Tribology in Mobility, Volume II

A special issue of Lubricants (ISSN 2075-4442).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2023) | Viewed by 18758

Special Issue Editors


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Virtual Vehicle Competence Center, Inffeldgasse 25, 8010 Graz, Austria
Interests: combustion engines; tribology; friction; wear; lubrication
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. CMT-Motores Térmicos, Universitat Politècnica de València, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia, Spain
2. Virtual Vehicle Research Center, Inffeldgasse 21a, 8010 Graz, Austria
Interests: tribology; internal combustion engines; engine lubrication; piston assembly; journal bearings; friction; simulation

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Mobility has continuously evolved to meet the demands of a society in continuous change, ranging from the transportation of an increasing number of people and goods around the globe, to the urgent need to reduce their impact on the environment. These demands have incentivized the development and improvement of technologies for more efficient mobility applied to all transport sectors, including road, rail, marine, and aircraft. In this regard, the research conducted on tribology has demonstrated to be crucial for the appropriate performance, maintenance, and increase in efficiency of these vehicles; wherever things are moving, lubrication, friction, and wear phenomena exist.

With this in mind, this second part of the Special Issue Tribology in Mobility looks forward to state-of-the-art contributions in a wide range of applications covering different aspect of tribology in mobility; from investigations on lubricated machine elements in combustion engines and hybrid powertrain technologies, to condition-based maintenance, oil and wear analysis and many more interesting topics.

Dr. Hannes Allmaier
Dr. Sophia Bastidas
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Lubricants is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • lubrication
  • efficient transportation
  • powertrain and engines
  • friction and wear of components
  • rail/wheel and road/wheel contact
  • condition-based maintenance
  • testing
  • simulation

