Social and Environmental Trade-Offs in African Agriculture: Achieving Sustainable Development Goals

A special issue of Land (ISSN 2073-445X). This special issue belongs to the section "Land Socio-Economic and Political Issues".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2023) | Viewed by 58372

Special Issue Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Increasing agricultural production to meet the rapidly growing demand for food—which is predicted to rise in sub-Saharan Africa by 150% by 2050—while safeguarding vital ecosystem services and promoting social equality lies at the heart of sustainable development. The Sentinel project (Social and Environmental Trade-Offs in African Agriculture), funded by UK Research and Innovation through the Global Challenges Research Fund, was launched in October 2017 and completed in March 2022.

Over these four years, Sentinel addressed the challenge of achieving Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 2 (zero hunger), SDG 10 (reduced inequalities), and SDG 15 (ecosystem conservation) in sub-Saharan Africa, focusing on three countries—Ethiopia, Ghana, and Zambia. The collaborative project brought together African partners (the Regional Universities Forum for Capacity Building in Agriculture (RUFORUM), the University of Ghana, Copperbelt University in Zambia, and the Policy Studies Institute, Ethiopia) and UK partners (the University of Reading, the University of Oxford, University College London, The Natural Resources Institute at the University of Greenwich, Imperial College London, and the International Institute for Environment and Development).

The Sentinel project’s purpose was to strengthen the knowledge, relationships, and research capacity of researchers in the UK and in the focus countries (Ethiopia, Ghana, and Zambia) while working with a wider network of stakeholders and universities across Africa and the UK. The project aimed to have key government and private sector actors adjust their policies, strategies, and investments to take greater account of the impacts, risks, and trade-offs within and between the socio-economic and environmental dimensions of different agricultural development pathways and for civil society organisations to have a greater role in shaping the national discourse on agricultural development. The results of this project will contribute to balancing the emphasis on the proper involvement of government and private sector actors, natural resource management, and advancing stakeholder preparedness to take well-informed action.

This Special Issue is focused on research outputs from Sentinel partners and PhD students whose research was supported by the project and who worked in different countries across Sub-Saharan Africa.

Prof. Dr. Hossein Azadi
Guest Editor

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Published Papers (24 papers)

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23 pages, 1665 KiB  
Article
One Hundred Priority Questions for the Development of Sustainable Food Systems in Sub-Saharan Africa
by Adam J. M. Devenish, Petra Schmitter, Nugun. P. Jellason, Nafeesa Esmail, Nur M. Abdi, Selase K. Adanu, Barbara Adolph, Maha Al-Zu’bi, Amali A. Amali, Jennie Barron, Abbie S. A. Chapman, Alexandre M. Chausson, Moses Chibesa, Joanne Davies, Emmanuel Dugan, Glory I. Edwards, Anthony Egeru, Tagel Gebrehiwot, Geoffrey H. Griffiths, Amleset Haile, Henry G. Hunga, Lizzy Igbine, Ousman M. Jarju, Francis Keya, Muhammad Khalifa, Wamba A. Ledoux, Lemlem T. Lejissa, Pius Loupa, Jonathan Lwanga, Everisto D. Mapedza, Robert Marchant, Tess McLoud, Patience Mukuyu, Labram M. Musah, Morton Mwanza, Jacob Mwitwa, Dora Neina, Tim Newbold, Samuel Njogo, Elizabeth J. Z. Robinson, Wales Singini, Bridget B. Umar, Frank Wesonga, Simon Willcock, Jingyi Yang and Joseph A. Tobiasadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Land 2023, 12(10), 1879; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12101879 - 07 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3299
Abstract
Sub-Saharan Africa is facing an expected doubling of human population and tripling of food demand over the next quarter century, posing a range of severe environmental, political, and socio-economic challenges. In some cases, key Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are in direct conflict, raising [...] Read more.
Sub-Saharan Africa is facing an expected doubling of human population and tripling of food demand over the next quarter century, posing a range of severe environmental, political, and socio-economic challenges. In some cases, key Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are in direct conflict, raising difficult policy and funding decisions, particularly in relation to trade-offs between food production, social inequality, and ecosystem health. In this study, we used a horizon-scanning approach to identify 100 practical or research-focused questions that, if answered, would have the greatest positive impact on addressing these trade-offs and ensuring future productivity and resilience of food-production systems across sub-Saharan Africa. Through direct canvassing of opinions, we obtained 1339 questions from 331 experts based in 55 countries. We then used online voting and participatory workshops to produce a final list of 100 questions divided into 12 thematic sections spanning topics from gender inequality to technological adoption and climate change. Using data on the background of respondents, we show that perspectives and priorities can vary, but they are largely consistent across different professional and geographical contexts. We hope these questions provide a template for establishing new research directions and prioritising funding decisions in sub-Saharan Africa. Full article
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22 pages, 1131 KiB  
Article
Rethinking North–South Research Partnerships Amidst Global Uncertainties: Leveraging Lessons Learned from UK GCRF Projects during COVID-19
by Daniela Anghileri, Matt Kandel, Melanie C. Austen, Vikki V. Cheung, Helen Coskeran, Adam J. M. Devenish, Patrick S. M. Dunlop, Mawuli Dzodzomenyo, Hong C. Goh, Sithembile Mwamakamba, Vanessa Ross, John Spafford, Precious Yeki and Genevieve Agaba
Land 2023, 12(4), 791; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12040791 - 31 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1754
Abstract
International research and development projects (or grand challenge projects) consist of multicultural, multi-country, multi-sectoral, and multi-stakeholder initiatives aimed at poverty reduction. They are usually conceived as partnerships between actors in the global north–south. The COVID-19 pandemic was a major unexpected disruption to ongoing [...] Read more.
