whey separation, protein concentration and standardization, and lactose-free milk production, though its performance can be hindered by membrane fouling. As an automated cleaning process commonly used in the food and beverage industries, cleaning in place (CIP) uses large amounts of water, chemicals, and energy, resulting in significant environmental impacts. This study introduced micron-scale air-filled bubbles (microbubbles; MBs) with mean diameters smaller than 5 μm into cleaning liquids to clean a pilot-scale UF system. During the UF of model milk for concentration, cake formation was identified as the dominant membrane fouling mechanism. The MB-assisted CIP process was conducted at two bubble number densities (2021 and 10,569 bubbles per mL of cleaning liquid) and two flow rates (130 and 190 L/min). For all the cleaning conditions tested, MB addition largely increased the membrane flux recovery by 31–72%; however, the effects of bubble density and flow rate were insignificant. Alkaline wash was found to be the main step in removing proteinaceous foulant from the UF membrane, though MBs did not show a significant effect on the removal due to the operational uncertainty of the pilot-scale system. The environmental benefits of MB incorporation were quantified by a comparative life cycle assessment and the results indicated that MB-assisted CIP had up to 37% lower environmental impact than control CIP. This is the first study incorporating MBs into a full CIP cycle at the pilot scale and proving their effectiveness in enhancing membrane cleaning. This novel CIP process can help reduce water and energy use in dairy processing and improve the environmental sustainability of the dairy industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Membrane Science and Technology in North America)
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12 pages, 3119 KiB  
Article
Membrane-Based Hybrid Method for Purifying PEGylated Proteins
by Shing Fung Lam, Xiaojiao Shang and Raja Ghosh
Membranes 2023, 13(2), 182; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes13020182 - 02 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1437
Abstract
PEGylated proteins are usually purified using chromatographic methods, which are limited in terms of both speed and scalability. In this paper, we describe a microfiltration membrane-based hybrid method for purifying PEGylated proteins. Polyethylene glycol (or PEG) is a lower critical solution temperature polymer [...] Read more.
PEGylated proteins are usually purified using chromatographic methods, which are limited in terms of both speed and scalability. In this paper, we describe a microfiltration membrane-based hybrid method for purifying PEGylated proteins. Polyethylene glycol (or PEG) is a lower critical solution temperature polymer which undergoes phase transition in the presence of a lyotropic salt and forms micelle-like structures which are several microns in size. In the proposed hybrid method, the PEGylated proteins are first converted to their micellar form by the addition of a lyotropic salt (1.65 M ammonium sulfate). While the micelles are retained using a microfiltration membrane, soluble impurities such as the unmodified protein are washed out through the membrane. The PEGylated proteins thus retained by the membrane are recovered by solubilizing them by removing the lyotropic salt. Further, by precisely controlling the salt removal, the different PEGylated forms of the protein, i.e., mono-PEGylated and di-PEGylated forms, are fractionated from each other. Hybrid separation using two different types of microfiltration membrane devices, i.e., a stirred cell and a tangential flow filtration device, are examined in this paper. The membrane-based hybrid method for purifying PEGylated proteins is both fast and scalable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Membrane Science and Technology in North America)
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16 pages, 3334 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of a Novel Cuboid Hollow Fiber Hemodialyzer Design Using Computational Fluid Dynamics
by Yating Xu, Umatheny Umatheva and Raja Ghosh
Membranes 2023, 13(1), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes13010093 - 11 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2065
Abstract
Conventional hollow fiber hemodialyzers have a cylindrical shell-and-tube design. Due to their circular cross-section and radial flow distribution and collection in the headers, the flow of blood in the header as well as in the hollow fiber membranes is non-uniform. The creation of [...] Read more.
