Membrane Technologies for Sustainable Biofood Production Lines

A special issue of Membranes (ISSN 2077-0375). This special issue belongs to the section "Membrane Applications".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2020) | Viewed by 34962

Special Issue Editor

Department of Food Sciences, Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods (INAF), Dairy Research Center (STELA) & Laboratory of Food Processing and Electro Membrane Processes (LTAPEM), Université Laval, Québec, QC G1V 0A6, Canada
Interests: membrane processes; electrodialytic phenomena; membrane characterization and predictive model; separation; bio-food compounds; plant proteins; bioactive peptides; dairy products; health benefits; eco-efficiency; food production lines; valorization of co-products; circular economy
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue will present the latest achievements in membrane technologies for improving the sustainability of the food, biotechnological, and biopharmaceutical industries. Indeed, population growth and urbanization present serious challenges for these sectors since there will be a 70% increase in the global demand by 2050. To satisfy these demands, the food, biotechnological, and biopharmaceutical industries should significantly increase their productivity. However, these industries are aware that in addition to controlling their impacts on the environment, they will have to maintain their levels of safety and quality standards. In this context, the aim of the Special Issue is to obtain a holistic picture of the latest advances in membrane technologies orientated towards the improvement of the biofood production line sustainability.

The scope of this Special Issue involves a large number of topics in the field of membrane science, including membrane applications and the properties of the resulting fractions or products. We welcome papers that include or report on the following: case studies in the field of separation, purification under the action of external pressure, and electric potential gradients applied to a membrane; experimental studies providing new knowledge on the mechanisms of molecule transportation in membrane systems; case studies on material structure–properties relationships; the physicochemical aspects of separation, purification, and fractionation of organic acids, bioactive compounds, food compounds, and nutrients, in membrane systems; the mechanisms of electric current or pressure gradients and their impact on molecule transportation across membranes; the use of membranes to reduce wastewater and valorize by-products; how membrane systems can contribute to a circular economy; a description of molecule transportation through all kinds of membranes; structural characteristics of membranes and their impact on membrane properties and performance for separation processes; processing of alternative food resources by membrane systems and recovery of bioactive fractions or products with improved properties.

Prof. Laurent Bazinet
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Membranes is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Membrane technology
  • Pressure-driven processes
  • Electrically driven processes
  • Food, biotechnological, and biopharmaceutical sectors
  • Ultrafiltration/nanofiltration/microfiltration
  • Membrane coupling
  • Electrodialysis
  • Membrane contactor
  • Membrane reactor
  • Separation/purification
  • Ecoefficiency
  • Circular economy
  • Valorization of co-products or by-products
  • Food compounds
  • Fundamentals of membrane transport
  • Water reduction
  • Bioactive molecules
  • Bioresources

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Editorial

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4 pages, 210 KiB  
Editorial
Special Issue “Membrane Technologies for Sustainable Biofood Production Lines”
Membranes 2021, 11(7), 485; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes11070485 - 29 Jun 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1331
Abstract
Population growth and urbanization present serious challenges for the biofood sectors since there will be a 70% increase in the global demand by 2050 [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membrane Technologies for Sustainable Biofood Production Lines)