International research and development projects (or grand challenge projects) consist of multicultural, multi-country, multi-sectoral, and multi-stakeholder initiatives aimed at poverty reduction. They are usually conceived as partnerships between actors in the global north–south. The COVID-19 pandemic was a major unexpected disruption to ongoing projects and challenged their already complex management. The aim of this paper is to present evidence on how international development projects were impacted by COVID-19 with a particular focus on the relationship between research institutions in the north and south. We conducted a mixed-methods research study, combining a reflective exercise with the co-author team and a survey with principal investigators, project managers, and capacity development leads drawn from 31 Global Challenges Research Fund (GCRF) projects funded through the UK government’s Official Development Assistance (ODA) and focused on social–ecological system research. The survey contained closed- and open-ended questions in order to (i) demonstrate how those involved in managing projects adapted to risks, including both threats and opportunities, presented by the COVID-19 pandemic, and (ii) consider the implications for tailoring adaptive management approaches in international research projects amidst uncertainties, with a special focus on enhancing equities in global north–south partnerships. The paper offers the following recommendations on designing, planning, and implementing international research and development projects: (i) devolve project management in order to enhance project resilience and improve north–south equities; (ii) allocate dedicated resources to enable equitable north–south research partnerships; (iii) rely more on hybrid and agile approaches for managing a project’s life cycle; and (iv) improve resource flexibility, transparency, and communication through enhanced funder–implementer collaboration. Full article
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17 pages, 1018 KiB  
Article
Exploring Farmers’ Decisions on Agricultural Intensification and Cropland Expansion in Ethiopia, Ghana, and Zambia through Serious Gaming
by Barbara Adolph, Nugun P. Jellason, Jane Musole Kwenye, Jo Davies, Anne Giger Dray, Patrick O. Waeber, Katy Jeary and Phil Franks
Land 2023, 12(3), 556; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12030556 - 24 Feb 2023
Viewed by 2048
Abstract
This paper explores how increasing agricultural productivity through agricultural intensification may influence farmland expansion decisions of smallholder farmers in Ethiopia, Ghana, and Zambia. Six pairs of farmers at each site (72 in total) from different wealth groups were involved in serious games sessions [...] Read more.
This paper explores how increasing agricultural productivity through agricultural intensification may influence farmland expansion decisions of smallholder farmers in Ethiopia, Ghana, and Zambia. Six pairs of farmers at each site (72 in total) from different wealth groups were involved in serious games sessions that simulated different institutional, economic, and governance contexts, with players choosing their resource allocation accordingly. The approach was used to explore with farmers, in a ‘safe space’, whether an increase in agricultural productivity and profitability via intensification would reduce or end farmland expansion into natural habitats. The results show that, under certain conditions (such as poor forest governance and lack of alternative income-generating and investment opportunities), agricultural intensification can lead to more agricultural expansion at the expense of natural habitats, such as forests and grasslands. This suggests that intensification strategies to promote increased productivity may need companion strategies to protect forest ecosystems from expansion at the agricultural frontier. Full article
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19 pages, 1646 KiB  
Article
Understanding Land-Use Trade-off Decision Making Using the Analytical Hierarchy Process: Insights from Agricultural Land Managers in Zambia
by Jane Musole Kwenye, Xiaoting Hou Jones and Alan Renwick
Land 2023, 12(3), 532; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12030532 - 22 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1576
Abstract
Understanding factors that influence trade-offs between agricultural expansion and forest conservation is important in managing competing land-use objectives. This paper applies elements of the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) to distinct farming business ownership models in Zambia to gain insights into factors that agricultural [...] Read more.
Understanding factors that influence trade-offs between agricultural expansion and forest conservation is important in managing competing land-use objectives. This paper applies elements of the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) to distinct farming business ownership models in Zambia to gain insights into factors that agricultural land managers take into account when considering land-use trade-off decisions which involve agricultural expansion into natural habitats. Results showed that the market domain was weighted above other domains, followed by the financial domain. When environmental considerations were pitted against other factors such as markets and finance, agricultural land managers were likely to trade off environmental concerns. Furthermore, availability of input subsidies via the agricultural Food Input Support Programme (FISP) influenced the decision to expand, particularly for the small-scale ownership model. This suggests that agricultural policies and strategies aimed at promoting agricultural productivity may require accompanying measures to safeguard forest ecosystems from agricultural expansion. Key differences in the factors influencing expansion decisions were evident among ownership models suggesting that ownership types do have an impact on factors considered. This highlights the need to advance tailored strategies that address differences in priorities and decision making emanating from variations in farming business ownership models. Full article
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26 pages, 5056 KiB  
Article
Interconnectedness of Ecosystem Services Potential with Land Use/Land Cover Change Dynamics in Western Uganda
by Samuel Kaheesi Kusiima, Anthony Egeru, Justine Namaalwa, Patrick Byakagaba, David Mfitumukiza, Paul Mukwaya, Sylvanus Mensah and Robert Asiimwe
Land 2022, 11(11), 2056; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11112056 - 16 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2077 | Correction
Abstract
Understanding the evolution of land use/land cover change (LULCC) and how it shapes current and future ecosystem services (ES) supply potential remains critical in sustainable natural resource management. Community perception of historic LULCC was reconciled with previous study via remote sensing/geographical information systems [...] Read more.
Understanding the evolution of land use/land cover change (LULCC) and how it shapes current and future ecosystem services (ES) supply potential remains critical in sustainable natural resource management. Community perception of historic LULCC was reconciled with previous study via remote sensing/geographical information systems using recall data in the Budongo–Bugoma landscape in Uganda. Then, a CA-Markovian prediction model of a LULC situation in 2040 under business as usual (BAU) and forest restoration scenarios was constructed. Additionally, we assessed the perceived proximate and underlying drivers of LULCC, and how LULCC shapes ecosystem services potential using household surveys. The perceived LULCC trend for the past three decades (1990–2020) corresponded with previous studies showing grassland, bushland, tropical high forest, and wetland cover declined greatly, while subsistence farmland, commercial farmland, and built-up areas had a great increment. The predicted LULC under (i) the business as usual scenario showed a continued decline of natural LULC while anthropogenic LULC increased greatly, tending to cover half of the landscape area; (ii) forest restoration under different levels showed an improvement of forest cover and other native LULC classes with a decline in mostly subsistence farmland. The proximate drivers were in three principal components (soil infertility, subsistence farming, drought; infrastructural development, commercial farming, overstocking of livestock, pest and disease challenges; tree planting), while underlying drivers were in two principal components (technology adoption, corruption of environment stewards, policy implementation gaps; cultural gaps). Food and cash crops were perceived to be the most important ecosystem services in the landscape. Generally, the landscape ES supply potential was dwindling and predicted to continue with a similar trend under BAU, despite the increment in ES contribution of subsistence and commercial farmland. Forest restoration would slightly improve the landscape ES potential but would cause a decline in subsistence farmland, which would result in either a threat to food/livelihood security or a livelihood shift. We recommend combined interventions that seek to achieve a progressive frontier that achieves development needs and priorities based on national need such as food security through local level production with recognition for sustainable availability of ecosystem services. Full article
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14 pages, 1552 KiB  
Article
Sulphur Contents in Arable Soils from Four Agro-Ecological Zones of Ghana
by Dora Neina and Barbara Adolph
Land 2022, 11(10), 1866; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11101866 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1772
Abstract
There is limited data on Sulphur (S) contents in arable soils for appropriate fertilizer recommendations in Ghana. Five study areas in a reconnaissance survey (RS), followed by an in-depth study of two areas comprising farms of different durations of cultivation, were investigated for [...] Read more.
