Next Issue
Volume 13, May-2
Previous Issue
Volume 13, April-2
 
 

J. Clin. Med., Volume 13, Issue 9 (May-1 2024) – 280 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): In the treatment of acute kidney injury (AKI), prompt identification of the underlying cause is essential. This review examines the key aspects, including individualized blood pressure targets, the role of point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) in fluid resuscitation, optimal vasopressor selection, the indications for kidney replacement therapy, and future directions. View this paper
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Reader to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
15 pages, 2461 KiB  
Article
Assessing the Preservation of Lumbar Lordotic Curvature in Everyday Sitting Conditions Assessed with an Inertial Measurement System
by Ju Chan Kim, Jeong-Gil Kim, Beom Suk Kim, Cheol Ki Kim, Minseok Choi, Joonnyong Lee and Sun Gun Chung
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(9), 2728; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13092728 - 6 May 2024
Viewed by 568
Abstract
Background/Objectives: Lumbar lordotic curvature (LLC), closely associated with low back pain (LBP) when decreased, is infrequently assessed in clinical settings due to the spatiotemporal limitations of radiographic methods. To overcome these constraints, this study used an inertial measurement system to compare the magnitude [...] Read more.
Background/Objectives: Lumbar lordotic curvature (LLC), closely associated with low back pain (LBP) when decreased, is infrequently assessed in clinical settings due to the spatiotemporal limitations of radiographic methods. To overcome these constraints, this study used an inertial measurement system to compare the magnitude and maintenance of LLC across various sitting conditions, categorized into three aspects: verbal instructions, chair type, and desk task types. Methods: Twenty-nine healthy participants were instructed to sit for 3 min with two wireless sensors placed on the 12th thoracic vertebra and the 2nd sacral vertebra. The lumbar lordotic angle (LLA) was measured using relative angles for the mediolateral axis and comparisons were made within each sitting category. Results: The maintenance of LLA (LLAdev) was significantly smaller when participants were instructed to sit upright (−3.7 ± 3.9°) compared to that of their habitual sitting posture (−1.2 ± 2.4°) (p = 0.001), while the magnitude of LLA (LLAavg) was significantly larger with an upright sitting posture (p = 0.001). LLAdev was significantly larger when using an office chair (−0.4 ± 1.1°) than when using a stool (−3.2 ± 7.1°) (p = 0.033), and LLAavg was also significantly larger with the office chair (p < 0.001). Among the desk tasks, LLAavg was largest during keyboard tasks (p < 0.001), followed by mouse and writing tasks; LLAdev showed a similar trend without statistical significance (keyboard, −1.2 ± 3.0°; mouse, −1.8 ± 2.2°; writing, −2.9 ± 3.1°) (p = 0.067). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that strategies including the use of an office chair and preference for computer work may help preserve LLC, whereas in the case of cueing, repetition may be necessary. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Rehabilitation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 799 KiB  
Article
Understanding Patterns of Adherence to Antifibrotic Treatment in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: Insights from an Italian Prospective Cohort Study
by Marica Iommi, Francesca Gonnelli, Martina Bonifazi, Andrea Faragalli, Federico Mei, Marco Pompili, Flavia Carle and Rosaria Gesuita
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(9), 2727; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13092727 - 6 May 2024
Viewed by 533
Abstract
Background: Pirfenidone and Nintedanib have significantly improved the prognosis of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), reducing mortality risk and exacerbations. This study aimed to analyze antifibrotic treatment utilization and its association with clinical outcomes (i.e., acute exacerbation or death) during 2014–2021 [...] Read more.