Conventional hollow fiber hemodialyzers have a cylindrical shell-and-tube design. Due to their circular cross-section and radial flow distribution and collection in the headers, the flow of blood in the header as well as in the hollow fiber membranes is non-uniform. The creation of high shear stress and high shear rate zones or stagnation zones could result in problems, such as cell lysis and blood clotting. In this paper, a novel cuboid hemodialyzer design is proposed as an alternative to the conventional cylindrical hemodialyzer. The primary motivation behind the proposed design is to create uniform flow conditions and thereby minimize some of the above-mentioned adverse effects. The most salient feature of the proposed design is a cuboid shell within which the hollow fiber membrane bundle is potted. The lumen of the fibers is fed from one side using a flow distributor consisting of embedded primary and secondary channels, while the fibers are drained from the other side using a flow collector, which also has embedded primary and secondary channels. The flow characteristics of the lumen side of the cuboid hemodialyzer were compared with those of a conventional hemodialyzer based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. The results of CFD simulations clearly indicated that the flow of liquid within the cuboid dialyzer was significantly more uniform. Consequently, the shear rate and shear stress were also more uniform. By adopting this new design, some of the problems associated with the conventional hemodialyzer design could potentially be addressed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Membrane Science and Technology in North America)
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15 pages, 31447 KiB  
Article
Controlling Fractional Free Volume, Transport, and Co-Transport of Alcohols and Carboxylate Salts in PEGDA Membranes
by Antara Mazumder, Jung Min Kim, Brock Hunter and Bryan S. Beckingham
Membranes 2023, 13(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes13010017 - 22 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1691
Abstract
Understanding multi-component transport through polymer membranes is critical for separation applications such as water purification, energy devices, etc. Specifically for CO2 reduction cells, where the CO2 reduction products (alcohols and carboxylate salts), crossover of these species is undesirable and improving the [...] Read more.
Understanding multi-component transport through polymer membranes is critical for separation applications such as water purification, energy devices, etc. Specifically for CO2 reduction cells, where the CO2 reduction products (alcohols and carboxylate salts), crossover of these species is undesirable and improving the design of ion exchange membranes to prevent this behavior is needed. Previously, it was observed that acetate transport increased in copermeation with alcohols for cation exchange membranes consisting of poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) and 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid (AMPS) and that the inclusion of poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate (PEGMA) (n = 5, n represents the number of ethylene oxide repeat units) could suppress this behavior. Here, we further investigate the role of PEGMA in modulating fractional free volume and transport behavior of alcohols and carboxylates. PEGDA-PEGMA membranes of varied membranes are fabricated with both varied pre −polymerization water content at constant PEGMA (n = 9) content and varied PEGMA content at two pre −polymerization water contents (20 and 60 wt.% water). Permeability to sodium acetate also decreases in these charge-neutral PEGDA-PEGMA membranes compared to PEGMA-free films. Therefore, incorporation of comonomers such as PEGMA with long side chains may provide a useful membrane chemistry structural motif for preventing undesirable carboxylate crossover in polymer membranes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Membrane Science and Technology in North America)
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10 pages, 8759 KiB  
Article
Recycling of Waste Cotton Textile Containing Elastane Fibers through Dissolution and Regeneration
by Luxuan Wang, Shuting Huang and Yixiang Wang
Membranes 2022, 12(4), 355; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes12040355 - 24 Mar 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3758
Abstract
Increasing utilization of textiles has raised concern regarding the environmental impact brought by the textile manufacturing process and disposal of waste textiles. In our previous work, the dissolution of cotton waste through different solvent systems was demonstrated. Herein, this study aimed to further [...] Read more.
Increasing utilization of textiles has raised concern regarding the environmental impact brought by the textile manufacturing process and disposal of waste textiles. In our previous work, the dissolution of cotton waste through different solvent systems was demonstrated. Herein, this study aimed to further investigate the recycling of waste cotton–elastane fabrics using H2SO4, NaOH/urea, and LiCl/DMAc solvent systems. The structure of regenerated films was characterized with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, and the properties of the regenerated films, including transparency, mechanical properties, water vapor permeability, and thermal stability, were investigated. The results revealed that all solvent systems could convert the waste cotton–elastane fabrics into regenerated films with the existence of different forms of elastane components. The elastane fibers were partially hydrolyzed in H2SO4 solvent and reduced the transparency of regenerated films, but they were well retained in NaOH/urea solvent and interrupted the structure of regenerated cellulose films. It is worth noting that the elastane fibers were completely dissolved in LiCl/DMAc solvent and formed a composite structure with cellulose, leading to obviously improved tensile strength (from 51.00 to 121.63 MPa) and water barrier property (from 3.50 × 10−7 to 1.03 × 10−7 g m−1 h−1 Pa−1). Therefore, this work demonstrates the possibility to directly recycle waste cotton–elastane fabrics through dissolution and regeneration, and the resultant films have potential applications as packaging materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Membrane Science and Technology in North America)
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18 pages, 2226 KiB  
Article
Functional Properties of Casein and Caseinate Produced by Electrodialysis with Bipolar Membrane Coupled to an Ultrafiltration Module
by Rosie Deschênes Gagnon, Laurent Bazinet and Sergey Mikhaylin
Membranes 2022, 12(3), 270; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes12030270 - 26 Feb 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2849
Abstract
Electrodialysis with a bipolar membrane coupled to an ultrafiltration module (EDBM-UF) is a hybrid technology recently developed as an ecofriendly alternative to chemical acidification to produce casein and caseinate from skim milk. In this study, the composition and functional properties of casein and [...] Read more.