There is limited data on Sulphur (S) contents in arable soils for appropriate fertilizer recommendations in Ghana. Five study areas in a reconnaissance survey (RS), followed by an in-depth study of two areas comprising farms of different durations of cultivation, were investigated for the current total S and sulphate contents. Basic soil properties were measured using standard laboratory procedures. Total S and sulphate contents were determined using LECO instrument dry combustion and HPLC, respectively. The results showed wide variations in total S contents from 31 to 603 mg kg−1 in the Guinea Savannah (GS) zone. The mean trend was Forest > Forest-Transition (F-S) > north Guinea Savannah (nGS) > Deciduous Forest (DF) > south Guinea Savannah (sGS) in the RS sites, with a similar trend in the main study sites. Sulphate contents ranged from 5 to 25 mg kg−1, constituting 0.8 to 37% of the total S. The mean percent trend was sGS = DF > Forest > nGS > F-S. Soil organic carbon (SOC) was the major predictor of total S along with pedogenic minerals. Total S and crystalline pedogenic minerals predicted the sulphate contents. The results highlight the need for ecologically-based S fertilizer programmes to boost crop yields. Full article
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20 pages, 2874 KiB  
Article
Water Use Efficiency of Maize (Zea mays L.) Crop under Selected Soil and Water Conservation Practices along the Slope Gradient in Ruzizi Watershed, Eastern D.R. Congo
by Espoir Mukengere Bagula, Jackson-Gilbert Mwanjalolo Majaliwa, Twaha Ali Basamba, Jean-Gomez Mubalama Mondo, Bernard Vanlauwe, Geofrey Gabiri, John-Baptist Tumuhairwe, Gustave Nachigera Mushagalusa, Patrick Musinguzi, Sarah Akello, Anthony Egeru and Moses Makooma Tenywa
Land 2022, 11(10), 1833; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11101833 - 18 Oct 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2336
Abstract
Maize (Zea mays L.) productivity is constrained by water shortages in the predominantly rainfed agriculture of the tropical semi-arid Ruzizi Plain, in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The region is characterized by a high seasonal and inter-annual rainfall variability and [...] Read more.
Maize (Zea mays L.) productivity is constrained by water shortages in the predominantly rainfed agriculture of the tropical semi-arid Ruzizi Plain, in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The region is characterized by a high seasonal and inter-annual rainfall variability and a frequent occurrence of consecutive dry days within growing seasons. Consequently, planning water utilization in rainfed agriculture has become complex, as appropriate soil water conservation (SWC) practices are lacking among most smallholder farmers. Identifying practices that increase water use efficiency (WUE) along the slope gradient is crucial for supporting maize production in the region. In this study, we assessed, for three growing seasons, the effectiveness of two SWC practices (tied ridges and Zai pits) in improving the WUE of two maize varieties along three slope gradients (0–2, 2–8, and 8–15%) in the tropical semi-arid Ruzizi Plain. In this area, rainfall amounts (142–289 mm) were consistently below the evapotranspiration demands (356–533 mm) across the three growing seasons. Tied ridges recorded the highest grain yield (2.16 t ha−1) and WUE (15.23 kg mm−1), especially at low slopes, when compared to Zai pits and conventional tillage. For all SWC practices, WUE decreased with the slope gradient (p < 0.01). Furthermore, a decrease in stored soil water (SWS) at silking and maturity stages (milk, dough, and dent stages) negatively affected the WUE. The variety had no significant effect on grain yield and WUE. Root biomass (RBM), shoot biomass (SBM), and leaf area index (LAI) at the flowering stage were the most associated with the WUE (R2 = 58.5%). In conclusion, tied ridges showed potential for improving maize WUE and yield in the water-deficient conditions that characterize the Ruzizi Plain, and could be promoted to improve the maize productivity among smallholder farmers. Full article
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17 pages, 1938 KiB  
Article
Duration of Cultivation Has Varied Impacts on Soil Charge Properties in Different Agro-Ecological Zones of Ghana
by Dora Neina and Eunice Agyarko-Mintah
Land 2022, 11(10), 1633; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11101633 - 22 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1365
Abstract
Agricultural expansion into natural habitats causes soil fertility decline after a period of cultivation. This study investigated changes in soil exchange properties in different farm types at Dompem and Adansam in the Forest and Forest–Savannah transition zones of Ghana as influenced by the [...] Read more.
Agricultural expansion into natural habitats causes soil fertility decline after a period of cultivation. This study investigated changes in soil exchange properties in different farm types at Dompem and Adansam in the Forest and Forest–Savannah transition zones of Ghana as influenced by the duration of cultivation. Sixty farms were selected for soil sampling through a reconnaissance survey. The soils were subjected to physicochemical analysis. The results showed that the Dompem soils were loamic, had more amorphous Fe and Al oxides, were strongly acidic and had low contents of exchangeable acidity, a low sum of exchangeable bases (SEB), low effective cation exchangeable capacities (ECECs) and low available P. Conversely, the Adansam soils were arenic, slightly acidic and had relatively higher SEBs and ECECs. Interestingly, soil organic carbon (SOC) in the Dompem soils declined by >10% in relation to the duration of cultivation and showed rapid reductions within three years. Correspondingly, soil bulk density, CEC and SEB declined. In Adansam soils, only δpH declined in relation to the duration of cultivation. Soil organic carbon accounted for >50% of the ECEC and 49% of the SEB in Dompem soils but 36% of δpH in the Adansam soils. In conclusion, agricultural expansion, manifested in the duration of cultivation, mainly influenced soil charge properties through SOC decline. Full article
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22 pages, 3434 KiB  
Article
Climate Change Effect on Water Use Efficiency under Selected Soil and Water Conservation Practices in the Ruzizi Catchment, Eastern D.R. Congo
by Espoir M. Bagula, Jackson Gilbert M. Majaliwa, Gustave N. Mushagalusa, Twaha A. Basamba, John-Baptist Tumuhairwe, Jean-Gomez M. Mondo, Patrick Musinguzi, Cephas B. Mwimangire, Géant B. Chuma, Anthony Egeru and Moses M. Tenywa
Land 2022, 11(9), 1409; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11091409 - 27 Aug 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2600
Abstract
Concerns have been raised on the effectiveness and sustainability of Soil and Water Conservation (SWC) practices as adaptation options to climate change and high intra– and inter–annual rainfall variabilities in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). This study was conducted in the Ruzizi [...] Read more.