Research

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15 pages, 3575 KiB  
Article
Transport of Amino Acids in Soy Sauce Desalination Process by Electrodialysis
Membranes 2021, 11(6), 408; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes11060408 - 29 May 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2976
Abstract
Soy sauce is a common condiment that has a unique flavor, one that is derived from its rich amino acids and salts. It is known that excessive intake of high-sodium food will affect human health, causing a series of diseases such as hypertension [...] Read more.
Soy sauce is a common condiment that has a unique flavor, one that is derived from its rich amino acids and salts. It is known that excessive intake of high-sodium food will affect human health, causing a series of diseases such as hypertension and kidney disease. Therefore, removing sodium from the soy sauce and retaining the amino acids is desirable. In this study, electrodialysis (ED) was employed for the desalination of soy sauce using commercial ion exchange membranes (IEMs). The influence of the current density and initial pH on the desalination degree of the soy sauce was explored. Results showed that the optimal desalination condition for ED was reached at a current density of 5 mA/cm2 and pH of 5, with the desalination degree of 64% and the amino acid loss rate of 29.8%. Moreover, it was found that the loss rate of amino acids was related to the initial concentration and molecular structure. In addition, the amino acid adsorption by IEMs was explored. Results implied that the molecular weight and structure affect amino acid adsorption. This study illustrated that the ED process can successfully reduce the salt content of the soy sauce and retain most of the amino acids without compromising the original flavor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membrane Technologies for Sustainable Biofood Production Lines)
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15 pages, 3685 KiB  
Article
Lactic Acid and Salt Separation Using Membrane Technology
Membranes 2021, 11(2), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes11020107 - 03 Feb 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2402
Abstract
Acid whey is a by-product of cheese and yoghurt manufacture. The protein and lactose within acid whey can be recovered using nanofiltration and electrodialysis, but this leaves a waste stream that is a mixture of salts and lactic acid. To further add value [...] Read more.
Acid whey is a by-product of cheese and yoghurt manufacture. The protein and lactose within acid whey can be recovered using nanofiltration and electrodialysis, but this leaves a waste stream that is a mixture of salts and lactic acid. To further add value to the acid whey treatment process, the possibility of recovering this lactic acid was investigated using either low energy reverse osmosis membranes or an electrodialysis process. Partial separation between lactic acid and potassium chloride was achieved at low applied pressures and feed pH in the reverse osmosis process, as a greater permeation of potassium chloride was observed under these conditions. Furthermore, lactic acid retention was enhanced by operating at lower temperature. Partial separation between lactic acid and potassium chloride was also achieved in the electrodialysis process. However, the observed losses in lactic acid increased with the addition of sodium chloride to the feed solution. This indicates that the separation becomes more challenging as the complexity of the feed solution increases. Neither process was able to achieve sufficient separation to avoid the use of further purification processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membrane Technologies for Sustainable Biofood Production Lines)
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15 pages, 1561 KiB  
Article
Ultrafiltration Fractionation of Bovine Hemoglobin Hydrolysates: Prediction of Separation Performances for Optimal Enrichment in Antimicrobial Peptide
Membranes 2021, 11(2), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes11020073 - 20 Jan 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1926
Abstract
Hydrolysis of bovine hemoglobin (bHb), the main constituent of bovine cruor by-product, releases a natural antimicrobial peptide (NKT) which could present a major interest for food safety. To enrich this, tangential ultrafiltration can be implemented, but ultrafiltration conditions are mainly empirically established. In [...] Read more.
Hydrolysis of bovine hemoglobin (bHb), the main constituent of bovine cruor by-product, releases a natural antimicrobial peptide (NKT) which could present a major interest for food safety. To enrich this, tangential ultrafiltration can be implemented, but ultrafiltration conditions are mainly empirically established. In this context, the application of a simulation method for predicting the NKT yield and enrichment was investigated. Ultrafiltration performances were studied for decolored bHb hydrolysates at different degrees of hydrolysis (DH; 3%, 5%, 10% and 18%) and colored hydrolysates (3% and 5% DH) with 1 and 3 kg·mol−1 regenerated cellulose membranes. The simulation method helped to identify the most promising hydrolysate (in terms of NKT enrichment, yield and productivity) as the 3% DH colored hydrolysate, and UF conditions (volumetric reduction factor of 5 and 3 with 1 and 3 kg·mol−1 membrane, respectively) for higher antimicrobial recovery. A maximal enrichment factor of about 29 and NKT purity of 70% in permeate were observed. The results showed that the antimicrobial activity was in relation with the process selectivity and NKT purity. Finally, this reliable method, applied for predicting the ultrafiltration performances to enrich peptides of interest, is part of a global approach to rationally valorize protein resources from various by-products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membrane Technologies for Sustainable Biofood Production Lines)
