Advances in Diagnosis and Treatment of Gynecological Malignancies: Part II

A special issue of Journal of Clinical Medicine (ISSN 2077-0383). This special issue belongs to the section "Obstetrics & Gynecology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2023) | Viewed by 2920

Special Issue Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Medical practice is moving towards personalized medicine by means of next-generation sequencing applied to solid or liquid biopsy. Advances in our understanding of the molecular alterations in various gynecological malignancies have enabled the development of increasingly more precise diagnoses, effective targeted therapies, and the prediction of accurate prognoses in the setting of modern immunotherapies. In addition to histopathology coupled with molecular diagnostics, pretargeting for imaging and therapy is gaining consensus in oncological nuclear medicine; moreover, robotic surgical techniques are now a reality. Following the success of part I of “Advances in Diagnosis and Treatment of Gynecological Malignancies”, part II of this Special Issue is announced here with a renewed goal, but always with the intent to highlight the most recent advances in the full context of diagnosis and treatment of female cancers.

Prof. Dr. Luca Roncati
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • gynecological malignancies
  • histopathology
  • next-generation sequencing
  • theranostics
  • targeted therapy
  • robotics
  • personalized medicine

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12 pages, 1083 KiB  
Article
MGMT Methylation Is Associated with Human Papillomavirus Infection in Cervical Dysplasia: A Longitudinal Study
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(19), 6188; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12196188 - 25 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 638
Abstract
Cervical premalignancy/malignancy, as detected by cervical cytology or biopsy, can develop as a result of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Meanwhile, DNA methylation is known to be associated with carcinogenesis. In this study, we thus attempted to identify the association between MGMT methylation and [...] Read more.
Cervical premalignancy/malignancy, as detected by cervical cytology or biopsy, can develop as a result of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Meanwhile, DNA methylation is known to be associated with carcinogenesis. In this study, we thus attempted to identify the association between MGMT methylation and persistent HPV infection using an Epi-TOP MPP assay. Integrative analysis of DNA methylation was carried out here using longitudinal cervical cytology samples of seven patients with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance/low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (ASC-US/LSIL). Then, a gene expression analysis using the longitudinal cervical cytology samples and a public database (The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA)) was performed. Upon comparing the ASC-US or LSIL samples at the 1st collection and the paired samples at the 2nd collection more than 6 months later, we found that they became hypermethylated over time. Then, using the longitudinal data, we found that the MGMT methylation was associated with HPV infection. Moreover, TCGA dataset revealed an association between downregulated MGMT mRNA expression and poor overall survival. This decreased MGMT mRNA expression was observed to have an inverse relationship with MGMT methylation levels. In this study, we found that the MGMT methylation level could potentially serve as a valuable prognostic indicator for the transition from ASC-US/LSIL to cervical cancer. Full article
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Opinion
Aggressive Angiomyxoma of the Vulva: Which Is the Best Management Strategy? Description of a Case Report and Review of Literature of the Last Ten Years
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(5), 1726; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12051726 - 21 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1938
Abstract
Background: Aggressive angiomyxoma is a rare mesenchymal tumour of the genital tract with a high incidence in women of reproductive age. The aim of our work is to understand which is the best management strategy for this condition, starting from the description of [...] Read more.
Background: Aggressive angiomyxoma is a rare mesenchymal tumour of the genital tract with a high incidence in women of reproductive age. The aim of our work is to understand which is the best management strategy for this condition, starting from the description of a rare case report up to the performance of a narrative review of the literature. Methods: We report a case of a 46-year-old woman who came to our attention because of the growth of a 10-centimetre pedunculated, non-soft, non-tender mass of the left labium majus. She underwent surgical excision, and the histologic diagnosis was aggressive angiomyxoma. Due to a lack of tumour-free margins, radicalization surgery was carried out after three months. A review of the literature of the last ten years was performed following the PRISMA statement on MEDLINE (PubMed). We obtained data from twenty-five studies describing thirty-three cases. Results: Aggressive angiomyxoma is characterized by a high recurrence rate of between 36 and 72% after surgery. There is no universal consensus about hormonal therapy, and most studies (85%) describe surgical excision followed by only clinical and radiological follow-up. Conclusion: Wide surgical excision is the gold-standard treatment for aggressive angiomyxoma, succeeded by either clinical or radiological (ultrasound or MRI) follow-up. Full article
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