Concerns have been raised on the effectiveness and sustainability of Soil and Water Conservation (SWC) practices as adaptation options to climate change and high intra– and inter–annual rainfall variabilities in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). This study was conducted in the Ruzizi Plain, a dryland area, to assess the performance of maize (Zea mays L.) under two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP 4.5 and 8.5) and two SWC practices (tied ridges and conventional tillage). The AgMIP’s Regional Integrated Assessment (RIA) approach was used to simulate Water Use Efficiency (WUE) under the Cropping System Model–Crop Environment Resource Synthesis (CSM–CERES–Maize) of the Decision Support System for Agro–technology Transfer (DSSAT). The model was calibrated using experimental data from nine cropping seasons (2011–2018) and 100 farms. The model sensitivity was assessed as a function of temperature, water, and SWC practices for the same environments. Initial conditions of crop management practices were used as input data for CSM–CERES–Maize. Current climate data were extracted from AgMERRA datasets corrected with local data for the period of 1980 to 2021. Future climate projections (2022–2099) were obtained after down−scaling the data from the 29 General Circulation Models (GCMS) of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) and subsetted to five GCMs based on climate regimes. GCMS results were a strong indicator that climate change in this DRC dryland will result in an increase in average annual temperatures for both RCP 4.5 and 8.5, with the highest increase (3.05 °C) under hot/dry conditions for RCP8.5 and the lowest (1.04 °C) under cool/dry conditions for RCP 4.5. All the models selected for five climate regimes for 2022–2099 showed no change in the rainfall trends for RCP 4.5 (p > 0.05). The models projected yield declines of 5–25%, with less yield losses under tied ridges as an adaptation practice. The use of efficient SWC practices could therefore be a promising strategy in reducing potential losses from climate change in drylands of eastern DRC. Full article
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19 pages, 8850 KiB  
Article
Land Use and Land Cover Change Dynamics and Perceived Drivers in Rangeland Areas in Central Uganda
by Derick Ansyijar Kuule, Benard Ssentongo, Paul John Magaya, Gordon Yofesi Mwesigwa, Isaac Tom Okurut, Kenneth Nyombi, Anthony Egeru and John Robert Stephen Tabuti
Land 2022, 11(9), 1402; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11091402 - 26 Aug 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3404
Abstract
Sustainable rangeland management requires understanding the nature of human-ecosystem interactions and local communities’ perspectives regarding evolving changes. This study integrated perceptions from the local community and remote sensing to characterize the extent and drivers of land use and land cover (LULC) changes in [...] Read more.
Sustainable rangeland management requires understanding the nature of human-ecosystem interactions and local communities’ perspectives regarding evolving changes. This study integrated perceptions from the local community and remote sensing to characterize the extent and drivers of land use and land cover (LULC) changes in the rangelands of Nakasongola district in Central Uganda. The aim of the study was to determine the perceived drivers of land use and land cover change in of Nakasongola district in the Central Uganda district to support decision making for present and future rangeland management. Satellite imagery for 1985, 1995, 2005, 2015 and 2021 were obtained from the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and analyzed to determine the LULC dynamics. Key informant interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted to obtain perceived drivers of LULC. Results showed that by 1985 grassland covered 31.7%, wetlands 26.4%, woodland 11.5% and farmland 7.2% of the total land area. However, by 2021, farmland covered 35.8% of the total land area, wetland 21.6% and had reduced to grassland 18.5 percent. Future LULC projections using a Markov chain model showed that farmland cover will increase by 13.85% while grassland cover will further decline by 9.89% in 2040. Wood fuel extraction, subsistence farming, population growth and overgrazing were perceived as key drivers of LULC change. Both remote sensing techniques and local perceptions were in agreement with the identification of patterns and perceived drivers revealing the inherent value of tacit knowledge resident within the community. This knowledge in addition to remotely sensed information can thus be tapped by the decision leaders to better guide interventions aimed at securing better rangeland health and management. Full article
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16 pages, 1727 KiB  
Article
Impact of Landscape Management Scenarios on Ecosystem Service Values in Central Ethiopia
by Abera Assefa Biratu, Bobe Bedadi, Solomon Gebreyohannis Gebrehiwot, Assefa M. Melesse, Tilahun Hordofa Nebi, Wuletawu Abera, Lulseged Tamene and Anthony Egeru
Land 2022, 11(8), 1266; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11081266 - 07 Aug 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2301
Abstract
This study aimed at modeling scenarios of future land use and land cover (LULC) change and estimating ecosystem service (ES) values for the year 2051 compared to 2021 in Central Ethiopia. The future LULC changes for the year 2051 were simulated for four [...] Read more.
