Membrane Technologies for Sustainability

A special issue of Membranes (ISSN 2077-0375). This special issue belongs to the section "Membrane Applications".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2023) | Viewed by 25254

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Food Sciences, Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods (INAF), Dairy Research Center (STELA) & Laboratory of Food Processing and Electro Membrane Processes (LTAPEM), Université Laval, Québec, QC G1V 0A6, Canada
Interests: membrane processes; electrodialytic phenomena; membrane characterization and predictive model; separation; bio-food compounds; plant proteins; bioactive peptides; dairy products; health benefits; eco-efficiency; food production lines; valorization of co-products; circular economy
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue will present the latest achievements in membrane technologies for improving the sustainability of the food, biotechnological, biopharmaceutical, and chemical industries. Indeed, population growth and urbanization present serious challenges for these sectors, and to satisfy these demands, these industries would have to significantly increase their productivity. However, these industries are aware that in addition to controlling their impacts on the environment, they will have to maintain their levels of safety and quality standards. In this context, the aim of the Special Issue is to obtain a holistic picture of the latest advances in membrane technologies orientated towards the improvement of the sustainability.

The scope of this Special Issue involves a large number of topics in the field of membrane science, including membrane applications and the properties of the resulting fractions or products. We welcome papers that include or report on the following: case studies in the field of separation, purification under the action of external pressure, and electric potential gradients applied to a membrane; experimental studies providing new knowledge on the mechanisms of molecule transportation in membrane systems; case studies on material structure–properties relationships; the physicochemical aspects of separation, purification, and fractionation of organic acids, bioactive compounds, food compounds, and nutrients in membrane systems; the mechanisms of electric current or pressure gradients and their impact on molecule transportation across membranes; the use of membranes to reduce wastewater and valorize by-products; how membrane systems can contribute to a circular economy; a description of molecule transportation through all kinds of membranes; structural characteristics of membranes and their impact on membrane properties and performance for separation processes; life cycle assessment of membrane processes; zero-waste membrane processes; processing of alternative resources by membrane systems and recovery of fractions or products with improved properties.

Prof. Dr. Laurent Bazinet
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Membranes is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • membrane fabrication
  • membrane technology
  • pressure-driven processes
  • electrically driven processes
  • food, biotechnological, biopharmaceutical and chemical or petrochemical sectors
  • ultrafiltration/nanofiltration/microfiltration/reverse osmosis
  • membrane coupling
  • membrane phenomena
  • electrodialysis
  • membrane contactor
  • membrane reactor
  • separation/purification
  • ecoefficiency
  • circular economy
  • valorization of co-products or by-products
  • fundamentals on membrane transport
  • water reduction
  • bioactive molecules
  • zero-waste membrane process
  • bioresources
  • life-cycle assessment

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

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16 pages, 2017 KiB  
Article
Application of Ultrafiltration to Produce Sheep’s and Goat’s Whey-Based Synbiotic Kefir Products
by Arona Pires, Gözdenur Tan, David Gomes, Susana Pereira-Dias, Olga Díaz, Angel Cobos and Carlos Pereira
Membranes 2023, 13(5), 473; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes13050473 - 28 Apr 2023
Viewed by 914
Abstract
Membrane filtration technologies are the best available tools to manage dairy byproducts such as cheese whey, allowing for the selective concentration of its specific components, namely proteins. Their acceptable costs and ease of operation make them suitable for application by small/medium-scale dairy plants. [...] Read more.
Membrane filtration technologies are the best available tools to manage dairy byproducts such as cheese whey, allowing for the selective concentration of its specific components, namely proteins. Their acceptable costs and ease of operation make them suitable for application by small/medium-scale dairy plants. The aim of this work is the development of new synbiotic kefir products based on sheep and goat liquid whey concentrates (LWC) obtained by ultrafiltration. Four formulations for each LWC based on a commercial kefir starter or traditional kefir, without or with the addition of a probiotic culture, were produced. The physicochemical, microbiological, and sensory properties of the samples were determined. Membrane process parameters indicated that ultrafiltration can be applied for obtaining LWCs in small/medium scale dairy plants with high protein concentration (16.4% for sheep and 7.8% for goats). Sheep kefirs showed a solid-like texture while goat kefirs were liquid. All samples presented counts of lactic acid bacteria higher than log 7 CFU/mL, indicating the good adaptation of microorganisms to the matrixes. Further work must be undertaken in order to improve the acceptability of the products. It could be concluded that small/medium-scale dairy plants can use ultrafiltration equipment to valorize sheep’s and goat’s cheese whey-producing synbiotic kefirs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membrane Technologies for Sustainability)
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18 pages, 3060 KiB  
Article
Comparative Study of Different Ion-Exchange Membrane Types in Diffusion Dialysis for the Separation of Sulfuric Acid and Nickel Sulfate
by Sergey Loza, Natalia Loza, Nikita Kovalchuk, Nazar Romanyuk and Julia Loza
Membranes 2023, 13(4), 396; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes13040396 - 30 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1321
Abstract
The possibility of using various types of ion-exchange membranes in diffusion dialysis for the separation of sulfuric acid and nickel sulfate has been evaluated. The process of the dialysis separation of a real waste solution from an electroplating facility containing 252.3 g/L of [...] Read more.