Electrodialysis with a bipolar membrane coupled to an ultrafiltration module (EDBM-UF) is a hybrid technology recently developed as an ecofriendly alternative to chemical acidification to produce casein and caseinate from skim milk. In this study, the composition and functional properties of casein and caseinate obtained by chemical acidification/basification and by the EDBM-UF method from winter and summer milks were analyzed and compared. Results show that the emulsifying properties, solubility, water holding, and gelling capacities are equivalent between casein and caseinate from both methods. However, the foaming properties of EDBM-UF ingredients were improved, and casein was less hygroscopic. Additionally, the season of milk influenced certain functional properties, such as water-holding capacity and hygroscopicity. Therefore, these results allow concluding that EDBM-UF ingredients have equivalent or higher functionality than chemically produced ingredients, and that the EDBM-UF process would be a more eco-efficient alternative to the chemical one. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Membrane Science and Technology in North America)
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14 pages, 5073 KiB  
Article
Enhancement of Physical Characteristics of Styrene–Acrylonitrile Nanofiber Membranes Using Various Post-Treatments for Membrane Distillation
by Reza Sallakhniknezhad, Manijeh Khorsi, Ali Sallakh Niknejad, Saeed Bazgir, Ali Kargari, Mohsen Sazegar, Mohsen Rasouli and Soryong Chae
Membranes 2021, 11(12), 969; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes11120969 - 09 Dec 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2759
Abstract
Insufficient mechanical strength and wide pore size distribution of nanofibrous membranes are the key hindrances for their concrete applications in membrane distillation. In this work, various post-treatment methods such as dilute solvent welding, vapor welding, and cold-/hot-pressing processes were used to enhance the [...] Read more.
Insufficient mechanical strength and wide pore size distribution of nanofibrous membranes are the key hindrances for their concrete applications in membrane distillation. In this work, various post-treatment methods such as dilute solvent welding, vapor welding, and cold-/hot-pressing processes were used to enhance the physical properties of styrene–acrylonitrile (SAN) nanofiber membranes fabricated by the modified electrospinning process. The effects of injection rate of welding solution and a working distance during the welding process with air-assisted spraying on characteristics of SAN nanofiber membranes were investigated. The welding process was made less time-consuming by optimizing system parameters of the electroblowing process to simultaneously exploit residual solvents of fibers and hot solvent vapor to reduce exposure time. As a result, the welded SAN membranes showed considerable enhancement in mechanical robustness and membrane integrity with a negligible reduction in surface hydrophobicity. The hot-pressed SAN membranes obtained the highest mechanical strength and smallest mean pore size. The modified SAN membranes were used for the desalination of synthetic seawater in a direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD). As a result, it was found that the modified SAN membranes performed well (>99.9% removal of salts) for desalination of synthetic seawater (35 g/L NaCl) during 30 h operation without membrane wetting. The cold-/hot-pressing processes were able to improve mechanical strength and boost liquid entry pressure (LEP) of water. In contrast, the welding processes were preferred to increase membrane flexibility and permeation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Membrane Science and Technology in North America)
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22 pages, 2326 KiB  
Article
Comparative Study of the Structural and Functional Properties of Membrane-Isolated and Isoelectric pH Precipitated Green Lentil Seed Protein Isolates
by Etinosa C. Osemwota, Adeola M. Alashi and Rotimi E. Aluko
Membranes 2021, 11(9), 694; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes11090694 - 08 Sep 2021
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 3370
Abstract
The demand for isolated seed proteins continues to increase but functionality in food systems can be greatly dependent on the extraction method. In this work, we report the physicochemical and functional properties of lentil seed proteins isolated using various protocols. Lentil flour was [...] Read more.