Related Special Issue

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

18 pages, 9058 KiB  
Article
Use of Functionalized Graphene-Based Materials on Grease
by Eduardo Tomanik, Paulo Berto, Wania Christinelli, Gabriela Papoulias, Xavier Raby and Valdirene Peressinotto
Lubricants 2023, 11(10), 452; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants11100452 - 20 Oct 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1517
Abstract
The growing awareness of reduced friction losses and new demands for electrical powertrains demand improved lubricants. Due to their unique properties, such as high thermal and electrical conductivity, graphene and its derivatives have been investigated for tribological applications, especially as lubricant additives. In [...] Read more.
The growing awareness of reduced friction losses and new demands for electrical powertrains demand improved lubricants. Due to their unique properties, such as high thermal and electrical conductivity, graphene and its derivatives have been investigated for tribological applications, especially as lubricant additives. In this work, we investigated three commercially available graphene variants, one comprising a few layers and the other two comprising nanoplates, after functionalization as additives to lithium soap grease. The grease temperature dropping point increased by approximately 6 °C. Additionally, during the reciprocating friction test, friction increased with the test duration for the baseline grease, whereas it decreased for the ones containing graphene-based additives. On the test end, friction was reduced by 8% compared to the baseline grease. On a four-ball tribometer, the wear scar was reduced from 10 to 18% compared to the baseline grease. In general, no significant difference was seen between the three graphene-based variants. The promising results found with graphene nanoplates, a less expensive material than a few graphene layers, creates opportunities for a cost-competitive additive to commercial greases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribology in Mobility, Volume II)
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15 pages, 3786 KiB  
Article
A Comparison of Hydrogen and Gasoline Piston Ring Simulations
by Stephen Richard Bewsher and Günter Offner
Lubricants 2023, 11(10), 444; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants11100444 - 13 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1344
Abstract
This paper presents a transient mixed-lubrication hydrodynamic and gas flow simulation model for a piston ring pack for a four-stroke internal combustion engine. The analyses carried out compare two fuel types, hydrogen and gasoline, at a 2000 rpm low engine load (20%), as [...] Read more.
This paper presents a transient mixed-lubrication hydrodynamic and gas flow simulation model for a piston ring pack for a four-stroke internal combustion engine. The analyses carried out compare two fuel types, hydrogen and gasoline, at a 2000 rpm low engine load (20%), as well as 3000 rpm low (20%) and high (100%) engine loads, to investigate the effects of the different fuels and loading conditions on the ring pack. In particular, the minimum oil film thickness at the top compression ring, the total ring friction of the ring pack, the friction power loss and the blow-by are studied. The simulation shows that, under the high load conditions at 3000 rpm, the hydrogen variant exhibits larger friction power losses, around a 200 W peak difference and larger blow-by throughout the expansion stroke of the engine cycle. A similar trend can be observed for the low loads, where larger friction power losses with peak differences of 30 W and 40 W for 2000 rpm and 3000 rpm, respectively, are observed. The blow-by results for the low load at 2000 rpm show a slight increase of approximately 22% more gas flow into the crankcase, while the 3000 rpm simulation shows a 50% increase in blow-by for the hydrogen variant at low load and a 40% increase at high load. The findings that are presented indicate that, although alternative fuel sources such as hydrogen are very attractive alternatives to fossil fuels such as gasoline, there can be unwanted side effects that could lead to the permanent damage of components through quicker wear or hydrogen embrittlement from the blow-by gas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribology in Mobility, Volume II)
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26 pages, 7801 KiB  
Article
Skidding Analysis of Exhaust Cam-Roller Unit in the Steady/Startup Operation of Internal Combustion Engine
by Shuyi Li, Feng Guo, Pat Lam Wong, Peng Liang and Jisong Huang
Lubricants 2023, 11(9), 361; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants11090361 - 25 Aug 2023
Viewed by 922
Abstract
This paper develops a coupling model of cam-roller contact and roller-pin contact considering thermal effects based on the exhaust cam-roller unit of an internal combustion engine. For the steady/startup running processes, the skidding and the lubrication performance are obtained in a complete cam [...] Read more.
This paper develops a coupling model of cam-roller contact and roller-pin contact considering thermal effects based on the exhaust cam-roller unit of an internal combustion engine. For the steady/startup running processes, the skidding and the lubrication performance are obtained in a complete cam rotation cycle, and the effects of oil viscosity or modified load are also discussed. The results show that the most significant effect of skidding on the cam-roller unit is the increase in friction between the cam and the roller. In a cam rotation cycle, the slide-roll ratio is not constant, and its value may even be negative. Compared with the steady running process, skidding is more pronounced during the startup running process, especially at the beginning of the acceleration stage (0–18°). Reducing oil viscosity or increasing modified load can effectively reduce the skidding situation, and its effect is more obvious in the steady running process than in the startup running process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribology in Mobility, Volume II)
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12 pages, 1034 KiB  
Article
Degradation Effects of Base Oils after Thermal and Electrical Aging for EV Thermal Fluid Applications
by Bernardo Tormos, Vicente Bermúdez, Santiago Ruiz and Jorge Alvis-Sanchez
