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Naturally Derived Biomaterials for Regenerative Medicine Applications

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Biomaterials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 November 2022) | Viewed by 49518

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Ceramics and Refractories, AGH University of Science & Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow, Poland
Interests: bioceramics; calcium phosphates; bone cements; composites; hybrid materials; chitosan; pectins; tissue engineering
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Biomaterials for regenerative medicine applications are produced using either natural polymers or biocompatible synthetic materials or their composites. However, it has been observed that naturally-derived biomaterials have superior properties over synthetic ones, since they are characterized by certain key features such as nontoxicity, biodegradability, low immunogenicity, osteoconductivity, or similarity to glycosaminoglycans of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Thus, naturally-derived biomaterials have been reported to provide the best healing process of injured tissues.

The main goal of this Special Issue is to highlight the recent progress in the field of engineering of biomaterials and tissue engineering, focusing on the use of naturally derived biomaterials for the development of novel wound dressings, bioengineered artificial skin grafts, cartilage scaffolds, bone scaffolds, and drug delivery systems for tissue regeneration. All papers (reviews and original research articles) dealing with acceleration of the regeneration process by application of naturally-derived biomaterials are welcome in this Special Issue. Manuscripts presenting a comprehensive evaluation of biomedical potential of novel biomaterials are especially encouraged.

Special focus will be given (but is not restricted) to:

  • Natural biomaterials for skin regeneration (wound dressings, artificial skin grafts);
  • Naturally derived cartilage and bone scaffolds;
  • Naturally derived drug delivery systems for tissue regeneration;
  • Tissue engineering;
  • Engineering of biomaterials;
  • Electrospun natural biomaterials;
  • 3D printed natural biomaterials;
  • Characterziation of natural biomaterials.

Dr. Agata Przekora
Dr. Aneta Zima
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • tissue engineering
  • wound dressings
  • artificial skin grafts
  • cartilage scaffolds
  • bone scaffolds, drug carriers
  • 3D printing
  • electrospinning

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Research

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14 pages, 3176 KiB  
Article
A New, Biomimetic Collagen–Apatite Wound-Healing Composite with a Potential Regenerative and Anti-Hemorrhagic Effect in Dental Surgery
by Barbara Kolodziejska, Lukasz Pajchel, Anna Zgadzaj and Joanna Kolmas
Materials 2022, 15(24), 8888; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15248888 - 13 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1613
Abstract
The aim of this work was to obtain and characterize composite biomaterials containing two components, namely carbonated hydroxyapatite, which was substituted with Mg2+ and Zn2+ ions, and natural polymer–collagen protein. The following two different types of collagen were used: lyophilized powder [...] Read more.
The aim of this work was to obtain and characterize composite biomaterials containing two components, namely carbonated hydroxyapatite, which was substituted with Mg2+ and Zn2+ ions, and natural polymer–collagen protein. The following two different types of collagen were used: lyophilized powder of telocollagen from bovine Achilles tendon and atelocollagen solution from bovine dermis. The obtained 3D materials were used as potential matrices for the targeted delivery of tranexamic acid for potential use in wound healing after tooth extractions. Tranexamic acid (TXA) was introduced into composites by two different methods. The physicochemical analyses of the obtained composites included Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), inductively coupled plasma–optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), release kinetics tests, swelling test, and cytotoxicity assays. The studies showed that the proposed synthetic methods yielded biomaterials with favorable physicochemical properties, as well as the expected release profile of the drug and ions from the matrices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Naturally Derived Biomaterials for Regenerative Medicine Applications)
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23 pages, 10826 KiB  
Article
Preparation of Collagen/Hydroxyapatite Composites Using the Alternate Immersion Method and Evaluation of the Cranial Bone-Forming Capability of Composites Complexed with Acidic Gelatin and b-FGF
by Miki Hoshi, Masayuki Taira, Tomofumi Sawada, Yuki Hachinohe, Wataru Hatakeyama, Kyoko Takafuji, Shinji Tekemoto and Hisatomo Kondo
Materials 2022, 15(24), 8802; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15248802 - 9 Dec 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2015
Abstract
Bone-substitute materials are essential in dental implantology. We prepared collagen (Col)/hydroxyapatite (Hap)/acidic gelatin (AG)/basic fibroblast growth factor (b-FGF) constructs with enhanced bone-forming capability. The Col/Hap apatite composites were prepared by immersing Col sponges alternately in calcium and phosphate ion solutions five times, for [...] Read more.