The possibility of using various types of ion-exchange membranes in diffusion dialysis for the separation of sulfuric acid and nickel sulfate has been evaluated. The process of the dialysis separation of a real waste solution from an electroplating facility containing 252.3 g/L of sulfuric acid, 20.9 g/L of nickel ions and small amounts of zinc, iron, copper ions, etc. has been studied. Heterogeneous cation-exchange membrane containing sulfonic groups and heterogeneous anion-exchange membranes with different thicknesses (from 145 μm to 550 μm) and types of fixed groups (four samples with quaternary ammonium base and one sample with secondary and tertiary amines) have been used. The diffusion fluxes of sulfuric acid, nickel sulfate, and the total and osmotic fluxes of the solvent have been determined. The use of a cation-exchange membrane does not allow the separation of the components, since the fluxes of both components are low and comparable in magnitude. The use of anion-exchange membranes makes it possible to efficiently separate sulfuric acid and nickel sulfate. Anion-exchange membranes with quaternary ammonium groups are more effective in the diffusion dialysis process, while the thin membrane turns out to be the most effective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membrane Technologies for Sustainability)
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14 pages, 1678 KiB  
Article
Mango Peel Nanofiltration Concentrates to Enhance Anaerobic Digestion of Slurry from Piglets Fed with Laminaria
by Antónia Macedo, Rita Fragoso, Inês Silva, Tânia Gomes, Cátia F. Martins, João Bengala Freire and Elizabeth Duarte
Membranes 2023, 13(4), 371; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes13040371 - 24 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1207
Abstract
The environmental impact of biowaste generated during animal production can be mitigated by applying a circular economy model: recycling, reinventing the life cycle of biowaste, and developing it for a new use. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of [...] Read more.
The environmental impact of biowaste generated during animal production can be mitigated by applying a circular economy model: recycling, reinventing the life cycle of biowaste, and developing it for a new use. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of adding sugar concentrate solutions obtained from the nanofiltration of fruit biowaste (mango peel) to slurry from piglets fed with diets incorporating macroalgae on biogas production performance. The nanofiltration of ultrafiltration permeates from aqueous extracts of mango peel was carried out using membranes with a molecular weight cut-off of 130 Da until a volume concentration factor of 2.0 was reached. A slurry resulting from piglets fed with an alternative diet with the incorporation of 10% Laminaria was used as a substrate. Three different trials were performed sequentially: (i) a control trial (AD0) with faeces resulting from a cereal and soybean-meal-based diet (S0); (ii) a trial with S1 (10% L. digitata) (AD1), and (iii) an AcoD trial to assess the effect of the addition of a co-substrate (20%) to S1 (80%). The trials were performed in a continuous-stirred tank reactor (CSTR) under mesophilic conditions (37.0 ± 0.4 °C), with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 13 days. The specific methane production (SMP) increased by 29% during the anaerobic co-digestion process. These results can support the design of alternative valorisation routes for these biowastes, contributing to sustainable development goals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membrane Technologies for Sustainability)
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18 pages, 6604 KiB  
Article
A Sequential Membrane Process of Ultrafiltration Forward Osmosis and Reverse Osmosis for Poultry Slaughterhouse Wastewater Treatment and Reuse
by Faryal Fatima, Hongbo Du and Raghava R. Kommalapati
Membranes 2023, 13(3), 296; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes13030296 - 01 Mar 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2005
Abstract
To address some challenges of food security and sustainability of the poultry processing industry, a sequential membrane process of ultrafiltration (UF), forward osmosis (FO), and reverse osmosis (RO) is proposed to treat semi-processed poultry slaughterhouse wastewater (PSWW) and water recovery. The pretreatment of [...] Read more.