Lubricants 2023, 11(6), 241; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants11060241 - 31 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1411
Abstract
This study presents the experimental results of the effects on base oils after thermal and electrical aging to determine key parameters of next-generation fluids for thermal management in electric vehicles. The test fluids selected were a mineral base oil API G-III, an API [...] Read more.
This study presents the experimental results of the effects on base oils after thermal and electrical aging to determine key parameters of next-generation fluids for thermal management in electric vehicles. The test fluids selected were a mineral base oil API G-III, an API G-IV Polyalphaolefin (PAO), a diester, and a polyolester, all of which had similar kinematic viscosity (KV100 = 4 cSt). All were initially characterized with measurements of density, viscosity, thermal conductivity, specific heat capacity, breakdown voltage, resistivity, and dissipation factor. They underwent two separate aging processes, one thermal, heating the test fluid at 150 °C for 120 h with a copper strip as a catalyst; and the second one an electrical aging process, with the application of 1000 breakdown voltage discharges. The same properties were measured again after each aging process and compared to the initial ones. It was found that the thermal properties ranged with similar values and did not suffer major changes after the aging processes, unlike electrical properties, which vary between samples and after thermal and electrical stress. The insights gained from this study have implications for both the development of next-generation e-thermal fluids and the future standardization of these fluids for EV thermal management applications. The findings of this study underscore the significance of formulating and selecting a suitable dielectric fluid for EV thermal management. By leveraging the insights provided, researchers and engineers can advance in the development of efficient and reliable e-thermal fluids while working towards future standardization to enhance the performance and safety of EV battery systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribology in Mobility, Volume II)
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12 pages, 922 KiB  
Article
Application of a Wear Debris Detection System to Investigate Wear Phenomena during Running-In of a Gasoline Engine
by Sophia Bastidas and Hannes Allmaier
Lubricants 2023, 11(6), 237; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants11060237 - 27 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 946
Abstract
When a tribological system is operated for the first time, the first hours of operation are of the utmost importance as the surfaces of the contacting elements mate to each other, involving significant wear processes until the surfaces reach stable topological characteristics. This [...] Read more.
When a tribological system is operated for the first time, the first hours of operation are of the utmost importance as the surfaces of the contacting elements mate to each other, involving significant wear processes until the surfaces reach stable topological characteristics. This initial phase in a combustion engine is known as running-in and is of critical importance in the study of friction and wear phenomena. Despite this, there is little information in the literature dedicated to running-in and, therefore, data improving its understanding is greatly anticipated. In this work, a novel wear debris detection system measuring in real time was employed to investigate the running-in of an inline 4-cylinder gasoline engine; it consists primarily of an optical sensor with the capability of detecting very small particles from 4 μm. For the tests, the engine was mounted on a test bench and operated under stationary working conditions. The results of the wear debris measurements showed interesting insights into the engine running-in process; although in general, the results followed the expected trend, they also showed an unexpected behavior: it was expected to obtain the highest amounts of wear debris at the beginning of the running-in, but instead the number of debris stagnated and only started to increase after about 20 h to then decrease again. The best operating conditions to run-in the engine were identified at the middle of the running-in period, without the presence of large wear debris that could lead to severe wear. Finally, it was found that the engine running-in was not finished until at least 75 h of operation, although commonly, a running-in time of 10 h is used in the industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribology in Mobility, Volume II)
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21 pages, 9491 KiB  
Article
Effect of Structural Flexibility of Wheelset/Track on Rail Wear
by Bingguang Wen, Gongquan Tao, Xuguang Wen, Shenghua Wang and Zefeng Wen
Lubricants 2023, 11(5), 231; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants11050231 - 21 May 2023
Viewed by 1434
Abstract
To investigate the influence of the structural deformation of the wheelset and track on rail wear in the longitudinal and lateral directions, a rail wear prediction model is established that can calculate the three-dimensional distribution of rail wear. The difference between the multi-rigid-body [...] Read more.
To investigate the influence of the structural deformation of the wheelset and track on rail wear in the longitudinal and lateral directions, a rail wear prediction model is established that can calculate the three-dimensional distribution of rail wear. The difference between the multi-rigid-body dynamic model and the rigid-flexible coupled dynamic model, which considers the structural flexibility of the wheelset and track, is compared in terms of the three-dimensional distribution of rail wear. The results show that the three-dimensional distributions of rail wear predicted by the two models are relatively similar. There is no obvious difference in the wear band, and the rail wear in the longitudinal direction is almost identical. The cross sections of the worn rail shapes determined by the two models are essentially the same, with a maximum difference of 3.6% in the average value of the wear areas of all cross sections. The track irregularity is the main reason for the uneven distribution of rail wear in the longitudinal direction. The position where the rail wear is more pronounced hardly varies with the evolution of the rail wear. It is recommended to use a multi-rigid-body dynamic model for the prediction of rail wear, which allows both calculation accuracy and efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribology in Mobility, Volume II)