Bone-substitute materials are essential in dental implantology. We prepared collagen (Col)/hydroxyapatite (Hap)/acidic gelatin (AG)/basic fibroblast growth factor (b-FGF) constructs with enhanced bone-forming capability. The Col/Hap apatite composites were prepared by immersing Col sponges alternately in calcium and phosphate ion solutions five times, for 20 and 60 min, respectively. Then, the sponges were heated to 56 °C for 48 h. Scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction analyses showed that the Col/Hap composites contained poorly crystalline Hap precipitates on the Col matrix. Col/Hap composite granules were infiltrated by AG, freeze-dried, and immersed in b-FGF solution. The wet quaternary constructs were implanted in rat cranial bone defects for 8 weeks, followed by soft X-ray measurements and histological analysis. Animal studies have shown that the constructs moderately increase bone formation in cranial bone defects. We found that an alternate immersion time of 20 min led to the greatest bone formation (p < 0.05). Constructs placed inside defects slightly extend the preexisting bone from the defect edges and lead to the formation of small island-like bones inside the defect, followed by disappearance of the constructs. The combined use of Col, Hap, AG, and b-FGF might bring about novel bone-forming biomaterials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Naturally Derived Biomaterials for Regenerative Medicine Applications)
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9 pages, 1704 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Breaking Force of Different Suture Materials Used in Dentistry: An In Vitro Mechanical Comparison
by Mattia Manfredini, Susanna Ferrario, Paola Beretta, Davide Farronato and Pier Paolo Poli
Materials 2022, 15(3), 1082; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15031082 - 30 Jan 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2137
Abstract
The success of surgical procedures is strictly related to the biomechanical properties of the suture. Mechanical comparisons are scarcely reported in the literature, so the purpose of the present study was to evaluate and compare the mechanical behavior of different sutures commonly used [...] Read more.
The success of surgical procedures is strictly related to the biomechanical properties of the suture. Mechanical comparisons are scarcely reported in the literature, so the purpose of the present study was to evaluate and compare the mechanical behavior of different sutures commonly used in oral surgery in terms of traction resistance. Sutures made of eight different materials were analyzed: silk (S), polyglycolide-co-caprolactone (PGCL), polypropylene (PP), rapid polyglycolide (rPGA), standard polyglycolide (PGA), polyamide (PA), polyester (PE), and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF). For each material, three different sizes were tested: 3-0, 4-0, and 5-0. The breaking force of each suture was assessed with a uniaxial testing machine after being immersed in artificial saliva at 37 °C. The outcomes analyzed were the breaking force, the needle–thread detachment breaking-point and the node response after forward–reverse–forward (FRF) tying when subjected to a tensile force. The 3-0 rPGA provided the maximum resistance, while the lowest value was recorded for the 5-0 PGCL. In general, 3-0 and 4-0 gauges showed non-statistically significant differences in terms of needle–thread detachment. The highest needle–thread detachment was found for the 3-0 PGA, whereas the lowest value was observed for the 5-0 PGCL. After tying the knot with an FRF configuration, the thread that showed the highest resistance to tension was the 3/0 silk, while the thread with the lowest resistance was the 5/0 silk. These data should be considered so that the operator is aware of as many aspects as possible on the behavior of various materials to ensure successful healing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Naturally Derived Biomaterials for Regenerative Medicine Applications)
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14 pages, 3795 KiB  
Article
Cellular Response of Human Osteoblasts to Different Presentations of Deproteinized Bovine Bone
by Pedro Henrique de Azambuja Carvalho, Sarah Al-Maawi, Eva Dohle, Robert Alexander Sader, Valfrido Antonio Pereira-Filho and Shahram Ghanaati
Materials 2022, 15(3), 999; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15030999 - 27 Jan 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2045
Abstract
Objectives: This study evaluated the cellular response of primary osteoblasts exposed to two different presentations of a low-temperature non-sintered deproteinized bovine bone matrix (DBBM). Materials and methods: Six different baths of a commercially available DBBM block (Bonefill® Porous Block) and [...] Read more.