To address some challenges of food security and sustainability of the poultry processing industry, a sequential membrane process of ultrafiltration (UF), forward osmosis (FO), and reverse osmosis (RO) is proposed to treat semi-processed poultry slaughterhouse wastewater (PSWW) and water recovery. The pretreatment of PSWW with UF removed 36.7% of chemical oxygen demand (COD), 38.9% of total phosphorous (TP), 24.7% of total solids (TS), 14.5% of total volatile solids (TVS), 27.3% of total fixed solids (TFS), and 12.1% of total nitrogen (TN). Then, the PSWW was treated with FO membrane in FO mode, pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) mode, and L-DOPA coated membrane in the PRO mode. The FO mode was optimal for PSWW treatment by achieving the highest average flux of 10.4 ± 0.2 L/m2-h and the highest pollutant removal efficiency; 100% of COD, 100% of TP, 90.5% of TS, 85.3% of TVS, 92.1% of TFS, and 37.2% of TN. The performance of the FO membrane was entirely restored by flushing the membrane with 0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate solution. RO significantly removed COD, TS, TVS, TFS, and TP. However, TN was reduced by only 62% because of the high ammonia concentration present in the draw solution. Overall, the sequential membrane process (UF-FO-RO) showed excellent performance by providing high rejection efficiency for pollutant removal and water recovery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membrane Technologies for Sustainability)
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12 pages, 1884 KiB  
Article
Poly(alkyl-biphenyl pyridinium)-Based Anion Exchange Membranes with Alkyl Side Chains Enable High Anion Permselectivity and Monovalent Ion Flux
by Jin Yang, Qian Chen, Noor Ul Afsar, Liang Ge and Tongwen Xu
Membranes 2023, 13(2), 188; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes13020188 - 03 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1785
Abstract
Poly(alkyl-biphenyl pyridinium)-based anion exchange membranes with alkyl side chains were synthesized for permselective anion separation. By altering the length of the grafted side chain, the hydrophilicity and other attributes of the membranes could be controlled. The QDPAB-C5 membrane with the best comprehensive performance [...] Read more.
Poly(alkyl-biphenyl pyridinium)-based anion exchange membranes with alkyl side chains were synthesized for permselective anion separation. By altering the length of the grafted side chain, the hydrophilicity and other attributes of the membranes could be controlled. The QDPAB-C5 membrane with the best comprehensive performance exhibited a Cl ion flux of 3.72 mol m−2 h−1 and a Cl/SO42− permselectivity of 15, which are significantly better than the commercial Neosepta ACS membrane. The QDPAB-C5 membranes with distinct microscopic phase separation structures formed interconnected hydrophilic/hydrophobic ion channels and exhibited excellent ion flux and permselectivity for other anionic systems (NO3/SO42−, Br/SO42−, F/SO42−, NO3/Cl, Br/Cl, and F/Cl) as well. Furthermore, the influence of alkyl side chain length on the membranes’ ion flux and permselectivity in electrodialysis was investigated, which may be attributed to the alterations in ion channels and hydrophobic regions of the membranes. This work provides an effective strategy for the development of monovalent anion permselective membranes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membrane Technologies for Sustainability)
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26 pages, 8609 KiB  
Article
Modeling and Validation of a LiOH Production Process by Bipolar Membrane Electrodialysis from Concentrated LiCl
by Alonso González, Mario Grágeda and Svetlana Ushak
Membranes 2023, 13(2), 187; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes13020187 - 02 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2433
Abstract
Electromembrane processes for LiOH production from lithium brines obtained from solar evaporation ponds in production processes of the Salar de Atacama are considered. In order to analyze high concentrations’ effect on ion exchange membranes, the use of concentrated LiCl aqueous solutions in a [...] Read more.