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17 pages, 977 KiB  
Article
Effect of Pectinolytic Enzyme Pretreatment on the Clarification of Cranberry Juice by Ultrafiltration
Membranes 2021, 11(1), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes11010055 - 14 Jan 2021
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 2282
Abstract
Cranberries, mainly processed as juice, have garnered interest over the past decade due to their high content of phytochemical compounds related to promising health benefits. To meet consumer expectations, a juice clarification step is usually incorporated to remove suspended solids. The use of [...] Read more.
Cranberries, mainly processed as juice, have garnered interest over the past decade due to their high content of phytochemical compounds related to promising health benefits. To meet consumer expectations, a juice clarification step is usually incorporated to remove suspended solids. The use of pectinolytic enzyme and membrane processes are commonly applied to the production of clarified juices, but no studies have been done on cranberry juice. In this study, the effects of 60 (D60) and 120 min (D120) of depectinization by pectinolytic enzymes coupled to clarification by ultrafiltration (UF) (membrane molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) of 50, 100 and 500 kDa) was evaluated on the filtration performance, membrane fouling and cranberry juice composition. Compared to fresh juice, depectinization for 60 and 120 min reduced the UF duration by 16.7 and 20 min, respectively. The best filtration performance, in terms of permeate fluxes, was obtained with the 500 kDa MWCO UF membrane despite the highest total flux decline (41.5 to 57.6%). The fouling layer at the membrane surface was composed of polyphenols and anthocyanins. Compared to fresh juice, anthocyanin decreased (44% and 58% for D60 and D120, respectively) in depectinized juices whereas proanthocyanidin (PAC) content increased by 16%. In view of the industrial application, a 60 min depectinization coupled to clarification by a 500 kDa UF membrane could be viewed as a good compromise between the enhancement of filtration performance and the loss of polyphenols and their fouling at the membrane surface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membrane Technologies for Sustainable Biofood Production Lines)
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11 pages, 8962 KiB  
Article
Effect of Temperature-Dependent Bacterial Growth during Milk Protein Fractionation by Means of 0.1 µM Microfiltration on the Length of Possible Production Cycle Times
Membranes 2020, 10(11), 326; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes10110326 - 02 Nov 2020
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2935
Abstract
This study determined the maximum possible filtration time per filtration cycle and the cumulated number of operational hours per year as a function of the processing temperature during milk protein fractionation by 0.1 µm microfiltration (MF) of pasteurized skim milk. The main stopping [...] Read more.
This study determined the maximum possible filtration time per filtration cycle and the cumulated number of operational hours per year as a function of the processing temperature during milk protein fractionation by 0.1 µm microfiltration (MF) of pasteurized skim milk. The main stopping criteria were the microbial count (max. 105 cfu/mL) and the slope of the pH change as a function of filtration time. A membrane system in a feed and bleed configuration with partial recirculation of the retentate was installed, resembling an industrial plants’ operational mode. Filtration temperatures of 10, 14, 16, 20, and 55 °C were investigated to determine the flux, pH, and bacterial count. While the processing time was limited to 420 min at a 55 °C filtration temperature, it could exceed 1440 min at 10 °C. These data can help to minimize the use of cleaning agents or mixing phase losses by reducing the frequency of cleaning cycles, thus maximizing the active production time and reducing the environmental impact. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membrane Technologies for Sustainable Biofood Production Lines)
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23 pages, 2948 KiB  
Article
Bovine Hemoglobin Enzymatic Hydrolysis by a New Eco-Efficient Process-Part II: Production of Bioactive Peptides
Membranes 2020, 10(10), 268; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes10100268 - 29 Sep 2020
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 2590
Abstract
Bovine cruor, a slaughterhouse waste, was mainly composed of hemoglobin, a protein rich in antibacterial and antioxidant peptides after its hydrolysis. In the current context of food safety, such bioactive peptides derived from enzymatic hydrolysis of hemoglobin represent potential promising preservatives for the [...] Read more.