Objectives: This study evaluated the cellular response of primary osteoblasts exposed to two different presentations of a low-temperature non-sintered deproteinized bovine bone matrix (DBBM). Materials and methods: Six different baths of a commercially available DBBM block (Bonefill® Porous Block) and one of DBBM granule (Bonefill® Porous) were evaluated to identify the mineral structure and organic or cellular remnants. Samples of the same baths were processed in TRIZOL for RNA extraction and quantification. For the immunologic cell reaction assay, primary human osteoblasts (pOB) were exposed to DBMM block (pOB + B) or granules (pOB + G), or none (control) for 1, 3, or 7 days of cell cultivation. Expression of proinflammatory cytokines by pOB was evaluated by crosslinked ELISA assay. In addition, total DNA amount, as well as cell viability via LDH evaluation, was assessed. Results: Organic remnants were present in DBBM blocks; 45.55% (±7.12) of osteocytes lacunae presented cellular remnants in blocks compared to 17.31% (±1.31) in granules. In three of five batches of blocks, it was possible to isolate bovine RNA. The highest concentration of TGF-β1 was found in supernatants of pOB + G on day 7 (218.85 ± 234.62 pg/mL) (p < 0.05), whereas pOB + B presented the lowest amount of TGF-β1 secretion at the end of evaluation (30.22 ± 14.94 pg/mL, p < 0.05). For IL-6 and OPG, there was no statistical difference between groups, while pOB + G induced more IL-8 secretion than the control (3.03 ± 3.38 ng/mL, p < 0.05). Considering the kinetics of cytokine release during the study period, all groups presented a similar pattern of cytokines, estimated as an increasing concentration for IL-6, IL-8, and OPG during cultivation. Adherent cells were observed on both material surfaces on day 7, according to H&E and OPN staining. Conclusion: Neither tested material induced a pronounced inflammatory response upon osteoblast cultivation. However, further studies are needed to elucidate the potential influence of organic remnants in bone substitute materials on the regeneration process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Naturally Derived Biomaterials for Regenerative Medicine Applications)
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26 pages, 4321 KiB  
Article
Analysis of the Physico-Chemical, Mechanical and Biological Properties of Crosslinked Type-I Collagen from Horse Tendon: Towards the Development of Ideal Scaffolding Material for Urethral Regeneration
by Nunzia Gallo, Maria Lucia Natali, Claudia Curci, Angela Picerno, Anna Gallone, Marco Vulpi, Antonio Vitarelli, Pasquale Ditonno, Mariafrancesca Cascione, Fabio Sallustio, Rosaria Rinaldi, Alessandro Sannino and Luca Salvatore
Materials 2021, 14(24), 7648; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14247648 - 12 Dec 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3033
Abstract
Urethral stenosis is a pathological condition that consists in the narrowing of the urethral lumen because of the formation of scar tissue. Unfortunately, none of the current surgical approaches represent an optimal solution because of the high stricture recurrence rate. In this context, [...] Read more.