Electromembrane processes for LiOH production from lithium brines obtained from solar evaporation ponds in production processes of the Salar de Atacama are considered. In order to analyze high concentrations’ effect on ion exchange membranes, the use of concentrated LiCl aqueous solutions in a bipolar membrane electrodialysis process to produce LiOH solutions higher than 3.0% by mass is initially investigated. For this purpose, a mathematical model based on the Nernst–Planck equation is developed and validated, and a parametric study is simulated considering as input variables electrolyte concentrations, applied current density, stack design, process design and membrane characteristics. As a novelty, this mathematical model allows estimating LiOH production in a wide concentration range of LiCl, HCl and LiOH solutions and its effect on the process, providing data on final LiOH solution purity, current efficiency, specific electricity consumption and membrane performance. Among the main results, a concentration of 4.0% to 4.5% by LiOH mass is achieved, with a solution purity higher than 95% by mass and specific electrical energy consumption close to 4.0 kWh/kg. The work performed provides key information on process sensitivity to operating conditions and process design characteristics. These results serve as a guide in the application of this technology to lithium hydroxide production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membrane Technologies for Sustainability)
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19 pages, 1889 KiB  
Article
Treatment Trends and Combined Methods in Removing Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products from Wastewater—A Review
by Paripurnanda Loganathan, Saravanamuthu Vigneswaran, Jaya Kandasamy, Agnieszka Katarzyna Cuprys, Zakhar Maletskyi and Harsha Ratnaweera
Membranes 2023, 13(2), 158; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes13020158 - 27 Jan 2023
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 3237
Abstract
When discharged into wastewater, pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) become microorganic contaminants and are among the largest groups of emerging pollutants. Human, animal, and aquatic organisms’ exposures to PPCPs have linked them to an array of carcinogenic, mutagenic, and reproductive toxicity risks. [...] Read more.
When discharged into wastewater, pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) become microorganic contaminants and are among the largest groups of emerging pollutants. Human, animal, and aquatic organisms’ exposures to PPCPs have linked them to an array of carcinogenic, mutagenic, and reproductive toxicity risks. For this reason, various methods are being implemented to remove them from water bodies. This report critically reviews these methods and suggests improvements to removal strategies. Biological, physical, and chemical methods such as biological degradation, adsorption, membrane filtration, and advanced electrical and chemical oxidation are the common methods used. However, these processes were not integrated into most studies to take advantage of the different mechanisms specific to each process and are synergistic in the removal of the PPCPs that differ in their physical and chemical characteristics (charge, molecular weight, hydrophobicity, hydrogen bonding, structure). In the review articles published to date, very little information is available on the use of such integrated methods for removing PPCPs. This report attempts to fill this gap with our knowledge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membrane Technologies for Sustainability)
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12 pages, 1258 KiB  
Article
Mechanism of HMBR in Reducing Membrane Fouling under Different SRT: Effect of Sludge Load on Microbial Properties
by Ying Yao, Yanju Wang, Qiang Liu, Ying Li and Junwei Yan
Membranes 2022, 12(12), 1242; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes12121242 - 08 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 959
Abstract
Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) are the main causative agents of membrane fouling, and the use of a hybrid membrane bioreactor (HMBR) can mitigate this by reducing the EPS content. Four bench scale sets of HMBRs were used simultaneously to treat domestic wastewater. The [...] Read more.
Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) are the main causative agents of membrane fouling, and the use of a hybrid membrane bioreactor (HMBR) can mitigate this by reducing the EPS content. Four bench scale sets of HMBRs were used simultaneously to treat domestic wastewater. The effect of sludge retention times (SRT) on membrane fouling in HMBRs and the underlying mechanism were investigated by comparing and analyzing the changes in sludge load, microbial characteristics, EPS distribution characteristics, and transmembrane pressure under different SRTs. Results revealed that, among the four SRTs (10 d, 20 d, 30 d, and 60 d), the best removal rates of chemical oxygen demand and total nitrogen were observed for an SRT of 30 d, with average removal rates of 95.0% and 57.1%, respectively. The best results for ammonia nitrogen and total phosphorus removal were observed at an SRT of 20 d, with average removal rates of 84.3% and 99.5%, respectively. SRT can affect sludge load by altering the biomass, which significantly impacts the microbial communities. The highest microbial diversity was observed at an SRT of 30 d (with a BOD sludge load of 0.0310 kg/kg∙d), with Sphingobacteriales exhibiting the highest relative abundance at 19.6%. At this SRT setting, the microorganisms produced the least amount of soluble EPS and loosely bond EPS by metabolism, 3.41 mg/g and 4.52 mg/g, respectively. Owing to the reduced EPS content, membrane fouling was effectively controlled and the membrane module working cycle was effectively enhanced up to 99 d, the longest duration among the four SRTs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membrane Technologies for Sustainability)
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13 pages, 2716 KiB  
Article
Studying Different Operating Conditions on Reverse Osmosis Performance in the Treatment of Wastewater Containing Nickel (II) Ions
by Ihab Shigidi, Ramzi H. Harharah, Ghassan M. T. Abdalla, Abubakar Elkhaleefa, Norah S. Alsaiari, Hamed N. Harharah, Abdelfattah Amari and Mohamed G. Hassan
Membranes 2022, 12(11), 1163; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes12111163 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1663
Abstract
The reverse osmosis performance in removing nickel ions from artificial wastewater was experimentally and mathematically assessed. The impact of temperature, pressure, feed concentration, and feed flow rate on the permeate flux and Ni (II) rejection % were studied. Experiments were conducted using a [...] Read more.