Background: Pirfenidone and Nintedanib have significantly improved the prognosis of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), reducing mortality risk and exacerbations. This study aimed to analyze antifibrotic treatment utilization and its association with clinical outcomes (i.e., acute exacerbation or death) during 2014–2021 in newly diagnosed IPF patients, using Healthcare Utilization Databases of the Marche Region, Italy. Methods: The first 12-month adherence to antifibrotic was estimated using the Proportion of Days Covered (PDC), defining adherence as PDC ≥ 75%. State Sequence Analysis over the initial 52 weeks of treatment was used to identify adherence patterns. The role of adherence patterns on acute exacerbations/death, adjusted by demographic, clinical features, and monthly adherence after the 52-week period (time-dependent variable), was assessed with Cox regression. Results: Among 667 new IPF cases, 296 received antifibrotic prescriptions, with 62.8% being adherent in the first year. Three antifibrotic utilization patterns emerged—high adherence (37.2%), medium adherence (42.5%), and low adherence (20.3%)—with median PDCs of 95.3%, 79.5%, and 18.6%, respectively. These patterns did not directly influence three-year mortality/exacerbation probability, but sustained adherence reduced risk over time. Conclusions: Good adherence was observed in in this population-based study, emphasizing the importance of continuous antifibrotics therapy over time to mitigate adverse outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pulmonary Fibrosis: Therapeutic and Management Strategies)
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 1150 KiB  
Article
Secondary Microsurgical Reconstruction of the Cervical Esophagus: Safer Flaps and Practical Tips in a Challenging Situation
by Vittorio Ramella, Andrea Ferrari, Federico Cesare Novati, Zoran Marij Arnež, Grace Marchi, Agostino Rodda, Stefano Bottosso and Giovanni Papa
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(9), 2726; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13092726 - 6 May 2024
Viewed by 423
Abstract
Background: Cervical esophageal reconstruction is vital to improve the quality of life in cancer surgery patients. Microsurgery is crucial in providing vascularized tissue for defect repair, particularly in secondary cases with a higher risk of failure due to larger defects and damage [...] Read more.
Background: Cervical esophageal reconstruction is vital to improve the quality of life in cancer surgery patients. Microsurgery is crucial in providing vascularized tissue for defect repair, particularly in secondary cases with a higher risk of failure due to larger defects and damage from previous surgery and radiotherapy. The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics of a series of patients who underwent secondary repair of esophageal defects and provide practical information for the management and treatment of such cases based on the authors’ experience and the literature review. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the electronic medical records of the Plastic Surgery Clinic at the University of Trieste to identify cases of patients who underwent secondary esophageal microsurgical reconstructions following oncological surgery. Patient demographics, the etiology of esophageal defects, previous surgical history, and preoperative assessments were collected from medical records. Surgical techniques utilized for reconstruction, such as pedicled flaps or free tissue transfers, were documented along with intraoperative information. Postoperative outcomes, including complications, graft viability, and functional outcomes, were evaluated during follow-up. Results: We treated 13 cases of secondary esophageal reconstructions between 2011 and 2022. Most commonly, Antero-Lateral Thigh (ALT) flaps were used in 10 cases, while 2 cases employed a radial forearm flap (RFF), and 1 case employed a chimeric parascapular flap. No flap failures occurred during a median 50-month follow-up. One ALT flap patient experienced postop stricture but maintained swallowing ability. A single tracheoesophageal fistula occurred in an RFF patient with a history of radiotherapy and complete lymph node dissection. Conclusions: Cervical esophageal reconstruction significantly impacts patients’ quality of life by restoring oral feeding and phonation. When local flaps fall short, microsurgical reconstruction with intestinal flaps is valuable but is burdened by limitations. For challenging secondary cases, ALT or RFF flaps emerge as safer options due to their robust pedicles, yielding low complication rates and positive functional outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances in Oral and Facial Surgery)
Show Figures

Figure 1

32 pages, 7815 KiB  
Article
Neural Adaptation at Stimulus Onset and Speed of Neural Processing as Critical Contributors to Speech Comprehension Independent of Hearing Threshold or Age
by Jakob Schirmer, Stephan Wolpert, Konrad Dapper, Moritz Rühle, Jakob Wertz, Marjoleen Wouters, Therese Eldh, Katharina Bader, Wibke Singer, Etienne Gaudrain, Deniz Başkent, Sarah Verhulst, Christoph Braun, Lukas Rüttiger, Matthias H. J. Munk, Ernst Dalhoff and Marlies Knipper
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(9), 2725; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13092725 - 6 May 2024
Viewed by 493
Abstract
Background: It is assumed that speech comprehension deficits in background noise are caused by age-related or acquired hearing loss. Methods: We examined young, middle-aged, and older individuals with and without hearing threshold loss using pure-tone (PT) audiometry, short-pulsed distortion-product otoacoustic emissions [...] Read more.