Urethral stenosis is a pathological condition that consists in the narrowing of the urethral lumen because of the formation of scar tissue. Unfortunately, none of the current surgical approaches represent an optimal solution because of the high stricture recurrence rate. In this context, we preliminarily explored the potential of an insoluble type-I collagen from horse tendon as scaffolding material for the development of innovative devices for the regeneration of injured urethral tracts. Non-porous collagen-based substrates were produced and optimized, in terms of crosslinking density of the macromolecular structure, to either provide mechanical properties compliant with the urinary tract physiological stress and better sustain tissue regeneration. The effect of the adopted crosslinking strategy on the protein integrity and on the substrate physical–chemical, mechanical and biological properties was investigated in comparison with a decellularized matrix from porcine small intestinal submucosa (SIS patch), an extensively used xenograft licensed for clinical use in urology. The optimized production protocols allowed the preservation of the type I collagen native structure and the realization of a substrate with appealing end-use properties. The biological response, preliminarily investigated by immunofluorescence experiments on human adult renal stem/progenitor cells until 28 days, showed the formation of a stem-cell monolayer within 14 days and the onset of spheroids within 28 days. These results suggested the great potential of the collagen-based material for the development of scaffolds for urethral plate regeneration and for in vitro cellular studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Naturally Derived Biomaterials for Regenerative Medicine Applications)
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12 pages, 1961 KiB  
Article
Porous Composite Granules with Potential Function of Bone Substitute and Simvastatin Releasing System: A Preliminary Study
by Aleksandra Laskus-Zakrzewska, Paulina Kazimierczak and Joanna Kolmas
Materials 2021, 14(17), 5068; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14175068 - 4 Sep 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1742
Abstract
In this work, 3D porous granules based on Zn and Se-containing calcium phosphates (CaPs) were fabricated using a droplet-extrusion technique. The composite beads varied in composition and contained two different natural polymers: sodium alginate (SA) and gelatin (GEL). To analyse and compare their [...] Read more.
In this work, 3D porous granules based on Zn and Se-containing calcium phosphates (CaPs) were fabricated using a droplet-extrusion technique. The composite beads varied in composition and contained two different natural polymers: sodium alginate (SA) and gelatin (GEL). To analyse and compare their physicochemical properties, such as porosity and morphology, different techniques were applied, including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), sorption of N2 and mercury porosimetry. Prior to the fabrication of the granules, the properties of CaPs materials, (the bioceramic base of the beads), selenium (IV)-substituted hydroxyapatite (Se-HA) and zinc-substituted dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (Zn-DCPD), were also investigated. The results of cell viability assessment showed that Se-HA powder was non-toxic to human osteoblasts (hFOB 1.19) and simultaneously exhibited high toxicity to tumour cells (Saos-2). Once the cytotoxicity assay was completed, Se-HA and Zn-DCPD were used to prepare 3D materials. The prepared porous granules were used as matrices to deliver simvastatin to bones. Simvastatin was applied in either the lipophilic form or hydrophilic form. The release kinetics of simvastatin from granules of different composition was then assessed and compared. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Naturally Derived Biomaterials for Regenerative Medicine Applications)
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15 pages, 6870 KiB  
Article
Effect of Gold Nanoparticles and Silicon on the Bioactivity and Antibacterial Properties of Hydroxyapatite/Chitosan/Tricalcium Phosphate-Based Biomicroconcretes
by Joanna Czechowska, Ewelina Cichoń, Anna Belcarz, Anna Ślósarczyk and Aneta Zima
Materials 2021, 14(14), 3854; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14143854 - 9 Jul 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1820
Abstract
Bioactive, chemically bonded bone substitutes with antibacterial properties are highly recommended for medical applications. In this study, biomicroconcretes, composed of silicon modified (Si-αTCP) or non-modified α-tricalcium phosphate (αTCP), as well as hybrid hydroxyapatite/chitosan granules non-modified and modified with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), were designed. [...] Read more.
