Selected Papers from the 1st International Electronic Conference on Land (IECL2022)

A special issue of Land (ISSN 2073-445X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 January 2023) | Viewed by 27205

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Guest Editor
Institute for Geosciences and Geography, Department Sustainable Landscape Development, University of Halle, Von-Seckendorff-Platz 4, 06120 Halle, Germany
Interests: social–ecological system models; ecosystem services; impact assessment; participatory planning processes at urban and landscape scales; climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies; biodiversity trends and governance
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue will comprise selected papers from the 1st International Electronic Conference on Land (IECL2022). The event will be held during 17–19 May 2022 on sciforum.net, which is the online platform developed by MDPI for scholarly exchange and collaboration.

IECL2022 is inviting papers and presentations that address the philosophy and key (inter- and transdisciplinary) methodological approaches of land system sciences. Papers selected for publication are those expected to attract the most online interest or that provide a particularly innovative contribution. These papers will be subject to peer review and published with the aim of rapid and wide dissemination of research results, developments, and applications. It is my hope that this conference series will experience rapid growth in the near future, establishing itself as the venue for presenting the most recent and prominent advances in land science.

Prof. Dr. Christine Fürst
Dr. Hossein Azadi
Prof. Dr. Le Yu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Land is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

25 pages, 26904 KiB  
Article
People, Crops, and Bee Farming: Landscape Models for a Symbiotic Network in Greece
by Io Carydi, Athanasios Koutsianas and Marios Desyllas
Land 2023, 12(2), 430; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12020430 - 7 Feb 2023
Viewed by 2695
Abstract
Despite the rising awareness of the mutual benefits of pollination, agricultural production, and biodiversity, Greek planning has scarcely moved toward patterns of pollinator-friendly farm design models. This paper presents data from preliminary research analysis that defined generic landscape design models that can enhance [...] Read more.
Despite the rising awareness of the mutual benefits of pollination, agricultural production, and biodiversity, Greek planning has scarcely moved toward patterns of pollinator-friendly farm design models. This paper presents data from preliminary research analysis that defined generic landscape design models that can enhance the symbiotic associations between farming production and beekeeping in Greece. The main objective is to determine tailor-made landscape models that can contribute to a portfolio of actions easily apprehensible by non-technical audiences in the farming sector who want to introduce biodiversity enhancements to monoculture farming, fostering a safer, poisonous-free environment for introduced honeybees, simultaneously helping to augment their production yields. A preliminary study was conducted in four agricultural farming estates in Thessaly and the Peloponnese involving apple farming, citrus orchards, and hemp cultivation. It combined the analysis and assessment of land cover classes with regard to the provision of foraging habitat, assessment of foraging suitability, description of connectivity characteristics, and emerging spatial patterns of natural corridors, patches, and edges at an observation perimeter around each farm. Assessment of these data informed design models for planting enrichment and integration of natural patches, such as meadows and shrub corridors. Pilot installations of hives in study areas that combined characteristics of the landscape models presented resulted in the production of 8% to 12% bigger fruits and 30% to 50% increase in the total yield. We conclude that landscape design models for biodiversity enhancement are an important attribute of ecosystem services and require an understanding of specific geographical and landscape parameters to render models operational for bee farming and pollination. Full article
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20 pages, 5833 KiB  
Article
Remembering Ypres. Post- War Reconstruction, Land and the Legacies of Shock and Conflict
by Kristof Van Assche and Monica Gruezmacher
Land 2023, 12(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12010021 - 21 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2962
Abstract
We consider the case of the Flemish city of Ypres and its reconstruction after World War I to analyze the legacies of war, as a violent shock to social- ecological systems for the meaning and organization of land. We argue that these legacies [...] Read more.