Background: It is assumed that speech comprehension deficits in background noise are caused by age-related or acquired hearing loss. Methods: We examined young, middle-aged, and older individuals with and without hearing threshold loss using pure-tone (PT) audiometry, short-pulsed distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (pDPOAEs), auditory brainstem responses (ABRs), auditory steady-state responses (ASSRs), speech comprehension (OLSA), and syllable discrimination in quiet and noise. Results: A noticeable decline of hearing sensitivity in extended high-frequency regions and its influence on low-frequency-induced ABRs was striking. When testing for differences in OLSA thresholds normalized for PT thresholds (PTTs), marked differences in speech comprehension ability exist not only in noise, but also in quiet, and they exist throughout the whole age range investigated. Listeners with poor speech comprehension in quiet exhibited a relatively lower pDPOAE and, thus, cochlear amplifier performance independent of PTT, smaller and delayed ABRs, and lower performance in vowel-phoneme discrimination below phase-locking limits (/o/-/u/). When OLSA was tested in noise, listeners with poor speech comprehension independent of PTT had larger pDPOAEs and, thus, cochlear amplifier performance, larger ASSR amplitudes, and higher uncomfortable loudness levels, all linked with lower performance of vowel-phoneme discrimination above the phase-locking limit (/i/-/y/). Conslusions: This study indicates that listening in noise in humans has a sizable disadvantage in envelope coding when basilar-membrane compression is compromised. Clearly, and in contrast to previous assumptions, both good and poor speech comprehension can exist independently of differences in PTTs and age, a phenomenon that urgently requires improved techniques to diagnose sound processing at stimulus onset in the clinical routine. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

13 pages, 269 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Physical Activity and Repeated Whole-Body Cryotherapy on the Expression of Modulators of the Inflammatory Response in Mononuclear Blood Cells among Young Men
by Justyna Kusmierczyk, Magdalena Wiecek, Gabriela Wojciak, Mateusz Mardyła, Grzegorz Kreiner, Zbigniew Szygula and Jadwiga Szymura
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(9), 2724; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13092724 - 6 May 2024
Viewed by 542
Abstract
Background: Series of whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) among healthy and physically active individuals can potentially reduce inflammatory response, although exact mechanisms remain unclear. Methods: The impact of whole-body cryotherapy on inflammation modulators among 28 young males, categorized as non-training (NTR, N = 10), non-training [...] Read more.
Background: Series of whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) among healthy and physically active individuals can potentially reduce inflammatory response, although exact mechanisms remain unclear. Methods: The impact of whole-body cryotherapy on inflammation modulators among 28 young males, categorized as non-training (NTR, N = 10), non-training with WBC (NTR-WBC, N = 10), and training with WBC (TR-WBC, N = 8), is investigated in this study. Over a period of eight weeks, NTR-WBC and TR-WBC subjects underwent 24 WBC treatments (−130 °C for 3 min, three times a week), examining changes in mRNA expressions of IL-1A, IL-6, IL-10, IFN-G, SIRT1, SIRT3, SOD2, GSS, and ICAM-1. Results: The received data indicate an acute inflammatory response to initial WBC (increased IL-1A, IL-6, and SIRT), with a greater effect in NTR-WBC. Subsequent sessions showed enhanced expressions of antioxidative genes in both WBC groups, particularly non-trained, suggesting improved oxidative stress adaptation. A notable decrease in ICAM-1 mRNA post-24 WBC treatments in NTR-WBC signifies a potential systemic anti-inflammatory effect. Conclusions: The findings of the study suggest that the combination of regular physical activity with WBC administered three times per week can potentially modulate inflammatory and antioxidant responses. This modulation is evidenced by changes in the expression of genes related to these processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Rehabilitation)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

15 pages, 3203 KiB  
Article
Alcohol Consumption Is a Coping Mechanism for Male Patients with Severe Anxiety Disorders Treated with Antidepressants Monotherapy
by Mădălina Iuliana Mușat, Felicia Militaru, Ion Udriștoiu, Smaranda Ioana Mitran and Bogdan Cătălin
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(9), 2723; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13092723 - 6 May 2024
Viewed by 398
Abstract
Background: Anxiety disorders are prevalent mental health conditions often accompanied by various comorbidities. The association between anxiety and liver disease, as well as fluctuations in blood sugar levels, highlights the importance of carefully evaluating patients with anxiety undergoing antidepressant therapy. The aim of [...] Read more.