This study aimed at modeling scenarios of future land use and land cover (LULC) change and estimating ecosystem service (ES) values for the year 2051 compared to 2021 in Central Ethiopia. The future LULC changes for the year 2051 were simulated for four scenarios, namely Business-as-Usual (BAU), Rapid Agricultural Expansion (RAE), Ecosystems Protection and Agricultural Development (EPAD) and Landscape Ecosystems Restoration and Conservation (LERC). The four LULC change scenarios were simulated based on anticipated assumptions that were derived from existing spatial policies, a consultation workshop report on scenarios of agricultural development in Ethiopia, suitability analysis, population growth analysis and expert knowledge of the study area characteristics. We used a Multi-Layer Perceptron–Artificial Neuron Network (MLP–ANN) model-based projected LULC for the BAU scenario and the Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs (InVEST) model to generate RAE, EPAD and LERC scenarios in the study landscape. The benefit transfer method was used to estimate the total ES values and for trade-off analysis. The result showed that LULC changes in the study area varied across simulated scenarios compared to the base year 2021. Under the BAU and RAE scenarios, cultivated land increased by 146,548 ha (22%) and 193,965 ha (29%), whereas forest, water body, wetland and shrub-bush land were reduced. However, forest cover increased by 31,725 ha and 100,080 ha but bare land was reduced by 8466 ha (21%) and 10,379 ha (25%) under the EPAD and LERC scenarios. The forest cover annual rate of change was 3.2% and 6% under the EPAD and LERC scenarios. As a result, the total ES value increased by USD 24.5 and 78.5 million under the EPAD and LERC scenarios for the year 2051, whereas the total ES value was reduced under the BAU and RAE scenarios by USD 27.1 and 73.2 million. The trade-offs among ecosystem services were significantly synergized under the LERC scenario compared to RAE. Therefore, EPAD and LERC could be used as a reference for sustainable landscape planning and management. Landscape ecosystems restoration integrated with a sustainable agricultural intensification approach would enable us to ensure the sustainability of both agricultural production and ecosystem service synergies without negatively affecting the natural environment. Full article
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34 pages, 3280 KiB  
Article
Livelihood Vulnerability Index: Gender Dimension to Climate Change and Variability in REDD + Piloted Sites, Cross River State, Nigeria
by Adeniyi Okanlawon Basiru, Abiodun Olusegun Oladoye, Olubusayo Omotola Adekoya, Lucas Aderemi Akomolede, Vincent Onguso Oeba, Opeyemi Oluwaseun Awodutire, Fredrick Charity and Emmanuel Kolawole Abodunrin
Land 2022, 11(8), 1240; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11081240 - 04 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2505
Abstract
Vulnerability to climate change and variability impacts has been identified as a major cog in the wheel of both livelihood and resilience, particularly in vulnerable groups in rural areas. This study aims to assess genders’ vulnerability dimension to climate change and variability in [...] Read more.
Vulnerability to climate change and variability impacts has been identified as a major cog in the wheel of both livelihood and resilience, particularly in vulnerable groups in rural areas. This study aims to assess genders’ vulnerability dimension to climate change and variability in REDD + (Reducing Emission from Deforestation and Forest Degradation+) piloted site/clusters, Cross River State, Nigeria. Data were proportionately collected from selected 200 respondents on gender disaggregated level using questionnaires. The assessment adopted the sustainable livelihood approach (livelihood vulnerability index) and compared the results with the IPCC vulnerability standard of exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity weighted mean. The results revealed a significant difference in the vulnerability dimension of both women and men disaggregated levels (LVI: men 0.509, women 0.618). The women category was more vulnerable to six out of seven major components of LVI assessed: (livelihood strategies (0.646), social networks (0.364), water (0.559), health (0.379), food and nutrition (0.507), and natural hazards and climate variability (0.482), while men only vulnerable to socio-demographic major component (0.346). Vulnerability indices also showed women to be more exposed (0.482), and sensitive (0.489) with the least adaptive capacities (0.462) to the climate change and variability impacts. Overall, on the IPCC-LVI index, women are more vulnerable (0.0098) to climate change and variability impacts than men (−0.0093). The study recommends that the women’s category resilience and adaptive capacity should be empowered in adaptation projects in climate change such as REDD + (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation+) to reduce their vulnerability to impacts of climate change and variability in the context of exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacities. This will be instrumental in formulating policies to address the specific needs of gender categories in reducing vulnerability to climate change and variability. This pragmatic approach may be used to monitor gender vulnerability dimension, and livelihood enhancement and evaluate potential climate change adaptation programs. Additionally, the introduction of IPCC-LVI as a baseline instrument will enhance information on gender resilience and adaptive capacity for policy effectiveness in a data-scarce region particularly Africa. Full article
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16 pages, 2225 KiB  
Article
Linking Pattern to Process: Intensity Analysis of Land-Change Dynamics in Ghana as Correlated to Past Socioeconomic and Policy Contexts
by Syed Amir Manzoor, Geoffrey Hugh Griffiths, Elizabeth Robinson, Kikuko Shoyama and Martin Lukac
Land 2022, 11(7), 1070; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11071070 - 13 Jul 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1534
Abstract
Spatio-temporal analysis of transitions in land cover is critical to understanding many ecological challenges, especially in environmentally vulnerable regions. For instance, in Sub-Saharan Africa, large-scale cropland expansion is expected due to the increasing demand for fuel, food, and fibre. Clearing land for cropland [...] Read more.
Spatio-temporal analysis of transitions in land cover is critical to understanding many ecological challenges, especially in environmentally vulnerable regions. For instance, in Sub-Saharan Africa, large-scale cropland expansion is expected due to the increasing demand for fuel, food, and fibre. Clearing land for cropland expansion is a driving factor in the degradation of natural ecosystems. We present a spatio-temporal analysis of land-cover change in Ghana’s Northern, Upper East, and Upper West provinces using Intensity Analysis on the periods from 1992 to 2003 and 2003 to 2015. The objectives of this study were to determine whether the intensity of land-use and land-cover (LULC) change is consistent between the two periods and to investigate the direction and extent of change for different LULC categories in northern Ghana. The methodology measures land-cover changes at the interval, category, and transition levels. The results suggest that the annual rate of land change was higher between 1992 and 2003 compared to that between 2003 and 2015. Furthermore, the category-level analysis reveals that the gains in the arable land and tree/forest-cover classes during both time intervals were higher than the uniform intensity. The transition-level analysis results indicate that most of the gains in arable land and tree/forest-cover came at the cost of semi-arid shrublands during both periods. There is also evidence of local increases in forest-cover, likely linked to afforestation policies established by the Ghanian government; however, overall, there has been a loss of natural habitat. The study provides data to improve our understanding of the magnitude and direction of land-cover change, essential for the development of policies designed to mitigate the impact of land-cover change on the livelihoods of local people and the environment at the national and sub-national levels. Full article
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22 pages, 6380 KiB  
Article
Effects of Monocropping on Land Cover Transitions in the Wet Evergreen Agro-Ecological Zone of Ghana
by Seyram K. Loh, Kwabena O. Asubonteng and Selase K. Adanu
Land 2022, 11(7), 1063; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11071063 - 12 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2507
Abstract
The wet evergreen forest ecological zone of Ghana is undergoing notable structural changes, although most maps erroneously depict the area to be an intact forest. Several hectares of plantation agriculture such as rubber, oil palm, and cocoa are replacing the natural vegetation and [...] Read more.