We consider the case of the Flemish city of Ypres and its reconstruction after World War I to analyze the legacies of war, as a violent shock to social- ecological systems for the meaning and organization of land. We argue that these legacies can only be understood when considering the multiple meanings of land, including its association with identity, and when distinguishing between the effects on the land itself, on the community inhabiting that land and the governance system in that community. We demonstrate that war, in its diversity of effects reinforces some path dependencies while erasing others and creates space for reinvention. If a city and its countryside are entirely devastated, as with Ypres, actors in governance come and go, old institutions lose their binding powers, some stories and forms of knowledge remain persuasive and locally rooted, while others whither. The necessity to decide on the future, in a landscape that requires rebuilding, triggers debate, discursive production and options for reinvention. We reflect on the lessons of Ypres for other communities forced to contemplate reconstruction. Full article
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32 pages, 1439 KiB  
Article
Land Resource Management Policy in Selected European Countries
by Armands Auzins, Peter Brokking, Evelin Jürgenson, Peteris Lakovskis, Jenny Paulsson, Andis Romanovs, Jolanta Valčiukienė, Janis Viesturs and Kurt Weninger
Land 2022, 11(12), 2280; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11122280 - 13 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2638
Abstract
Land use, land resource demands, and landscape management practices are linked to many of the environmental, climatic, and socio-economic challenges faced by contemporary society. The study focuses on a comparative analysis of the experience of the land resource management (LRM); thus, the study [...] Read more.
Land use, land resource demands, and landscape management practices are linked to many of the environmental, climatic, and socio-economic challenges faced by contemporary society. The study focuses on a comparative analysis of the experience of the land resource management (LRM); thus, the study aims respond to how the land-related resources are managed, what policy instruments support it, and what improvements would promote the sustainable management of these resources. Exploring LRM policies in selected countries, the experience of three Baltic countries and two other countries under the jurisdiction of continental Europe was analyzed, and their comparison was made based on qualitative research methodology. Based on the study’s results, the most important comparative characteristics of LRM policies are discussed. The findings of the study in selected countries provide recommendations for improving the institutional framework related to LRM. However, the outcome encourages a transfer of the research experience to other jurisdictions. Full article
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18 pages, 576 KiB  
Article
Analyzing Stakeholder Relationships for Construction Land Reduction Projects in Shanghai, China
by Zhaodi Lu, Mengyao Xu and Zhengfeng Zhang
Land 2022, 11(12), 2170; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11122170 - 30 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1218
Abstract
With the tightening of resource and environmental constraints and the increasing manifestation of land use conflicts, construction land reduction has become an important way to optimize land resource allocation and improve resource use efficiency. Taking the towns of Zhuqiao and Zhujiajiao in Shanghai [...] Read more.
With the tightening of resource and environmental constraints and the increasing manifestation of land use conflicts, construction land reduction has become an important way to optimize land resource allocation and improve resource use efficiency. Taking the towns of Zhuqiao and Zhujiajiao in Shanghai as research subjects, this paper uses field research and case studies to summarize the main practices and completion of the land reduction and analyzes the interest preferences of different stakeholders. The results showed that the main stakeholders in the reduction of inefficient construction land in Shanghai include the municipal government, district government, town government, rural collective economic organizations, entrepreneurs, and villagers, which form a complex and intertwined interest relationship. The allocation of new construction land indexes, the supply of funds for the cost of reduction, and the resettlement method of the reduced enterprises are the key factors affecting the coordination of the relationship between the stakeholders. Protecting the economic interests of village collective organizations and villagers is an effective way to reduce the conflicts that occur between government and villagers, and between government and village collectives. The research outcomes will provide a theoretical reference for improving the existing reduction policies and function as a reference for the spatial development and control work in other regions of China. Full article
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15 pages, 3151 KiB  
Article
Urban Green Space Prioritization to Mitigate Air Pollution and the Urban Heat Island Effect in Kathmandu Metropolitan City, Nepal
by Sabina Bhandari and Chuanrong Zhang
Land 2022, 11(11), 2074; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11112074 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2932
Abstract
The rapid population growth and unplanned urbanization within Kathmandu Metropolitan City (KMC) have induced land use and land cover (LULC) changes that have exacerbated problems of air pollution and the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect. These issues, as well as potential mitigations and [...] Read more.