The demand for isolated seed proteins continues to increase but functionality in food systems can be greatly dependent on the extraction method. In this work, we report the physicochemical and functional properties of lentil seed proteins isolated using various protocols. Lentil flour was defatted followed by protein extraction using isoelectric pH precipitation (ISO) as well as NaOH (MEM_NaOH) and NaCl (MEM_NaCl) extractions coupled with membrane ultrafiltration. The MEM_NaCl had significantly (p < 0.05) higher protein content (90.28%) than the ISO (86.13%) and MEM_NaOH (82.55%). At pH 3–5, the ISO was less soluble (2.26–11.84%) when compared to the MEM_NaOH (25.74–27.22%) and MEM_NaCl (27.78–40.98%). However, the ISO had higher yield and protein digestibility (48.45% and 89.82%) than MEM_NaOH (35.05% and 77.87%) and MEM_NaCl (13.35% and 77.61%), respectively. Near-UV circular dichroism spectra showed that the MEM_NaOH had loose tertiary conformation at pH 3, 5, 7 and 9 while ISO and MEM_NaCl had more compact structures at pH 7 and 9. The three protein isolates formed better emulsions (lower oil droplet sizes) at pH 7 and 9 when compared to pH 3 and 5. In contrast, foaming capacity was better at pH 5 than pH 3, 7, and 9. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Membrane Science and Technology in North America)
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12 pages, 2629 KiB  
Article
Optimization of Spiral-Wound Microfiltration Process Parameters for the Production of Micellar Casein Concentrate
by Chenchaiah Marella, Venkateswarlu Sunkesula, Ahmed R. A. Hammam, Anil Kommineni and Lloyd E. Metzger
Membranes 2021, 11(9), 656; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes11090656 - 26 Aug 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2617
Abstract
A systematic selection of different transmembrane pressures (TMP) and levels of diafiltration (DF) was studied to optimize these critical process parameters during the manufacturing of micellar casein concentrate (MCC) using spiral-wound polymeric membrane filtration. Three TMPs (34.5, 62.1, and 103.4 kPa) and four [...] Read more.
A systematic selection of different transmembrane pressures (TMP) and levels of diafiltration (DF) was studied to optimize these critical process parameters during the manufacturing of micellar casein concentrate (MCC) using spiral-wound polymeric membrane filtration. Three TMPs (34.5, 62.1, and 103.4 kPa) and four DF levels (0, 70, 100, and 150%) were applied in the study. The effect of the TMP and DF level on flux rates, serum protein (SP) removal, the casein-to-total-protein ratio, the casein-to-true-protein ratio, and the rejection of casein and SP were evaluated. At all transmembrane pressures, the overall flux increased with increases in the DF level. The impact of DF on the overall flux was more pronounced at lower pressures than at higher pressures. With controlled DF, the instantaneous flux was maintained within 80% of the initial flux for the entire process run. The combination of 34.5 kPa and a DF level of 150% resulted in 81.45% SP removal, and a casein-to-true-protein ratio of 0.96. SP removal data from the lab-scale experiments were fitted into a mathematical model using DF levels and the square of TMPs as factors. The model developed in this study could predict SP removal within 90–95% of actual SP removal achieved from the pilot plant experiments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Membrane Science and Technology in North America)
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16 pages, 6858 KiB  
Article
Glucoregulatory and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Peptide Fractions Separated by Electrodialysis with Ultrafiltration Membranes from Salmon Protein Hydrolysate and Identification of Four Novel Glucoregulatory Peptides
by Loïc Henaux, Karina Danielle Pereira, Jacinthe Thibodeau, Geneviève Pilon, Tom Gill, André Marette and Laurent Bazinet
Membranes 2021, 11(7), 528; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes11070528 - 14 Jul 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2270
Abstract
Natural bioactive peptides are suitable candidates for preventing the development of Type 2 diabetes (T2D), by reducing the various risk factors. The aim of this study was to concentrate glucoregulatory and anti-inflammatory peptides, from salmon by-products, by electrodialysis with ultrafiltration membrane (EDUF), and [...] Read more.
