The Impact of Ammonia Fuel on Marine Engine Lubrication: An Artificial Lubricant Ageing Approach
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Engine Oil
2.2. Artificial Alteration
- Synthetic air
- Synthetic air + 1000 ppm NH3
- Synthetic air + 21.7 vol% NH3
- Synthetic air + 1000 ppm NO2
2.3. Online Corrosion Monitoring
2.4. Chemical Oil Analysis
- Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) using a Tensor 27 FT-IR spectrometer (Bruker, Ettlingen, Germany) to determine the accumulation of relevant degradation products, namely
- Water content by indirect Karl Fischer titration using an Oven Sample Processor 774 and a KF Coulometer 756 (Metrohm, Herisau, Switzerland) corresponding to DIN 51,777  of the final samples.
2.5. Lubricant Performance Tests
- static deposit control performance using the micro coking test (MCT) according to GFC-LU-27-A-13 ,
- dynamic deposit control performance by thermo-oxidation engine oil simulation test (TEOST MHT®) corresponding to ASTM D7097  as well as
- extreme pressure properties (EP) according to ASTM D7421  using an Optimol® SRV® 5 tribometer (Optimol Instruments Prüftechnik, Munich, Germany).
3.1. Propagation of Alterations
3.2. Repeatability and Extended Alteration Time
3.3. Relationship of Degradation Processes and Overall Trends of Oil Degradation
3.4. Performance Results
- Oxidation was low when utilizing stoichiometric NH3 as a reaction gas mixture compared to air.
- The presence of aminic degradation products was indicated in the oils altered with trace and stoichiometric NH3 reaction gas.
- An increase in kinematic viscosity can be attributed to the aminic species.
- Corrosiveness against copper was shown when stoichiometric NH3 was used as a reaction gas.
- Both trace and stoichiometric NH3 concentration impacted the deposit control performance severely compared to air or NO2.
- Lubricants altered with stoichiometric NH3 reached the lowest failure load (EP performance) amongst the samples.
- Furthermore, the repeatability of the novel methodology was demonstrated, including the possibility of achieving more pronounced oil degradation by extending the alteration time.
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
|FT-IR||Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy|
|ICE||internal combustion engine|
|IDLH||immediate danger to life or health|
|OEM||original equipment manufacturer|
|PCB||printed circuit board|
|PEL||permissible exposure limits|
|SCR||selective catalytic reduction|
|TAN||total acid number|
|TBN||total base number|
|TEOST||thermo-oxidation engine oil simulation test|
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|Marine Engine Oil SAE-40|
|Kinematic viscosity 40 °C||120 mm2/s|
|Kinematic viscosity 100 °C||14 mm2/s|
|Viscosity index (VI)||110|
|Total base number (TBN)||30 mg KOH/g|
|Total acid number (TAN)||1.5 mg KOH/g|
|Dimensions||Ø10 mm||Ø24 × 7.9 mm|
|Material||steel 100Cr6||steel 100Cr6|
|Hardness||60 ± 2 HRC||60 ± 2 HRC|
|Final surface quality||Ra = 0.055 ± 0.003 µm||0.035 µm ≤ Ra ≤ 0.065 µm|
|Time||Max 64 min|
|Step 1||Running-in||100 N||2200 MPa||80 °C||15 min|
|Step 2||Test||+100 N/load stage||Up to 6400 MPa||80 °C||2 min/load stage|
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Agocs, A.; Rappo, M.; Obrecht, N.; Schneidhofer, C.; Frauscher, M.; Besser, C. The Impact of Ammonia Fuel on Marine Engine Lubrication: An Artificial Lubricant Ageing Approach. Lubricants 2023, 11, 165. https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants11040165
Agocs A, Rappo M, Obrecht N, Schneidhofer C, Frauscher M, Besser C. The Impact of Ammonia Fuel on Marine Engine Lubrication: An Artificial Lubricant Ageing Approach. Lubricants. 2023; 11(4):165. https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants11040165Chicago/Turabian Style
Agocs, Adam, Maria Rappo, Nicolas Obrecht, Christoph Schneidhofer, Marcella Frauscher, and Charlotte Besser. 2023. "The Impact of Ammonia Fuel on Marine Engine Lubrication: An Artificial Lubricant Ageing Approach" Lubricants 11, no. 4: 165. https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants11040165