The rapid population growth and unplanned urbanization within Kathmandu Metropolitan City (KMC) have induced land use and land cover (LULC) changes that have exacerbated problems of air pollution and the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect. These issues, as well as potential mitigations and possible counteractions, are currently under investigation by numerous research communities, resulting in various solutions being put forward including the creation of Urban Green Spaces (UGS). Establishing UGS would increase carbon dioxide extraction, minimizing photochemical ozone formation and liberation, while simultaneously cooling the microclimate of an area such as KMC. Optimized implementation of UGS throughout KMC requires an understanding of and prioritization of locations based on degraded air quality and the UHI effect. Unfortunately, such studies in these areas appear to be severely lacking, which has acted as a catalyst for this study. This research includes prioritization on two different spatial units—(i) at the administrative ward level and (ii) 0.0025° fishnet level. The result identifies the high-need locations where UGS establishment is recommended to mitigate air pollution and the UHI effect. Information obtained also heightened the existing UGS’s current sparsity and deplorable conditions. Findings from this study indicate that the utilization of rooftops are potential locations for new UGS, and enhancement of the existing UGS would prove to be an efficient use of currently underutilized spaces. Full article
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18 pages, 11042 KiB  
Article
Effect of Landscape Structure on Land Surface Temperature in Different Essential Urban Land Use Categories: A Case Study in Jiaozuo, China
by Xiaoli Jia, Peihao Song, Guoliang Yun, Ang Li, Kun Wang, Kaihua Zhang, Chenyu Du, Yuan Feng, Kexin Qu, Meng Wu and Shidong Ge
Land 2022, 11(10), 1687; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11101687 - 29 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2034
Abstract
Understanding the relationship between different essential urban land use categories and the urban thermal environment is essential for urban planning, resource allocation and decision support. However, most of the spatiotemporal correlations between land use types and LST are focused on industrial land use [...] Read more.
Understanding the relationship between different essential urban land use categories and the urban thermal environment is essential for urban planning, resource allocation and decision support. However, most of the spatiotemporal correlations between land use types and LST are focused on industrial land use and urban green space, and there are fewer discussions on the totality of urban land use types. Here, using multi-source remote sensing images, correlation analysis and the stepwise regression method, we elaborate the relationship between landscape structure and land surface temperature (LST) across the different seasons of 850 planning management units in Jiaozuo, China. Our results show that the degree of explanation of surface temperature by landscape structure increased with a fine division of land use. The imprint of urban–rural gradients on LST was largely masked by the land use categories at the regional scales. Moreover, the tridimensional structure of buildings significantly affected the LST of residential regions, and the large number of low-rise buildings in urban planning practice contributes to high LSTs. This study provides a comprehensive analysis of the effects of each land use type and landscape structure on surface temperature in urban space and also provides strategies and methods for urban planning in rapidly developing regions of the country. Full article
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20 pages, 6735 KiB  
Article
Fluvisols Contribution to Water Retention Hydrological Ecosystem Services in Different Floodplain Ecosystems
by Radoslava Kanianska, Nikola Benková, Janka Ševčíková, Matej Masný, Miriam Kizeková, Ľubica Jančová and Jianying Feng
Land 2022, 11(9), 1510; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11091510 - 8 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1395
Abstract
Water retention is an important hydrological ecosystem service of active floodplain soils. The aim of the study was to evaluate the soil chemical, physical, and hydrological properties in Fluvisols in three different ecosystems that have an impact on water retention hydrological ecosystem services [...] Read more.