Bioactive, chemically bonded bone substitutes with antibacterial properties are highly recommended for medical applications. In this study, biomicroconcretes, composed of silicon modified (Si-αTCP) or non-modified α-tricalcium phosphate (αTCP), as well as hybrid hydroxyapatite/chitosan granules non-modified and modified with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), were designed. The developed biomicroconcretes were supposed to combine the dual functions of antibacterial activity and bone defect repair. The chemical and phase composition, microstructure, setting times, mechanical strength, and in vitro bioactive potential of the composites were examined. Furthermore, on the basis of the American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists test (AATCC 100), adapted for chemically bonded materials, the antibacterial activity of the biomicroconcretes against S. epidermidis, E. coli, and S. aureus was evaluated. All biomicroconcretes were surgically handy and revealed good adhesion between the hybrid granules and calcium phosphate-based matrix. Furthermore, they possessed acceptable setting times and mechanical properties. It has been stated that materials containing AuNPs set faster and possess a slightly higher compressive strength (3.4 ± 0.7 MPa). The modification of αTCP with silicon led to a favorable decrease of the final setting time to 10 min. Furthermore, it has been shown that materials modified with AuNPs and silicon possessed an enhanced bioactivity. The antibacterial properties of all of the developed biomicroconcretes against the tested bacterial strains due to the presence of both chitosan and Au were confirmed. The material modified simultaneously with AuNPs and silicon seems to be the most promising candidate for further biological studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Naturally Derived Biomaterials for Regenerative Medicine Applications)
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20 pages, 4024 KiB  
Article
Highly Porous and Superabsorbent Biomaterial Made of Marine-Derived Polysaccharides and Ascorbic Acid as an Optimal Dressing for Exuding Wound Management
by Vladyslav Vivcharenko, Michal Wojcik, Krzysztof Palka and Agata Przekora
Materials 2021, 14(5), 1211; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14051211 - 4 Mar 2021
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 3182
Abstract
There are many modern wound dressings that have promising properties for repairing skin damage. However, due to various types of wounds and the problems they cause, there is still a great demand for new, effective healing strategies. The aim of this study was [...] Read more.
There are many modern wound dressings that have promising properties for repairing skin damage. However, due to various types of wounds and the problems they cause, there is still a great demand for new, effective healing strategies. The aim of this study was to create superabsorbent wound dressing made of marine-derived polysaccharides (agarose and chitosan) using the freeze-drying method. The secondary goal was its comprehensive evaluation for potential use as an external superabsorbent bandage for wounds with high exudation. Due to the well-known positive effect of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) on the healing process, biomaterial enriched with vitamin C was prepared and compared to the variant without the addition of ascorbic acid. It was shown that the produced foam-like wound dressing had a very porous structure, which was characterized by hydrophilicity, allowing a large amount of human fluids to be absorbed. According to in vitro tests on human fibroblasts, biomaterial was nontoxic and supportive to cell proliferation. Vitamin C-enriched dressing also had the ability to significantly reduce matrix metalloproteinase-2 production and to promote platelet-derived growth factor-BB synthesis by fibroblasts, which is desired during chronic wound treatment. The material has features of the eco-friendly wound care product since it was made of naturally-derived polysaccharides and was proved to be biodegradable. Importantly, despite degradable character, it was stable in the chronic and infected wound microenvironment, maintaining high integrity after 8-week incubation in the enzymatic solutions containing lysozyme and collagenases. The obtained results clearly showed that developed biomaterial possesses all necessary features of the external dressing for the management of exudate from both acute and chronic non-healing wounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Naturally Derived Biomaterials for Regenerative Medicine Applications)
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17 pages, 4355 KiB  
Article
Effects of Bacterial Nanocellulose Loaded with Curcumin and Its Degradation Products on Human Dermal Fibroblasts
by Marketa Zikmundova, Maria Vereshaka, Katerina Kolarova, Julia Pajorova, Vaclav Svorcik and Lucie Bacakova
Materials 2020, 13(21), 4759; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13214759 - 25 Oct 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2548
Abstract
Bacterial nanocellulose has found applications in tissue engineering, in skin tissue repair, and in wound healing. Its large surface area enables the adsorption of various substances. Bacterial nanocellulose with adsorbed substances can serve as a substrate for drug-delivery of specific bioactive healing agents [...] Read more.