Natural bioactive peptides are suitable candidates for preventing the development of Type 2 diabetes (T2D), by reducing the various risk factors. The aim of this study was to concentrate glucoregulatory and anti-inflammatory peptides, from salmon by-products, by electrodialysis with ultrafiltration membrane (EDUF), and to identify peptides responsible for these bioactivities. Two EDUF configurations (1 and 2) were used to concentrate anionic and cationic peptides, respectively. After EDUF separation, two fractions demonstrated interesting properties: the initial fraction of the EDUF configuration 1 and the final fraction of the EDUF configuration 2 both showed biological activities to (1) increase glucose uptake in L6 muscle cells in insulin condition at 1 ng/mL (by 12% and 21%, respectively), (2) decrease hepatic glucose production in hepatic cells at 1 ng/mL in basal (17% and 16%, respectively), and insulin (25% and 34%, respectively) conditions, and (3) decrease LPS-induced inflammation in macrophages at 1 g/mL (45% and 30%, respectively). More impressive, the initial fraction of the EDUF configuration 1 (45% reduction) showed the same effect as the phenformin at 10 μM (40%), a drug used to treat T2D. Thirteen peptides were identified, chemically synthesized, and tested in-vitro for these three bioactivities. Thus, four new bioactive peptides were identified: IPVE increased glucose uptake by muscle cells, IVDI and IEGTL decreased hepatic glucose production (HGP) of insulin, whereas VAPEEHPTL decreased HGP under both basal condition and in the presence of insulin. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that (1) bioactive peptide fractions generated after separation by EDUF were demonstrated to be bioactive on three different criteria; all involved in the T2D, and (2) potential sequences involved in the improvement of glucose uptake and/or in the regulation of HGP were identified from a salmon protein hydrolysate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Membrane Science and Technology in North America)
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16 pages, 2459 KiB  
Article
Remote Performance Modulation of Ultrafiltration Membranes by Magnetically and Thermally Responsive Polymer Chains
by Arijit Sengupta, Anh Vu, Xianghong Qian and S. Ranil Wickramasinghe
Membranes 2021, 11(5), 340; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes11050340 - 04 May 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2122
Abstract
Ultrafiltration membranes, that respond to an external magnetic field and local temperature have been developed. Surface-initiated activator-generated electron transfer (AGET) atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) has been used to graft poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAm) from the surface of 300 kDa regenerated cellulose membranes. The polymerization [...] Read more.
Ultrafiltration membranes, that respond to an external magnetic field and local temperature have been developed. Surface-initiated activator-generated electron transfer (AGET) atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) has been used to graft poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAm) from the surface of 300 kDa regenerated cellulose membranes. The polymerization initiator was selectively attached to the entire membrane surface, only the outer membrane surface or only the inner pore surface. A superparamagnetic nanoparticle was attached to the end of the polymer chain. The DI water flux as well as the flux and rejection of bovine serum albumin were investigated in the absence and presence of a 20 and 1000 Hz oscillating magnetic field. In an oscillating magnetic field, the tethered superparamagnetic nanoparticles can cause movement of the PNIPAm chains or induce heating. A 20 Hz magnetic field maximizes movement of the chains. A 1000 Hz magnetic field leads to greater induced heating. PNIPAm displays a lower critical solution temperature at 32 °C. Heating leads to collapse of the PNIPAm chains above their Lower Critical Solution Temperature (LCST). This work highlights the versatility of selectively grafting polymer chains containing a superparamagnetic nanoparticle from specific membrane locations. Depending on the frequency of the oscillating external magnetic field, membrane properties may be tuned. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Membrane Science and Technology in North America)
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Review

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32 pages, 11350 KiB  
Review
Recent Advancements in the Recovery and Reuse of Organic Solvents Using Novel Nanomaterial-Based Membranes for Renewable Energy Applications
by Indrani Gupta and Oindrila Gupta
Membranes 2023, 13(1), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes13010108 - 13 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2206
Abstract
The energy crisis in the world is increasing rapidly owing to the shortage of fossil fuel reserves. Climate change and an increase in global warming necessitates a change in focus from petroleum-based fuels to renewable fuels such as biofuels. The remodeling of existing [...] Read more.
The energy crisis in the world is increasing rapidly owing to the shortage of fossil fuel reserves. Climate change and an increase in global warming necessitates a change in focus from petroleum-based fuels to renewable fuels such as biofuels. The remodeling of existing separation processes using various nanomaterials is of a growing interest to industrial separation methods. Recently, the design of membrane technologies has been the most focused research area concerning fermentation broth to enhance performance efficiency, while recovering those byproducts to be used as value added fuels. Specifically, the use of novel nano material membranes, which brings about a selective permeation of the byproducts, such as organic solvent, from the fermentation broth, positively affects the fermentation kinetics by eliminating the issue of product inhibition. In this review, which and how membrane-based technologies using novel materials can improve the separation performance of organic solvents is considered. In particular, technical approaches suggested in previous studies are discussed with the goal of emphasizing benefits and problems faced in order to direct research towards an optimized membrane separation performance for renewable fuel production on a commercial scale. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Membrane Science and Technology in North America)
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