Water retention is an important hydrological ecosystem service of active floodplain soils. The aim of the study was to evaluate the soil chemical, physical, and hydrological properties in Fluvisols in three different ecosystems that have an impact on water retention hydrological ecosystem services (WRHESs). We selected 16 localities along the Štiavnica River in Central Slovakia, 8 located in riparian zones (RZ), 5 in arable lands (AL), and 3 in grasslands (GL). Soil samples were collected from two layers (0–10 and 20–30 cm). In the laboratory, the soil physical (soil texture) and soil chemical properties (pH, soil organic carbon content, humic and fulvic acid ratio) were determined. Using undisturbed soil samples, the soil physical characteristics (particle density, bulk density, porosity, and actual soil moisture–SMa) were measured. With the help of pedotransfer functions, hydrological soil properties (field water capacity–FWC, wilting point–WP, available water capacity–AWC) were estimated. The recorded properties differed between the localities, ecosystems, and two layers. The SMa values showed a higher soil water retention potential of extensively used ecosystems, such as GL and RZ. However, the hydrological properties estimated by pedotransfer functions (FWC, WP, AWC) showed a higher soil water retention potential in AL localities. This indicated that for calculations, selected pedotransfer functions (particle size fractions, organic matter, and bulk density) and other soil or ecosystem properties (e.g., vegetation cover, meteorological conditions) have an impact on WRHESs. One such soil factor can be the quality of organic matter. On the basis of the results of the ANOVA, significant differences emerged between the different ecosystems for selected basic chemical, physical, and hydrological properties. The effect of the soil layer on the soil properties was revealed only in the case of SOC. The results indicated the effect of different ecosystems on soil WRHES and the importance of extensively managed ecosystems, such as RZ and GL. From this point of view, the reduction in the RZ and GL areas during a period of the last 70 years is negative. The findings should be taken into account in future sustainable floodplain management and landscape architecture. Full article
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20 pages, 4310 KiB  
Article
Past and Future Land Use/Land Cover Changes in the Ethiopian Fincha Sub-Basin
by Motuma Shiferaw Regasa and Michael Nones
Land 2022, 11(8), 1239; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11081239 - 4 Aug 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2655
Abstract
The increasing human pressure on African regions is recognizable when looking at Land Use Land Cover (LULC) change maps, generally derived from satellite imagery. Using the Ethiopian Fincha watershed as a case study, the present work focuses on (i) identifying historical LULC change [...] Read more.
The increasing human pressure on African regions is recognizable when looking at Land Use Land Cover (LULC) change maps, generally derived from satellite imagery. Using the Ethiopian Fincha watershed as a case study, the present work focuses on (i) identifying historical LULC change in the period 1989–2019; (ii) estimating LULC in the next thirty years, combining Geographical Information Systems (GIS) with Land Change Modelling (LCM). Landsat 5/8 images were combined with field evidence to map LULC in three reference years (1989, 2004, 2019), while the Multi-Layer Markov Chain (MPL-MC) model of LCM was applied to forecast LULC in 2030, 2040, and 2050. The watershed was classified into six classes: waterbody, grass/swamp, built-up, agriculture; forest; and shrub. The results have shown that, in the past 30 years, the Fincha watershed experienced a reduction in forest and shrubs of about −40% and −13%, respectively, mainly due to ever-increasing agricultural activities, and such a trend is also expected in the future. In fact, for the period 2019–2050, LCM simulated a significant decrease in both forest and shrubs (around −70% and −20%, respectively), in favor of more areas covered by grass (19%) and built-up (20%). It is worth noting that a decrease in natural forests can drive an increase in soil erosion, fostering siltation in the water reservoirs located in the sub-basin. The study pointed out the urgency of taking actions in the sub-basin to counteract such changes, which can eventually lead to a less sustainable environment. Full article
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18 pages, 7707 KiB  
Article
Assessing Landscape Instability through Land-Cover Change Based on the Hemeroby Index (Lithuanian Example)
by Agnė Jasinavičiūtė and Darijus Veteikis
Land 2022, 11(7), 1056; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11071056 - 12 Jul 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2491
Abstract
The increasing anthropogenic impact on landscapes globally has increased interest in assessing landscape naturalness. This study assessed the changes in land cover in Lithuania and identified the most common reasons for land-use change. Coordination of Environment Information (CORINE) land-cover data were used to [...] Read more.
The increasing anthropogenic impact on landscapes globally has increased interest in assessing landscape naturalness. This study assessed the changes in land cover in Lithuania and identified the most common reasons for land-use change. Coordination of Environment Information (CORINE) land-cover data were used to assess the changes in land cover naturalness in Lithuania from 1995 to 2018. Land-cover types were ranked according to the hemeroby index, ranging from natural landscape with no human impact to anthropogenic landscapes with excessively strong human impact. Land use trends in Lithuania were related to agricultural and forestry activities. During the analysed period, these areas decreased by as much as 11.19%, and the number of areas with a particularly strong impact from human activities also decreased. Land cover naturalness did increase in areas less suitable for agriculture. The impact of human activities on the naturalness of the landscape needs to be explored in detail at the local level, which should be followed by appropriate spatial-planning decisions to ensure ecological balance through as many sustainable solutions as possible, especially with the European Commission adoption the European Green Deal. Full article
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26 pages, 7644 KiB  
Article
Evolution Characteristics, Eco-Environmental Response and Influencing Factors of Production-Living-Ecological Space in the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau
by Shuaibing Zhang, Kaixu Zhao, Shuoyang Ji, Yafang Guo, Fengqi Wu, Jingxian Liu and Fei Xie
Land 2022, 11(7), 1020; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11071020 - 6 Jul 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1892
Abstract
The Qinghai–Tibet Plateau (QTP) is a major “river source” and “ecological source” in China, as well as South Asia and Southeast Asia, and is a typical plateau region. Studying the evolution characteristics and ecological effects of the production-living-ecological space (PLES) of the QTP [...] Read more.