The reverse osmosis performance in removing nickel ions from artificial wastewater was experimentally and mathematically assessed. The impact of temperature, pressure, feed concentration, and feed flow rate on the permeate flux and Ni (II) rejection % were studied. Experiments were conducted using a SEPA CF042 Membrane Test Skid—TFC BW30XFR with applied pressures of 10, 20, 30, and 40 bar and feed concentrations of 25, 50, 100, and 150 ppm with varying operating temperatures of 25, 35, and 45 °C, while the feed flow rate was changed between 2, 3.2, and 4.4 L/min. The permeate flux and the Ni (II) removal % were directly proportional to the feed temperature and operating pressure, but inversely proportional to the feed concentration, where the permeate flux increased by 49% when the temperature was raised from 25 to 45 °C, while the Ni (II) removal % slightly increased by 4%. In addition, the permeate flux increased by 188% and the Ni (II) removal % increased to 95.19% when the pressure was raised from 10 to 40 bar. The feed flow rate, on the other hand, had a negligible influence on the permeate flux and Ni (II) removal %. The temperature correction factor (TCF) was determined to be directly proportional to the feed temperature, but inversely proportional to the operating pressure; nevertheless, the TCF was unaffected either by the feed flow rate or the feed concentration. Based on the experimental data, mathematical models were generated for both the permeate flux and nickel removal %. The results showed that both models matched the experimental data well. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membrane Technologies for Sustainability)
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20 pages, 5125 KiB  
Article
Effect of Pulsed Electric Field on the Electrodialysis Performance of Phosphate-Containing Solutions
by Olesya Rybalkina, Ksenia Solonchenko, Daria Chuprynina, Natalia Pismenskaya and Victor Nikonenko
Membranes 2022, 12(11), 1107; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes12111107 - 05 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1424
Abstract
A comparative analysis of mass transfer characteristics and energy consumption was carried out for the electrodialysis recovery of PV from of NaH2PO4 solutions and multicomponent (0.045 M NaxH(3−x)PO4, 0.02 M KCl, 0.045 M [...] Read more.
A comparative analysis of mass transfer characteristics and energy consumption was carried out for the electrodialysis recovery of PV from of NaH2PO4 solutions and multicomponent (0.045 M NaxH(3−x)PO4, 0.02 M KCl, 0.045 M KOH, 0.028 M CaCl2, and 0.012 M MgCl2, pH 6.0 ± 0.1) solution in conventional continuous current (CC) and pulsed electric field (PEF) modes. The advantages of using PEF in comparison with CC mode are shown to increase the current efficiency and reduce energy consumption, as well as reduce scaling on heterogeneous anion-exchange membranes. It has been shown that PEF contributes to the suppression of the “acid dissociation” phenomenon, which is specific for anion-exchange membranes in phosphate-containing solutions. Pulse and pause lapse 0.1 s–0.1 s and duty cycle 1/2 were found to be optimal among the studied PEF parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membrane Technologies for Sustainability)
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16 pages, 1750 KiB  
Article
Partial Removal of Sugar from Apple Juice by Nanofiltration and Discontinuous Diafiltration
by Martina Gaglianò, Carmela Conidi, Giuseppina De Luca and Alfredo Cassano
Membranes 2022, 12(7), 712; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes12070712 - 15 Jul 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2772
Abstract
Partial removal of sugars in fruit juices without compromising their biofunctional properties represents a significant technological challenge. The current study was aimed at evaluating the separation of sugars from phenolic compounds in apple juice by using three different spiral-wound nanofiltration (NF) membranes with [...] Read more.