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16 pages, 2413 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Ammonia Fuel on Marine Engine Lubrication: An Artificial Lubricant Ageing Approach
by Adam Agocs, Maria Rappo, Nicolas Obrecht, Christoph Schneidhofer, Marcella Frauscher and Charlotte Besser
Lubricants 2023, 11(4), 165; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants11040165 - 06 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2875
Abstract
Ammonia is a prospective zero-carbon-emission fuel for use in large marine diesel engines. Current research focuses on several technical aspects, such as injection strategies or exhaust gas aftertreatment options, but investigations regarding the impact of ammonia on engine oil degradation are largely absent [...] Read more.
Ammonia is a prospective zero-carbon-emission fuel for use in large marine diesel engines. Current research focuses on several technical aspects, such as injection strategies or exhaust gas aftertreatment options, but investigations regarding the impact of ammonia on engine oil degradation are largely absent from the literature. This study provides a methodology with which to evaluate this phenomenon via artificial oil alteration. By using an admixture of various contaminations to air, such as ammonia and its partial combustion product nitrogen dioxide, their respective impacts on chemical oil degradation were assessed. Subsequently, the lubricating performance of altered oils was investigated, with a focus on corrosion properties, deposit formation, and load-bearing capability. Although the application of a stoichiometric ammonia–air mixture resulted in less pronounced thermo-oxidative degradation compared to alteration with neat air, static and dynamic deposit formation as well as corrosion properties and load-bearing capability were severely impacted by the presence of ammonia. On the contrary, nitrogen dioxide contamination resulted in higher oxidation and acidification of the oil, but altered samples performed considerably better than ammonia-altered aliquots in terms of coking tendencies, corrosivity, and load bearing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribology in Mobility, Volume II)
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24 pages, 19417 KiB  
Article
On the Wear Behaviour of Bush Drive Chains: Part II—Performance Screening of Pin Materials and Lubricant Effects
by Florian Summer, Philipp Bergmann and Florian Grün
Lubricants 2023, 11(4), 157; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants11040157 - 25 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1177
Abstract
In this second part of the paper series, parameter investigations of the tribological system chain pin/bush contact, carried out on a specifically developed pin on bush plate model test technique, are presented. Both the pin material and the lubricant varied widely. In case [...] Read more.
In this second part of the paper series, parameter investigations of the tribological system chain pin/bush contact, carried out on a specifically developed pin on bush plate model test technique, are presented. Both the pin material and the lubricant varied widely. In case of the pin materials, a Cr-N monolayer coating and a Cr-N-Fe-based multilayer coating were investigated. As for the lubricants used, two different performing engine oils from the field were tested as well as fresh oils, some of which were diluted with a soot surrogate (carbon black) and diesel fuel in different amounts. The results show, among other things, that friction and wear performance strongly depend on the combination of pin material and lubricant used. In this context, especially the Cr-N-Fe in combination with the used engine oils showed a high wear resistance and low friction losses compared to the Cr-N reference. In the case of fresh oils with soot, the friction losses were higher but comparable between the pin materials, and a slightly better wear performance of the Cr-N was observed due to an agglomeration effect of the soot surrogate. In general, it was found that especially soot-free oils show clear wear advantages independent of the pin material used. Thus, soot clearly has a wear-promoting component. The investigations of this study suggest that a leading mechanism that is based on a corrosive–abrasive effect in the tested system, but this is more related to the soot surrogate carbon black than engine soot. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribology in Mobility, Volume II)
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21 pages, 12028 KiB  
Article
Tribological Performance of a Composite Cold Spray for Coated Bores
by Eduardo Tomanik, Laurent Aubanel, Michael Bussas, Francesco Delloro and Thomas Lampke
Lubricants 2023, 11(3), 127; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants11030127 - 10 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1477
Abstract
The tribological performance of a thermal sprayed, mirror-like surface with localized protuberances was investigated through tribotests and computational simulation. A composite coating with a 410L steel matrix and M2 tool steel hard particles was applied by the cold spray process as a bore [...] Read more.
The tribological performance of a thermal sprayed, mirror-like surface with localized protuberances was investigated through tribotests and computational simulation. A composite coating with a 410L steel matrix and M2 tool steel hard particles was applied by the cold spray process as a bore coating for combustion engines. The presence of protuberances promoted the quick formation of an antifriction tribofilm when tested with an SAE 0W-16 containing ZDDP and MoDTC, which significantly reduced the asperity friction in comparison to the conventional engine coated bores in reciprocating tribological tests. An in-house computational model using deterministic numerical methods was used for the mixed and hydrodynamic lubrication regime. Lubricant film thickness and friction were simulated for a piston ring versus the proposed coating. The computer simulations showed that the protuberances reduced the hydrodynamic friction by increasing the otherwise very thin oil film thickness of mirror-like surfaces. Although not intuitive, this result was caused by the reducing of the oil film shear rate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribology in Mobility, Volume II)