Bacterial nanocellulose has found applications in tissue engineering, in skin tissue repair, and in wound healing. Its large surface area enables the adsorption of various substances. Bacterial nanocellulose with adsorbed substances can serve as a substrate for drug-delivery of specific bioactive healing agents into wounds. In this study, we loaded a bacterial nanocellulose hydrogel with curcumin, i.e., an important anti-bacterial and healing agent, and its degradation products. These products were prepared by thermal decomposition of curcumin (DC) at a temperature of 180 °C (DC 180) or of 300 °C (DC 300). The main thermal decomposition products were tumerone, vanillin, and feruloylmethane. Curcumin and its degradation products were loaded into the bacterial nanocellulose by an autoclaving process. The increased temperature during autoclaving enhanced the solubility and the penetration of the agents into the nanocellulose. The aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxicity and the antimicrobial activity of pure curcumin, its degradation products, and finally of bacterial nanocellulose loaded with these agents. In vitro tests performed on human dermal fibroblasts revealed that the degradation products of curcumin, i.e., DC 180 and DC 300, were more cytotoxic than pure curcumin. However, if DC 300 was loaded into nanocellulose, the cytotoxic effect was not as strong as in the case of DC 300 powder added into the culture medium. DC 300 was found to be the least soluble product in water, which probably resulted in the poor loading of this agent into the nanocellulose. Nanocellulose loaded with pure curcumin or DC 180 exhibited more antibacterial activity than pristine nanocellulose. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Naturally Derived Biomaterials for Regenerative Medicine Applications)
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14 pages, 2261 KiB  
Article
Insights into In Vitro Wound Closure on Two Biopolyesters—Polylactide and Polyhydroxyoctanoate
by Tomasz Witko, Daria Solarz, Karolina Feliksiak, Katarzyna Haraźna, Zenon Rajfur and Maciej Guzik
Materials 2020, 13(12), 2793; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13122793 - 20 Jun 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2290
Abstract
Two bio-based polymers have been compared in this study, namely: polylactide (PLA) and polyhydroxyoctanoate (PHO). Due to their properties such as biocompatibility, and biointegrity they are considered to be valuable materials for medical purposes, i.e., creating scaffolds or wound dressings. Presented biopolymers were [...] Read more.
Two bio-based polymers have been compared in this study, namely: polylactide (PLA) and polyhydroxyoctanoate (PHO). Due to their properties such as biocompatibility, and biointegrity they are considered to be valuable materials for medical purposes, i.e., creating scaffolds or wound dressings. Presented biopolymers were investigated for their impact on cellular migration strategies of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) 3T3 cell line. Advanced microscopic techniques, including confocal microscopy and immunofluorescent protocols, enabled the thorough analysis of the cell shape and migration. Application of wound healing assay combined with dedicated software allowed us to perform quantitative analysis of wound closure dynamics. The outcome of the experiments demonstrated that the wound closure dynamics for PLA differs from PHO. Single fibroblasts grown on PLA moved 1.5-fold faster, than those migrating on the PHO surface. However, when a layer of cells was considered, the wound closure was by 4.1 h faster for PHO material. The accomplished work confirms the potential of PLA and PHO as excellent candidates for medical applications, due to their properties that propagate cell migration, vitality, and proliferation—essential cell processes in the healing of damaged tissues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Naturally Derived Biomaterials for Regenerative Medicine Applications)
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16 pages, 7159 KiB  
Article
Characterization of the Cellular Reaction to a Collagen-Based Matrix: An In Vivo Histological and Histomorphometrical Analysis
by Samuel Ebele Udeabor, Carlos Herrera-Vizcaíno, Robert Sader, C. James Kirkpatrick, Sarah Al-Maawi and Shahram Ghanaati
Materials 2020, 13(12), 2730; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13122730 - 16 Jun 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2526
Abstract
The permeability and inflammatory tissue reaction to Mucomaix® matrix (MM), a non- cross-linked collagen-based matrix was evaluated in both ex vivo and in vivo settings. Liquid platelet rich fibrin (PRF), a blood concentrate system, was used to assess its capacity to absorb [...] Read more.