The wet evergreen forest ecological zone of Ghana is undergoing notable structural changes, although most maps erroneously depict the area to be an intact forest. Several hectares of plantation agriculture such as rubber, oil palm, and cocoa are replacing the natural vegetation and habitats, thereby threatening indigenous biodiversity. This study aimed to assess the effects of tree monocrop proliferation on landscape transitions between 1986 and 2020 in the Wassa East District of Ghana. The ISODATA clustering technique was used to produce land cover category maps from Landsat images of 1986, 2002, and 2020. A post-classification change detection technique resulted in transition matrices which were used for the computation of land cover transition intensities over 34 years. The results showed that the landscape was dominated by forests in 1986. Still, the forest continuously declined by 34% (1% annually) in 2020 while all other land cover types increased in both periods with cocoa covering 23% oil palm covering 14%, and rubber covering 2% of the land area. These conversions in the land area are important, especially since the closed forests usually transition to monocrops through the intermediate process: food crop farming. This information is essential for decision making on land development and biodiversity conservation. Full article
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18 pages, 5774 KiB  
Article
Preferred Attributes for Sustainable Wetland Management in Mpologoma Catchment, Uganda: A Discrete Choice Experiment
by Jackson Bunyangha, Agnes. W. N. Muthumbi, Anthony Egeru, Robert Asiimwe, Dunston W. Ulwodi, Nathan. N. Gichuki and Mwanjalolo. J. G. Majaliwa
Land 2022, 11(7), 962; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11070962 - 23 Jun 2022
Viewed by 2426
Abstract
Sustainable wetland management is a focus of many countries worldwide. These mainly use protection as a key policy directive for conservation. However, avoidance directives tend to disenfranchise local populations. Thus, such management is often resisted and rarely effective. Tailoring management strategies to user [...] Read more.
Sustainable wetland management is a focus of many countries worldwide. These mainly use protection as a key policy directive for conservation. However, avoidance directives tend to disenfranchise local populations. Thus, such management is often resisted and rarely effective. Tailoring management strategies to user preferences allows conservation to support community livelihoods for sustainable development. This study employed a discrete choice experiment to determine the wetland management attributes preferred by residents of Mpologoma catchment as a prelude to developing a co-management system. Listed in descending order, attribute preferences were paddy farmers’ schemes, fish farming, education and research, protected wetland area, and recreation and tourism. Respondents’ characteristics influenced their choices. Older adults were more likely to support fish farming. In contrast, existing paddy farmers tended to resist such focuses and an increase in protected wetland area. Additionally, respondents with higher education were opposed to paddy farmers’ schemes, and the preference for education and research was positively influenced by respondents’ income. Respondents were willing to pay between $0.64 and $1.76 per household for each unit improvement in the preferred attribute. Our results underscore the role of DCEs in unlocking individuals’ attribute preferences, whose integration into co-management systems can be important for sustainable wetland conservation. Full article
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15 pages, 654 KiB  
Article
Adoption of Sustainable Agriculture Intensification in Maize-Based Farming Systems of Katete District in Zambia
by Petan Hamazakaza, Gillian Kabwe, Elias Kuntashula, Anthony Egeru and Robert Asiimwe
Land 2022, 11(6), 880; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11060880 - 09 Jun 2022
Viewed by 2663
Abstract
Sustainable agricultural intensification (SAI) has been hailed as the solution to increasing crop productivity among farmers. Despite the significant promotion, there still remains a dearth of information on the adoption and intensity of SAI in Zambia. This study sought to identify factors that [...] Read more.
Sustainable agricultural intensification (SAI) has been hailed as the solution to increasing crop productivity among farmers. Despite the significant promotion, there still remains a dearth of information on the adoption and intensity of SAI in Zambia. This study sought to identify factors that influence farmers’ adoption of SAI practices and intensity of use. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 300 smallholder farmers of Katete district in Zambia. The Cragg’s double hurdle model was used to assess the key decision factors for SAI adoption and intensity of use. Empirical estimates revealed that limited years of farming and smaller total cropped field size were statistically significant decision factors that led to a reduced likelihood of SAI adoption. The results of the truncated model showed that smaller farm sizes and limited access to farmer extension services reduced the adoption intensity of SAI practices, whereas farmer affiliation with farmer associations and farmer training in crop production increased SAI adoption intensity. We recommend an increase in farmer training on and sensitization to the benefits of SAI practices aligned to their respective landholdings. Full article
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16 pages, 1765 KiB  
Article
Determinants of Decision Making by Smallholder Farmers on Land Allocation for Small-Scale Forest Management in Northwestern Ethiopian Highlands
by Solomon Mulu, Zebene Asfaw, Asmamaw Alemu and Demel Teketay
Land 2022, 11(6), 838; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11060838 - 03 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2206
Abstract
Smallholder farmers in the northwestern Ethiopian Highlands are highly engaged in small-scale forest management. Participation in this activity can provide a key source of income for the farmers as well as wider benefits to the environment. To gain a better understanding of how [...] Read more.