Background: Anxiety disorders are prevalent mental health conditions often accompanied by various comorbidities. The association between anxiety and liver disease, as well as fluctuations in blood sugar levels, highlights the importance of carefully evaluating patients with anxiety undergoing antidepressant therapy. The aim of this study was to conduct a comparative assessment of liver function and blood glucose levels in patients diagnosed with anxiety disorders while considering potential gender-specific differences. Methods: An analysis was conducted over a 24-month period. This study included 88 patients diagnosed with anxiety disorders, with symptoms severe enough to require hospitalization, aged 18 or older, undergoing antidepressant monotherapy, without any additional pathologies. Liver enzymes (AST, ALT, GGT), AST/ALT ratio, and blood glucose levels were measured and compared. Results: While no significant differences were found between antidepressant classes, increased GGT levels were observed in men older than 40 years compared to women of the same age, suggesting that alcohol consumption may be a coping mechanism for anxiety. This gender difference was not observed among young patients. Conclusions: Early detection of alcohol consumption is essential in patients with anxiety disorders in order to prevent alcohol-related liver damage and to adjust the management of both conditions accordingly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mental Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 1486 KiB  
Article
Clinical Efficacy of Application-Linked Stretching Ball as Digital Therapeutics in Plantar Fasciitis
by Seok Chang Ryu, Dong-Oh Lee, Yoojin Park, Yujeong Shin, Dong Yeon Lee and Min Gyu Kyung
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(9), 2722; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13092722 - 6 May 2024
Viewed by 463
Abstract
Background/Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of application-linked stretching ball instruments that record the rolling time and force of patients compared with a traditional simple stretching ball. Methods: Fourteen participants with plantar fasciitis were divided into a simple massage [...] Read more.
Background/Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of application-linked stretching ball instruments that record the rolling time and force of patients compared with a traditional simple stretching ball. Methods: Fourteen participants with plantar fasciitis were divided into a simple massage ball group (group A, n = 8) and an application-linked massage ball group (group B, n = 6). The application-linked massage ball sends information regarding the massages, such as the frequency and force of the massage on the foot, to the application on the patient’s smartphone. All clinical outcomes were evaluated at the beginning of the study and 1-, 2-, and 3-month follow-up. The primary outcome measure was the Manchester–Oxford Foot Questionnaire (MOXFQ) score. Results: At the beginning of the study, the initial MOXFQ score was not significantly different between the two groups (p = 0.948). At each time point, the MOXFQ score of the whole population did not improve significantly compared to that of the initial state (p = 0.131). Generalized estimating equation modeling demonstrated that there was no significant difference in the improvement of the MOXFQ score between groups A and B during follow-up (p = 0.826). In addition, no group-by-time interactions were observed (p = 0.457). Conclusions: The efficacy of an application-linked massage ball for the treatment of plantar fasciitis was not as definite as that of a traditional simple stretching ball in patients whose symptoms persisted for at least six months. Future studies that include patients with acute plantar fasciitis are required. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rehabilitation and Recovery from Orthopedic Trauma)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 1118 KiB  
Article
Prospective Analysis of Squamous Cell Carcinoma Antigen-1 and -2 for Diagnosing Sinonasal Inverted Papilloma
by Hitoshi Hirakawa, Taro Ikegami, Masatomo Toyama, Yurika Ooshiro, Tomoyo Higa, Hidetoshi Kinjyo, Shunsuke Kondo, Norimoto Kise, Yukashi Yamashita and Mikio Suzuki
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(9), 2721; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13092721 - 6 May 2024
Viewed by 421
Abstract
Background: The goal of this research was to confirm whether preoperative serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCA)-1 and -2 levels are useful diagnostic markers for sinonasal inverted papilloma (IP) in a prospective study. Methods: Participants were 102 patients who underwent consecutive [...] Read more.