The permeability and inflammatory tissue reaction to Mucomaix® matrix (MM), a non- cross-linked collagen-based matrix was evaluated in both ex vivo and in vivo settings. Liquid platelet rich fibrin (PRF), a blood concentrate system, was used to assess its capacity to absorb human proteins and interact with blood cells ex vivo. In the in vivo aspect, 12 Wister rats had MM implanted subcutaneously, whereas another 12 rats (control) were sham-operated without biomaterial implantation. On days 3, 15 and 30, explantation was completed (four rats per time-point) to evaluate the tissue reactions to the matrix. Data collected were statistically analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey multiple comparisons tests (GraphPad Prism 8). The matrix absorbed the liquid PRF in the ex vivo study. Day 3 post-implantation revealed mild tissue inflammatory reaction with presence of mononuclear cells in the implantation site and on the biomaterial surface (mostly CD68-positive macrophages). The control group at this stage had more mononuclear cells than the test group. From day 15, multinucleated giant cells (MNGCs) were seen in the implantation site and the outer third of the matrix with marked increase on day 30 and spread to the matrix core. The presence of these CD68-positive MNGCs was associated with significant matrix vascularization. The matrix degraded significantly over the study period, but its core was still visible as of day 30 post-implantation. The high permeability and fast degradation properties of MM were highlighted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Naturally Derived Biomaterials for Regenerative Medicine Applications)
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Review

Jump to: Research

32 pages, 5379 KiB  
Review
Ceramic Nanofiber Materials for Wound Healing and Bone Regeneration: A Brief Review
by Déborah dos Santos Gomes, Rayssa de Sousa Victor, Bianca Viana de Sousa, Gelmires de Araújo Neves, Lisiane Navarro de Lima Santana and Romualdo Rodrigues Menezes
Materials 2022, 15(11), 3909; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15113909 - 31 May 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2786
Abstract
Ceramic nanofibers have been shown to be a new horizon of research in the biomedical area, due to their differentiated morphology, nanoroughness, nanotopography, wettability, bioactivity, and chemical functionalization properties. Therefore, considering the impact caused by the use of these nanofibers, and the fact [...] Read more.
Ceramic nanofibers have been shown to be a new horizon of research in the biomedical area, due to their differentiated morphology, nanoroughness, nanotopography, wettability, bioactivity, and chemical functionalization properties. Therefore, considering the impact caused by the use of these nanofibers, and the fact that there are still limited data available in the literature addressing the ceramic nanofiber application in regenerative medicine, this review article aims to gather the state-of-the-art research concerning these materials, for potential use as a biomaterial for wound healing and bone regeneration, and to analyze their characteristics when considering their application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Naturally Derived Biomaterials for Regenerative Medicine Applications)
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11 pages, 1919 KiB  
Review
Infections @ Trauma/Orthopedic Implants: Recent Advances on Materials, Methods, and Microbes—A Mini-Review
by Britt Wildemann and Klaus D. Jandt
Materials 2021, 14(19), 5834; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14195834 - 6 Oct 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2546
Abstract
Implants and materials are indispensable in trauma and orthopedic surgery. The continuous improvements of implant design have resulted in an optimized mechanical function that supports tissue healing and restoration of function. One of the still unsolved problems with using implants and materials is [...] Read more.
Implants and materials are indispensable in trauma and orthopedic surgery. The continuous improvements of implant design have resulted in an optimized mechanical function that supports tissue healing and restoration of function. One of the still unsolved problems with using implants and materials is infection. Trauma and material implantation change the local inflammatory situation and enable bacterial survival and material colonization. The main pathogen in orthopedic infections is Staphylococcus aureus. The research efforts to optimize antimicrobial surfaces and to develop new anti-infective strategies are enormous. This mini-review focuses on the publications from 2021 with the keywords S. aureus AND (surface modification OR drug delivery) AND (orthopedics OR trauma) AND (implants OR nails OR devices). The PubMed search yielded 16 original publications and two reviews. The original papers reported the development and testing of anti-infective surfaces and materials: five studies described an implant surface modification, three developed an implant coating for local antibiotic release, the combination of both is reported in three papers, while five publications are on antibacterial materials but not metallic implants. One review is a systematic review on the prevention of stainless-steel implant-associated infections, the other addressed the possibilities of mixed oxide nanotubes. The complexity of the approaches differs and six of them showed efficacy in animal studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Naturally Derived Biomaterials for Regenerative Medicine Applications)
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19 pages, 2375 KiB  
Review
Application of Advanced Nanomaterials for Kidney Failure Treatment and Regeneration
by Aziz Eftekhari, Solmaz Maleki Dizaj, Elham Ahmadian, Agata Przekora, Seyed Mahdi Hosseiniyan Khatibi, Mohammadreza Ardalan, Sepideh Zununi Vahed, Mahbuba Valiyeva, Sevil Mehraliyeva, Rovshan Khalilov and Mohammad Hasanzadeh
Materials 2021, 14(11), 2939; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14112939 - 29 May 2021
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 4209
Abstract
The implementation of nanomedicine not only provides enhanced drug solubility and reduced off-target adverse effects, but also offers novel theranostic approaches in clinical practice. The increasing number of studies on the application of nanomaterials in kidney therapies has provided hope in a more [...] Read more.