Bovine cruor, a slaughterhouse waste, was mainly composed of hemoglobin, a protein rich in antibacterial and antioxidant peptides after its hydrolysis. In the current context of food safety, such bioactive peptides derived from enzymatic hydrolysis of hemoglobin represent potential promising preservatives for the food sector. In this work, the hemoglobin hydrolysis to produce bioactive peptides was performed in a regulated pH medium without the use of chemical solvents and by an eco-efficient process: electrodialysis with bipolar membrane (EDBM). Bipolar/monopolar (anionic or cationic) configuration using the H+ and OH generated by the bipolar membranes to regulate the pH was investigated. The aim of this study was to present and identify the bioactive peptides produced by EDBM in comparison with conventional hydrolysis and to identify their biological activity. The use of the EDBM for the enzymatic hydrolysis of hemoglobin has allowed for the production and identification of 17 bioactive peptides. Hydrolysates obtained by EDBM showed an excellent antimicrobial activity against six strains, antioxidant activity measured by four different tests and for the first time anti-fungal activities against five yeasts and mold strains. Consequently, this enzymatic hydrolysis carried out in regulated pH medium with bipolar membranes could provide bioactive peptides presenting antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant interest. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membrane Technologies for Sustainable Biofood Production Lines)
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22 pages, 4327 KiB  
Article
Bovine Hemoglobin Enzymatic Hydrolysis by a New Ecoefficient Process—Part I: Feasibility of Electrodialysis with Bipolar Membrane and Production of Neokyotorphin (α137-141)
Membranes 2020, 10(10), 257; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes10100257 - 25 Sep 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2576
Abstract
Neokyotorphin (α137-141) is recognized as an antimicrobial peptide and a natural meat preservative. It is produced by conventional enzymatic hydrolysis of bovine hemoglobin, a major component of cruor, a by-product of slaughterhouses. However, during conventional hydrolysis, chemical agents are necessary to adjust and [...] Read more.
Neokyotorphin (α137-141) is recognized as an antimicrobial peptide and a natural meat preservative. It is produced by conventional enzymatic hydrolysis of bovine hemoglobin, a major component of cruor, a by-product of slaughterhouses. However, during conventional hydrolysis, chemical agents are necessary to adjust and regulate the pH of the protein solution and the mineral salt content of the final hydrolysate is consequently high. To produce this peptide of interest without chemical agents and with a low salt concentration, electrodialysis with bipolar membrane (EDBM), an electromembrane process recognized as a green process, with two different membrane configurations (cationic (MCP) and anionic (AEM) membranes) was investigated. Hydrolysis in EDBM showed the same enzymatic mechanism, “Zipper”, and allowed the generation of α137-141 in the same concentration as observed in conventional hydrolysis (control). EDBM-MCP allowed the production of hydrolysates containing a low concentration of mineral salts but with fouling formation on MCP, while EDBM-AEM allowed the production of hydrolysates without fouling but with a similar salt concentration than the control. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first time that EDBM was demonstrated as a feasible and innovative technology to produce peptide hydrolysates from enzymatic hydrolysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membrane Technologies for Sustainable Biofood Production Lines)
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14 pages, 1505 KiB  
Article
Electrodialytic Desalination of Tobacco Sheet Extract: Membrane Fouling Mechanism and Mitigation Strategies
Membranes 2020, 10(9), 245; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes10090245 - 21 Sep 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2690
Abstract
In the papermaking industry (reconstituted tobacco), a large number of tobacco stems, dust, and fines are discharged in the wastewater. This high salinity wastewater rich in ionic constituents and nicotine is difficult to be degraded by conventional biological treatment and is a serious [...] Read more.
In the papermaking industry (reconstituted tobacco), a large number of tobacco stems, dust, and fines are discharged in the wastewater. This high salinity wastewater rich in ionic constituents and nicotine is difficult to be degraded by conventional biological treatment and is a serious threat that needs to be overcome. Electrodialysis (ED) has proved a feasible technique to remove the inorganic components in the papermaking wastewater. However, the fouling in ion exchange membranes causes deterioration of membranes, which causes a decrease in the flux and an increase in the electrical resistance of the membranes. In this study, the fouling potential of the membranes was analyzed by comparing the properties of the pristine and fouled ion exchange membranes. The physical and chemical properties of the ion exchange membranes were investigated in terms of electrical resistance, water content, and ion exchange capacity, as well as studied by infrared spectroscopy (IR) spectra, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analyses. The results indicated that the membrane fouling is caused by two different mechanisms. For the anion exchange membranes, the fouling is mainly caused by the charged organic anions. For the cation exchange membrane, the fouling is caused by minerals such as Ca2+ and Mg2+. These metal ions reacted with OH ions generated by water dissociation and precipitated on the membrane surface. The chemical cleaning with alkaline and acid could mitigate the fouling potential of the ion exchange membranes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membrane Technologies for Sustainable Biofood Production Lines)
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Review