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19 pages, 5930 KiB  
Article
Rollover Stability of Heavy-Duty AGVs in Turns Considering Variation in Friction Coefficient
by Weijie Fu, Xinyu Wang and Xinming Zhang
Lubricants 2023, 11(3), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants11030119 - 08 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1393
Abstract
This study analysed the impact of turning rate, the centre of mass height, and road adhesion coefficient on the rollover stability of heavy-duty automated guided vehicles (AGVs) using a multi-body dynamics simulation model. The lateral deflection angle of the centre of mass was [...] Read more.
This study analysed the impact of turning rate, the centre of mass height, and road adhesion coefficient on the rollover stability of heavy-duty automated guided vehicles (AGVs) using a multi-body dynamics simulation model. The lateral deflection angle of the centre of mass was used as a metric to evaluate the rollover behaviour of the AGVs, and the results were obtained quantitatively. The findings showed that the turning rate had the largest impact on AGV rollover stability, followed by the centre of mass height, while the road adhesion coefficient had the least impact. Despite having the lowest impact, the road adhesion coefficient was one of the key factors contributing to AGV slippage, and severe slippage could easily lead to rollover incidents. To further evaluate the rollover behaviour of the AGVs, a lateral-load transfer rate (LTR) index was derived from the change in wheel load generated by the lateral tilt angle during steering. The range of LTR values was determined for different ranges of turning rate, the centre of mass height, and road adhesion coefficient. The results indicated that the range of LTR values for turning rate was 0.23–0.45, for the centre of mass height was 0.323–0.393, and the minimum value of 0.337 was obtained for a road adhesion coefficient of 0.6. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribology in Mobility, Volume II)
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13 pages, 6508 KiB  
Article
Analysis of the Operational Wear of the Combustion Engine Piston Pin
by Sławomir Kowalski, Bogusław Cieślikowski, Dalibor Barta, Ján Dižo and Aleš Dittrich
Lubricants 2023, 11(3), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants11030100 - 26 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1944
Abstract
This article presents the results of research into the causes of the wear of the piston pin mounted in piston bosses by means of a hinge joint and in the connecting rod small end by means of the thermocompression bond. Changes in geometry [...] Read more.
This article presents the results of research into the causes of the wear of the piston pin mounted in piston bosses by means of a hinge joint and in the connecting rod small end by means of the thermocompression bond. Changes in geometry and in the pin-top surface structure, which are caused by the mutual influence of the mating surfaces in variable lubrication conditions, are presented. The progress of scuffing as a result of insufficient lubrication of the mating elements or oil film breaking is demonstrated. The state of destruction was confirmed by the results of surface roughness measurements showing the formation of build-ups. The loss of the thermocompression bond surface, caused by the penetration of sintered engine oil fractions containing biofuel additive components and spent engine oil improver packages, was noted. The progressing forms of wear are the cause of engine failures due to the pin movement towards the cylinder wall, and due to boss breakage in the piston. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribology in Mobility, Volume II)
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20 pages, 7840 KiB  
Article
On the Wear Behavior of Bush Drive Chains: Part I—Characterization of Engine Damage Processes and Development of a Model Test Setup for Pin Wear
by Florian Summer, Philipp Bergmann and Florian Grün
Lubricants 2023, 11(2), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants11020085 - 16 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1427
Abstract
The present work deals with the tribological characterization of the bush-pin contact in timing chains, with a particular focus on the pin wear processes and the development of a model testing technique suitable for this purpose. With the presented test methodology, both the [...] Read more.
The present work deals with the tribological characterization of the bush-pin contact in timing chains, with a particular focus on the pin wear processes and the development of a model testing technique suitable for this purpose. With the presented test methodology, both the friction and other parameters, such as contact temperatures and the electrical contact resistance between the CrN-coated pin and a steel bush equivalent could be precisely measured during the test procedure, and the input parameters, such as test load, temperature, and test frequency, could be specifically adjusted. In addition, motor components were analyzed in the present study, in order to study the damage processes of application and compare them with those of the model tests. The measured friction and wear processes on the test rig were verified using well-acknowledged design parameters, such as apparent friction energy and linear wear intensity according to Fleischer. The results demonstrated the wear process between the CrN coated spherical steel surface and the plane steel counterpart (mild smoothing wear at moderate loads, and for an advanced wear state with an exposed steel substrate, there was exposed break-outs and deformation, as well as abrasive grooving) and showed that the methodology replicated the wear processes of application and is therefore suitable for characterizing the pin wear of bush drive timing chains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribology in Mobility, Volume II)
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