The implementation of nanomedicine not only provides enhanced drug solubility and reduced off-target adverse effects, but also offers novel theranostic approaches in clinical practice. The increasing number of studies on the application of nanomaterials in kidney therapies has provided hope in a more efficient strategy for the treatment of renal diseases. The combination of biotechnology, material science and nanotechnology has rapidly gained momentum in the realm of therapeutic medicine. The establishment of the bedrock of this emerging field has been initiated and an exponential progress is observed which might significantly improve the quality of human life. In this context, several approaches based on nanomaterials have been applied in the treatment and regeneration of renal tissue. The presented review article in detail describes novel strategies for renal failure treatment with the use of various nanomaterials (including carbon nanotubes, nanofibrous membranes), mesenchymal stem cells-derived nanovesicles, and nanomaterial-based adsorbents and membranes that are used in wearable blood purification systems and synthetic kidneys. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Naturally Derived Biomaterials for Regenerative Medicine Applications)
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13 pages, 495 KiB  
Review
Tannic Acid with Antiviral and Antibacterial Activity as A Promising Component of Biomaterials—A Minireview
by Beata Kaczmarek
Materials 2020, 13(14), 3224; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13143224 - 20 Jul 2020
Cited by 246 | Viewed by 13469
Abstract
As a phenolic acid, tannic acid can be classified into a polyphenolic group. It has been widely studied in the biomedical field of science because it presents unique antiviral as well as antibacterial properties. Tannic acid has been reported to present the activity [...] Read more.
As a phenolic acid, tannic acid can be classified into a polyphenolic group. It has been widely studied in the biomedical field of science because it presents unique antiviral as well as antibacterial properties. Tannic acid has been reported to present the activity against Influeneza A virus, Papilloma viruses, noroviruses, Herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as well as activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pyogenes, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Yersinia enterocolitica, Listeria innocua. Nowadays, compounds of natural origin constitute fundaments of material science, and the trend is called “from nature to nature”. Although biopolymers have found a broad range of applications in biomedical sciences, they do not present anti-microbial activity, and their physicochemical properties are rather poor. Biopolymers, however, may be modified with organic and inorganic additives which enhance their properties. Tannic acid, like phenolic acid, is classified into a polyphenolic group and can be isolated from natural sources, e.g., a pure compound or a component of a plant extract. Numerous studies have been carried out over the application of tannic acid as an additive to biopolymer materials due to its unique properties. On the one hand, it shows antimicrobial and antiviral activity, while on the other hand, it reveals promising biological properties, i.e., enhances the cell proliferation, tissue regeneration and wound healing processes. Tannic acid is added to different biopolymers, collagen and polysaccharides as chitosan, agarose and starch. Its activity has been proven by the determination of physicochemical properties, as well as the performance of in vitro and in vivo studies. This systematics review is a summary of current studies on tannic acid properties. It presents tannic acid as an excellent natural compound which can be used to eliminate pathogenic factors as well as a revision of current studies on tannic acid composed with biopolymers and active properties of the resulting complexes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Naturally Derived Biomaterials for Regenerative Medicine Applications)
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