Partial removal of sugars in fruit juices without compromising their biofunctional properties represents a significant technological challenge. The current study was aimed at evaluating the separation of sugars from phenolic compounds in apple juice by using three different spiral-wound nanofiltration (NF) membranes with a molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) in the range of 200–500 Da. A combination of diafiltration and batch concentration processes was investigated to produce apple juice with reduced sugar content and improved health properties thanks to the preservation and concentration of phenolic compounds. For all selected membranes, permeate flux and recovery rate of glucose, fructose, and phenolic compounds, in both diafiltration and concentration processes, were evaluated. The concentration factor of target compounds as a function of the volume reduction factor (VRF) as well as the amount of adsorbed compound on the membrane surface from mass balance analysis were also evaluated. Among the investigated membranes a thin-film composite membrane with an MWCO of 200–300 Da provided the best results in terms of the preservation of phenolic compounds in the selected operating conditions. More than 70% of phenolic compounds were recovered in the retentate stream while the content of sugars was reduced by about 60%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membrane Technologies for Sustainability)
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14 pages, 1707 KiB  
Article
Semi-Industrial Production of a DPP-IV and ACE Inhibitory Peptide Fraction from Whey Protein Concentrate Hydrolysate by Electrodialysis with Ultrafiltration Membrane
by Mélanie Faucher, Thibaud R. Geoffroy, Jacinthe Thibodeau, Sami Gaaloul and Laurent Bazinet
Membranes 2022, 12(4), 409; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes12040409 - 09 Apr 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1722
Abstract
The separation by electrodialysis with ultrafiltration membranes (EDUF), at a semi-industrial scale, of a new whey protein hydrolysate obtained from a whey protein concentrate was assessed. After 6 h of treatment, more than 9 g of peptides were recovered in the peptide recovery [...] Read more.
The separation by electrodialysis with ultrafiltration membranes (EDUF), at a semi-industrial scale, of a new whey protein hydrolysate obtained from a whey protein concentrate was assessed. After 6 h of treatment, more than 9 g of peptides were recovered in the peptide recovery fraction, for a recovery yield of 5.46 ± 0.56% and containing 18 major components. Among these components, positively charged peptides, such as ALPMHIR + PHMIR, LIVTQTMK and TKIPAVF, were present, and their relative abundances increased by nearly 1.25 X and up to 7.55 X. The presence of these peptides may be promising, as ALPMHIR has a strong activity against angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), and LIVTQTMK has structural properties that could interfere with dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV). Many neutral peptides were also recovered alongside those. Nevertheless, the inhibitory activity against DPP-IV and ACE increased from 2 X and 4 X, respectively, in the peptide recovery fraction compared to the initial hydrolysate, due to the improved content in bioactive peptides. Thus, this new hydrolysate is well-suited for the large-scale production of a peptide fraction with high bioactivities. Furthermore, what was achieved in this work came close to what could be achieved for the industrial production of a bioactive peptide fraction from whey proteins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membrane Technologies for Sustainability)
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Review

Jump to: Research

37 pages, 5147 KiB  
Review
Electrodialysis Processes an Answer to Industrial Sustainability: Toward the Concept of Eco-Circular Economy?—A Review
by Aurore Cournoyer and Laurent Bazinet
Membranes 2023, 13(2), 205; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes13020205 - 07 Feb 2023
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2738
Abstract
Wastewater and by-product treatments are substantial issues with consequences for our society, both in terms of environmental impacts and economic losses. With an overall global objective of sustainable development, it is essential to offer eco-efficient and circular solutions. Indeed, one of the major [...] Read more.
Wastewater and by-product treatments are substantial issues with consequences for our society, both in terms of environmental impacts and economic losses. With an overall global objective of sustainable development, it is essential to offer eco-efficient and circular solutions. Indeed, one of the major solutions to limit the use of new raw materials and the production of wastes is the transition toward a circular economy. Industries must find ways to close their production loops. Electrodialysis (ED) processes such as conventional ED, selective ED, ED with bipolar membranes, and ED with filtration membranes are processes that have demonstrated, in the past decades and recently, their potential and eco-efficiency. This review presents the most recent valorization opportunities among different industrial sectors (water, food, mining, chemistry, etc.) to manage waste or by-product resources through electrodialysis processes and to improve global industrial sustainability by moving toward circular processes. The limitations of existing studies are raised, especially concerning eco-efficiency. Indeed, electrodialysis processes can be optimized to decrease energy consumption and costs, and to increase efficiency; however, eco-efficiency scores should be determined to compare electrodialysis with conventional processes and support their advantages. The review shows the high potential of the different types of electrodialysis processes to treat wastewaters and liquid by-products in order to add value or to generate new raw materials. It also highlights the strong interest in using eco-efficient processes within a circular economy. The ideal scenario for sustainable development would be to make a transition toward an eco-circular economy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membrane Technologies for Sustainability)
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