Smallholder farmers in the northwestern Ethiopian Highlands are highly engaged in small-scale forest management. Participation in this activity can provide a key source of income for the farmers as well as wider benefits to the environment. To gain a better understanding of how spatial and socio-ecological factors determine farmers’ engagements in small-scale forest management, we conducted a comparative study in three Districts of northwestern Ethiopia. We used a mixed method approach including both quantitative (n = 375) and qualitative (n = 45) surveys to understand farmers’ motivations and decisions in three Districts of northwestern Ethiopia. We found that there were a number of factors motivating farmers’ decisions to participate, including land degradation and decline in crop productivity (in Fagta Lekoma District); adverse impact of adjacent woodlots (in North Mecha District); and increasing demand of wood products (in Guna Begemidir District). Further analysis on the extent of farmer engagement revealed that their decision to increase or decrease the share of land allocated to woodlots is heavily dependent on the comparative socio-economic benefits of woodlots and distance to markets. Other key (District-specific) determinant factors included wealth status, soil fertility status, gender, adult equivalent value, total land holding size, and annual crop production risk perception. Our findings suggest that to increase the uptake of woodlots, we would need to adopt a demand-driven forestry extension approach, which considers the heterogeneity of farmers and farm characteristics. Further research is required to quantify the optimal level of land allocation for small-scale forest management. Full article
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23 pages, 1489 KiB  
Article
Aboveground Biomass Models in the Combretum-Terminalia Woodlands of Ethiopia: Testing Species and Site Variation Effects
by Amsalu Abich, Mesele Negash, Asmamaw Alemu and Temesgen Gashaw
Land 2022, 11(6), 811; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11060811 - 30 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1945
Abstract
The Combretum-Terminalia woodlands and wooded grasslands (CTW) are widely distributed in East Africa. While these landscapes may have the potential to act as key global carbon sinks, relatively little is known about their carbon storage capacity. Here we developed a set of novel [...] Read more.
The Combretum-Terminalia woodlands and wooded grasslands (CTW) are widely distributed in East Africa. While these landscapes may have the potential to act as key global carbon sinks, relatively little is known about their carbon storage capacity. Here we developed a set of novel aboveground biomass (AGB) models and tested for species and site variation effects to quantify the potential for CTW to store carbon. In total, 321 trees were sampled from 13 dominant tree species, across three sites in the Northwest lowlands of Ethiopia. Overall, fitted species-specific models performed the best, with diameter at breast height explaining 94–99% of the AGB variations. Interspecific tree allometry differences among species were more substantial than intraspecific tree allometry among sites. Incorporating wood density and height in the mixed-species models significantly improved the model performance relative mean absolute error (MAPE) of 2.4–8.0%, while site variation did not affect the model accuracy substantially. Large errors (MAPE%) were observed when using existing pantropical models, indicating that model selection remains an important source of uncertainty. Although the estimates of selected site-specific models were accurate for local sites, mixed-species and species-specific models performed better when validation data collated from different sites were incorporated together. We concluded that including site- and species-level data improved model estimates of AGB for the CTW of Ethiopia. Full article
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15 pages, 1263 KiB  
Article
Financial Analysis of the Use of Land: Agriculture or Woodlot
by Jacqueline Ninson, Irene S. Egyir, Akwasi Mensah-Bonsu and Edward Ebo Onumah
Land 2022, 11(5), 642; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11050642 - 26 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1925
Abstract
Agriculture is the main driver of deforestation. In other to reduce deforestation, a viable alternative livelihood strategy, aside from agriculture, must be in place to provide a sustainable income for investors. Managing forests for sustainable production (the forest economy) has been suggested as [...] Read more.
Agriculture is the main driver of deforestation. In other to reduce deforestation, a viable alternative livelihood strategy, aside from agriculture, must be in place to provide a sustainable income for investors. Managing forests for sustainable production (the forest economy) has been suggested as an alternative for sustainable land use practice. In the current study, we undertook a comparative analysis of woodlots and agriculture. The profitability of agriculture and woodlot production in Ghana was compared using a profitability model. We looked at profitability in terms of Net Present Value (NPV) and the Benefit-Cost Ratio (BCR) of three regions in Ghana, namely, Ashanti, Bono-East, and Western Regions. We found that woodlot producers with contractual relationships with the Forest Commission and other forestry companies produce the highest Net Present Value (NPV) and Benefit-Cost Ratio (BCR). However, this profitability is marginally higher than that of agriculture, which gives a fixed yearly return. This means woodlot production may not be a panacea to reducing agriculture in Ghana. Full article
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13 pages, 1281 KiB  
Article
Carbon Stock and Change Rate under Different Grazing Management Practices in Semiarid Pastoral Ecosystem of Eastern Ethiopia
by Haftay Hailu Gebremedhn, Tessema Zewdu Kelkay, Yayanshet Tesfay, Samuel Tuffa, Sintayehu Workeneh Dejene, Sylvanus Mensah, Adam John Mears Devenish and Anthony Egeru
Land 2022, 11(5), 639; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11050639 - 26 Apr 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3041
Abstract
Grazing management strategies tend to have different effects on rangeland plant production. Changes in grazing management can, therefore, affect the carbon stock potential of rangelands. Despite rangeland ecosystems being important global sinks for carbon, we know relatively little about the effect of traditional [...] Read more.
Grazing management strategies tend to have different effects on rangeland plant production. Changes in grazing management can, therefore, affect the carbon stock potential of rangelands. Despite rangeland ecosystems being important global sinks for carbon, we know relatively little about the effect of traditional grazing management practices on their potential to store carbon. In this study, we evaluated the carbon stock and change rate of rangelands using three traditional grazing management practices in the semiarid pastoral ecosystem of eastern Ethiopia. By comparing data on vegetation and soil carbon stocks, we found that there was a strong significant difference (p < 0.001) between these different management practices. In particular, the establishment of enclosures was associated with an annual increase in carbon stocks of soil (3%) and woody (11.9%) and herbaceous (57.6%) biomass, when compared to communal open lands. Both enclosure and browsing management practices were found to have the highest levels of soil organic carbon stocks, differing only in terms of the amount of woody and herbaceous biomass. Thus, modest changes in traditional grazing management practices can play an important role in carbon storage and sequestration. Further research is required on a wider range of traditional pastoral management practices across space and time, as understanding these processes is key to combating global climate change. Full article
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18 pages, 2661 KiB  
Article
Ecosystem Service Valuation along Landscape Transformation in Central Ethiopia
by Abera Assefa Biratu, Bobe Bedadi, Solomon Gebreyohannis Gebrehiwot, Assefa M. Melesse, Tilahun Hordofa Nebi, Wuletawu Abera, Lulseged Tamene and Anthony Egeru
Land 2022, 11(4), 500; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11040500 - 30 Mar 2022
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2854
Abstract
Land degradation and discontinuation of ecosystem services (ES) are a common phenomenon that causes socio-economic and environmental problems in Ethiopia. However, a dearth of information is known about how ES are changing from the past to the future with regard to land use [...] Read more.