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19 pages, 756 KiB  
Review
Membrane Fractionation of Protein Hydrolysates from By-Products: Recovery of Valuable Compounds from Spent Yeasts
Membranes 2021, 11(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes11010023 - 29 Dec 2020
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 4339
Abstract
Spent brewer’s yeast (Saccharomyces sp.), the second most generated by-product from the brewing industry, contains bioactive and nutritional compounds with high added value such as proteins (40–50%), polysaccharides, fibers and vitamins. Molecules of interest from agro-industrial by-products need to be extracted, separated, [...] Read more.
Spent brewer’s yeast (Saccharomyces sp.), the second most generated by-product from the brewing industry, contains bioactive and nutritional compounds with high added value such as proteins (40–50%), polysaccharides, fibers and vitamins. Molecules of interest from agro-industrial by-products need to be extracted, separated, concentrated, and/or purified so that a minimum purity level is achieved, allowing its application. Enzymatic hydrolysis has been successfully used in the production of peptides and protein hydrolysates. The obtained hydrolysates require efficient downstream processes such as membrane technology, which is an important tool for the recovery of thermolabile and sensitive compounds from complex mixtures, with low energy consumption and high specificity. The integration of membrane techniques that promote the separation through sieving and charge-based mechanisms is of great interest to improve the purity of the recovered fractions. This review is specifically addressed to the application of membrane technologies for the recovery of peptides from yeast protein hydrolysates. Fundamental concepts and practical aspects relative to the ultrafiltration of agro-industrial protein hydrolysates will be described. Challenges and perspectives involving the recovery of peptides from yeast protein hydrolysates will be presented and thoroughly discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membrane Technologies for Sustainable Biofood Production Lines)
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72 pages, 17395 KiB  
Review
Electrodialytic Processes: Market Overview, Membrane Phenomena, Recent Developments and Sustainable Strategies
Membranes 2020, 10(9), 221; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes10090221 - 02 Sep 2020
Cited by 87 | Viewed by 8007
Abstract
In the context of preserving and improving human health, electrodialytic processes are very promising perspectives. Indeed, they allow the treatment of water, preservation of food products, production of bioactive compounds, extraction of organic acids, and recovery of energy from natural and wastewaters without [...] Read more.
In the context of preserving and improving human health, electrodialytic processes are very promising perspectives. Indeed, they allow the treatment of water, preservation of food products, production of bioactive compounds, extraction of organic acids, and recovery of energy from natural and wastewaters without major environmental impact. Hence, the aim of the present review is to give a global portrait of the most recent developments in electrodialytic membrane phenomena and their uses in sustainable strategies. It has appeared that new knowledge on pulsed electric fields, electroconvective vortices, overlimiting conditions and reversal modes as well as recent demonstrations of their applications are currently boosting the interest for electrodialytic processes. However, the hurdles are still high when dealing with scale-ups and real-life conditions. Furthermore, looking at the recent research trends, potable water and wastewater treatment as well as the production of value-added bioactive products in a circular economy will probably be the main applications to be developed and improved. All these processes, taking into account their principles and specificities, can be used for specific eco-efficient applications. However, to prove the sustainability of such process strategies, more life cycle assessments will be necessary to convince people of the merits of coupling these technologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membrane Technologies for Sustainable Biofood Production Lines)
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