The Qinghai–Tibet Plateau (QTP) is a major “river source” and “ecological source” in China, as well as South Asia and Southeast Asia, and is a typical plateau region. Studying the evolution characteristics and ecological effects of the production-living-ecological space (PLES) of the QTP is of great practical significance and theoretical value for strengthening its ecological construction and environmental protection. Based on 30 m × 30 m land use/cover data of the QTP at five time-points of 1980, 1990, 2000, 2010, and 2020, this paper investigates the PLES evolution characteristics, transfer characteristics, eco-environmental response, and influencing factors of the eco-environmental quality index (EEQI) in the region of China of the QTP from 1980 to 2020 by land use transfer matrix, eco-environmental response model, hot spot analysis, and geographically weighted regression (GWR). The results show that: (1) from 1980 to 2020, the ecological space of the QTP decreased, while the production and living space saw an increase. The PLES pattern of the QTP showed a clear shift from 2000 to 2010, while there was no significant change from 1980 to 2000 and from 2010 to 2020. (2) From 1980 to 2020, the EEQI of the QTP decreased from 0.5634 in 1980 to 0.5038 in 2010, and then increased to 0.5044 in 2020, showing a changing trend of first decreasing and then increasing; the degradation of grassland ecological space to other ecological space was the main cause leading to ecological environment deterioration. (3) From 1980 to 2000, the EEQI was high in the midwestern and southeastern parts of the QTP, presenting a double-center distribution. From 2010 to 2020, the EEQI decreased in the western part, while the high value area in the eastern part increased significantly, obviously low in the west and high in the east. The spatial variation characteristics of hot and cold spots and EEQI are generally similar. (4) Natural ecological and socioeconomic factors have significant differences on the spatial distribution of EEQI in the QTP, and natural ecological factors are the main driving factors, with topographic relief having the strongest effect on EEQI as a natural ecological factor, and population density having the strongest effect as a socioeconomic factor. Full article
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18 pages, 7523 KiB  
Article
Farmland Suitability Evaluation Oriented by Non-Agriculturalization Sensitivity: A Case Study of Hubei Province, China
by Xufeng Cui, Tingting Zhou, Xinxing Xiong, Jiaqi Xiong, Jing Zhang and Yuehua Jiang
Land 2022, 11(4), 488; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11040488 - 28 Mar 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2129
Abstract
Farmland is one of the key factors affecting national or regional food security, and farmland suitability evaluation can provide critical information for the spatial layout of farmland. Previous studies have mainly focused on the role of natural factors in suitability evaluation, while ignoring [...] Read more.
Farmland is one of the key factors affecting national or regional food security, and farmland suitability evaluation can provide critical information for the spatial layout of farmland. Previous studies have mainly focused on the role of natural factors in suitability evaluation, while ignoring the important influence of socio-economic activities. This study selects natural factors such as elevation and slope and non-agriculturalization sensitivity factors to build a farmland suitability evaluation framework of “natural non-agriculturalization sensitivity”, quantify the farmland suitability, and uses GIS technology to classify the evaluation results into four levels: highly, moderately, barely, and unsuitable. The results show that the non-agriculturalization sensitivity of farmland in Hubei Province shows the spatial characteristics of multi-point clustering, with density increasing from west and north to central and east; the overall farmland suitability in Hubei Province is high, and the areas of highly, moderately, barely, and unsuitable farmland account for 2.32%, 67.69%, 11.49%, and 18.50%, respectively. In terms of spatial distribution, there are obvious spatial differences in the farmland suitability, with highly and moderately suitable areas mainly distributed in the central and eastern regions and barely suitable and unsuitable areas mainly distributed in the western, northeastern, and southeastern parts of Hubei Province. Full article
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