Land degradation and discontinuation of ecosystem services (ES) are a common phenomenon that causes socio-economic and environmental problems in Ethiopia. However, a dearth of information is known about how ES are changing from the past to the future with regard to land use land cover (LULC) changes. This study aimed at estimating the values of ES based on the past and future LULC changes in central Ethiopia. Maximum likelihood classifier and cellular automata-artificial neuron network (CA-ANN) models that integrate the module for land use change evaluation (MOLUSE) were used to classify and predict LULC. The CA-ANN model learning and validation was employed to predict LULC of 2031 and 2051. Following LULC change detection and prediction, the total ES values were estimated using the benefit transfer method. Results revealed that forests, wetlands, grazing lands, shrub-bush-woodlands, and water bodies were reduced by 9755 ha (37%), 4092 ha (38.4%), 21,263 ha (81%), 63,161 ha (25.7%), and 905 ha (1%), respectively, between 1986 and 2021. Similarly, forests, wetlands, grazing lands, shrub-bush lands, and water bodies will experience a decline of 1.5%, 0.5%, 2.6%, 19.6%, and 0.1%, respectively. Meanwhile, cultivated lands, bare-lands, and built-up areas will experience an increase between 1986 and 2051. The estimated total ES values were reduced by US$58.3 and 85.4 million in the period 1986–2021 and 1986–2051. Food production and biological control value increased while 15 other ES decreased throughout the study periods. Proper land use policy with strategic actions, including enforcement laws for natural ecosystems protection, afforestation, ecosystems restoration, and conservation practices, are recommended to be undertaken to enhance multiple ES provision. Full article
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Review

Jump to: Research, Other

21 pages, 2784 KiB  
Review
Ecosystem Service Values as Related to Land Use and Land Cover Changes in Ethiopia: A Review
by Muluberhan Biedemariam, Emiru Birhane, Biadgilgn Demissie, Tewodros Tadesse, Girmay Gebresamuel and Solomon Habtu
Land 2022, 11(12), 2212; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11122212 - 05 Dec 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2395
Abstract
Humans worldwide depend on ecosystems and the services they provide. Land use and land cover change increasingly, influencing ecosystem values to the extent that the rate and direction of change occurred. The objective of this study was to review the link between changes [...] Read more.
Humans worldwide depend on ecosystems and the services they provide. Land use and land cover change increasingly, influencing ecosystem values to the extent that the rate and direction of change occurred. The objective of this study was to review the link between changes in Land Use and Land Cover (LULC) and Ecosystem Service Value (ESV), with emphasis on mountainous landscapes in Ethiopia. The reviewers used the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guideline in the reviewing process. Area-specific and country-level studies showed that the ESV changed as the result of the LULC changes in the country. The change in land use in Ethiopia resulted not only in the loss of ESVs but also in the gain of ESVs depending on the type of man’s activity. Negative change in LULC—especially the deterioration of land cover types such as forest land, shrub land and grass land—resulted in the loss of ESVs, whereas positive LULC change increased the value of ESVs. In Ethiopia, there is a loss of about USD 85 billion per year from the loss of ecosystem services. To save, improve and promote ESVs, land restoration and rehabilitation activities are important. The review provides insights into the need for and focus of future studies on LULC changes and the valuing of ESVs to understand the impact of changes in LULC on ESVs, considering existing and forecasted population increase in rapidly urbanizing areas. Full article
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19 pages, 8572 KiB  
Review
Current Practices and Prospects of Climate-Smart Agriculture in Democratic Republic of Congo: A Review
by Katcho Karume, Jean M. Mondo, Géant B. Chuma, Angele Ibanda, Espoir M. Bagula, Alex Lina Aleke, Serge Ndjadi, Bintu Ndusha, Pascaline Azine Ciza, Nadege Cirezi Cizungu, Daniel Muhindo, Anthony Egeru, Florence Mayega Nakayiwa, Jackson-Gilbert M. Majaliwa, Gustave N. Mushagalusa and Rodrigue B. Basengere Ayagirwe
Land 2022, 11(10), 1850; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11101850 - 20 Oct 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 4943
Abstract
Climate-smart agriculture (CSA) is one of the innovative approaches for sustainably increasing the agricultural productivity, improving livelihoods and incomes of farmers, while at the same time improving resilience and contributing to climate change mitigation. In spite of the fact that there is neither [...] Read more.
Climate-smart agriculture (CSA) is one of the innovative approaches for sustainably increasing the agricultural productivity, improving livelihoods and incomes of farmers, while at the same time improving resilience and contributing to climate change mitigation. In spite of the fact that there is neither explicit policy nor practices branded as CSA in Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), farmers are utilizing an array of farming practices whose attributes meet the CSA criteria. However, the intensity, distribution, efficiency, and dynamics of use as well as the sources of these technologies are not sufficiently documented. Therefore, this review paper provides a comprehensive evidence of CSA-associated farming practices in DRC, public and private efforts to promote CSA practices, and the associated benefits accruing from the practices as deployed by farmers in the DRC. We find evidence of progress among farming communities in the use of practices that can be classified as CSA. Communities using these practices are building on the traditional knowledge systems and adaptation of introduced technologies to suit the local conditions. Reported returns on use of these practices are promising, pointing to their potential continued use into the future. While progressive returns on investment are reported, they are relatively lower than those reported from other areas in sub-Saharan Africa deploying similar approaches. We recommend for strategic support for capacity building at various levels, including public institutions for policy development and guidance, extension and community level to support uptake of technologies and higher education institutions for mainstreaming CSA into curricula and training a generation of CSA sensitive human resources. Full article
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Other

Jump to: Research, Review

3 pages, 1534 KiB  
Correction
Correction: Kusiima et al. Interconnectedness of Ecosystem Services Potential with Land Use/Land Cover Change Dynamics in Western Uganda. Land 2022, 11, 2056
by Samuel Kaheesi Kusiima, Anthony Egeru, Justine Namaalwa, Patrick Byakagaba, David Mfitumukiza, Paul Mukwaya, Sylvanus Mensah and Robert Asiimwe
Land 2023, 12(2), 475; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12020475 - 15 Feb 2023
Viewed by 750
Abstract
There was an error in the original publication [...] Full article
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