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Special Issue "Recent Advances in T Cell Biology"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Biology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2023) | Viewed by 2361

Special Issue Editor

Department of Surgery, Medicine, Dentistry and Morphological Sciences with Interest in Transplantation, Oncology and Regenerative Medicine, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, 41124 Modena, Italy
Interests: pathology; hemathology; immunology; immunoncology; oncology; gynecological oncology
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Immunoncology is the innovative sub-branch of oncology based on the use of modern immunotherapies in the fight against cancer; in practice, it consists in the stimulation of the immune system to treat cancer, by exploiting the innate immune surveillance and by boosting the body’s antitumor defenses. Immunotherapies can be categorized as active or passive: active immunotherapy directly targets neoplastic cells via the immune system, for example by adoptive T cells transfer or Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T cells or monoclonal antibodies, while passive immunotherapy indirectly enhances the natural ability of the immune system to attack cancer (e.g., checkpoint inhibitors and cytokines). The main concept behind CAR-T immunotherapy is the engineering of T lymphocytes, in order to more effectively recognize, target and destroy cancer cells. To date the best results have been obtained in the treatment of B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia by tisagenlecleucel, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and follicular lymphoma by axicabtagene ciloleucel and lisocabtagene maraleucel, mantle cell lymphoma by brexucabtagene autoleucel, and multiple myeloma by ciltacabtagene autoleucel and idecabtagene vicleucel; however, solid malignancies have shown low response rates due to the difficulty of CAR-T cells to be efficiently trafficked into the neoplastic core, and for the presence of hostile tumor microenvironments. Moreover, identification of key antigens has been challenging, since they must be highly expressed on the majority of cancer cells, but almost absent in normal tissues. Aim of this Special Issue is to illustrate all recent advances in T cells biology, including Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes (TILs), with particular emphasis on those advancements that increase the efficacy and delivery of CAR-T cells in solid malignancies, avoiding at the same time their possible side effects, such as neurotoxicity and cytokine release syndrome. The Special Issue is mainly addressed to pathologists, hematologists, oncologists, immunologists, surgeons, biologists, biotechnologists, bioengineers, pharmacologists, and chemists.

Dr. Luca Roncati
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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  • solid cancer
  • liquid cancer
  • cancer immunotherapy
  • Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes (TILs)
  • T cells
  • T cells biology
  • Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T cells
  • CAR-T therapy
  • adoptive T cells transfer

Published Papers (1 paper)

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14 pages, 1288 KiB  
The Enigmatic Nature of the TCR-pMHC Interaction: Implications for CAR-T and TCR-T Engineering
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(23), 14728; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232314728 - 25 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2100
The interaction of the T-cell receptor (TCR) with a peptide in the major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) plays a central role in the adaptive immunity of higher chordates. Due to the high specificity and sensitivity of this process, the immune system quickly recognizes and [...] Read more.
The interaction of the T-cell receptor (TCR) with a peptide in the major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) plays a central role in the adaptive immunity of higher chordates. Due to the high specificity and sensitivity of this process, the immune system quickly recognizes and efficiently responds to the appearance of foreign and altered self-antigens. This is important for ensuring anti-infectious and antitumor immunity, in addition to maintaining self-tolerance. The most common parameter used for assessing the specificity of TCR-pMHC interaction is affinity. This thermodynamic characteristic is widely used not only in various theoretical aspects, but also in practice, for example, in the engineering of various T-cell products with a chimeric (CAR-T) or artificial (TCR-engineered T-cell) antigen receptor. However, increasing data reveal the fact that, in addition to the thermodynamic component, the specificity of antigen recognition is based on the kinetics and mechanics of the process, having even greater influence on the selectivity of the process and T lymphocyte activation than affinity. Therefore, the kinetic and mechanical aspects of antigen recognition should be taken into account when designing artificial antigen receptors, especially those that recognize antigens in the MHC complex. This review describes the current understanding of the nature of the TCR-pMHC interaction, in addition to the thermodynamic, kinetic, and mechanical principles underlying the specificity and high sensitivity of this interaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in T Cell Biology)
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