Background: The goal of this research was to confirm whether preoperative serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCA)-1 and -2 levels are useful diagnostic markers for sinonasal inverted papilloma (IP) in a prospective study. Methods: Participants were 102 patients who underwent consecutive endoscopic sinus surgery: 18 with IP, two with other types of papilloma, 77 with chronic rhinosinusitis, four with sinonasal cancer, and one with hemangioma. SCCA-1 and SCCA-2 were measured preoperatively by an automatic chemiluminescence immunoassay and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Results: SCCA-1 and SCCA-2 values were significantly correlated (r = 0.603, p < 0.001). Receiver operating characteristic analysis for differentiating papilloma (IP and other types of papilloma) from other diseases yielded an area under the curve of 0.860, with a Youden index of 1.75. Combined with SCCA-2 analysis, the detection system had a sensitivity and specificity of 0.65 and 0.98, respectively. While our study did not find a strong link between SCCA levels and skin or lung diseases, smoking status may influence SCCA levels in IP patients (p = 0.035). We recommend a cutoff value of 1.8 ng/mL for SCCA-1 in IP diagnosis. Conclusions: SCCA-1 and SCCA-2 when combined with imaging and pathology hold promise for enhancing the preoperative detection of IP, which would be a valuable contribution to clinical practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Otolaryngology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 724 KiB  
Article
The Multidisciplinary Mobile Unit (MMU) Program Bringing Hospital Specialist Geriatric Competencies at Home: A Feasible Alternative to Admission in Older Patients with Urgent Complaints
by Antonio Nouvenne, Andrea Ticinesi, Carmine Siniscalchi, Martina Rendo, Nicoletta Cerundolo, Alberto Parise, Giampiero Castaldo, Giulia Chiussi, Richard Carrassi, Angela Guerra and Tiziana Meschi
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(9), 2720; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13092720 - 6 May 2024
Viewed by 418
Abstract
Background/Objectives: Older patients are subject to a high number of Emergency Department (ED) visits and hospitalizations. Innovative strategies to manage geriatric urgencies in the community are thus needed. Methods: In this prospective observational study, we examined the case mix of a [...] Read more.
Background/Objectives: Older patients are subject to a high number of Emergency Department (ED) visits and hospitalizations. Innovative strategies to manage geriatric urgencies in the community are thus needed. Methods: In this prospective observational study, we examined the case mix of a hospital-based domiciliary urgent care service tailored to older patients, called Multidisciplinary Mobile Unit (MMU), from January to September 2023. The service, activated by general practitioners or territorial specialists during workdays, provided domiciliary geriatric assessment, point-of-care diagnostics, including multi-site ultrasound and lab tests, and therapeutical measures, including intravenous treatment and insertion of invasive devices, with the goal of reaching on-site stabilization and avoiding ED referral. We collected data regarding multimorbidity, polypharmacy, and frailty according to the Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS), reasons for MMU activation, and diagnostic and therapeutical services provided. The assessed outcomes were immediate hospitalization after a visit, 30-day admission, and 30-day mortality. Results: Participants (n = 205, 102 M) were mostly aged (median age 83 years old), with multimorbidity and frailty (CFS median 6). The most frequent reasons for MMU activation were dyspnea (49%), cough (34%), and musculoskeletal pain (17%), while the commonest diagnostic test provided was thoracic ultrasound (81%). Only five patients (2.4%) were hospitalized immediately after MMU visit. The 30-day rate of hospitalization was 10.2%, with age, cancer, and abdominal pain as independent predictors on a stepwise binary logistic regression model. 30-day mortality was 4.9%. Conclusions: The MMU model is a feasible strategy to manage geriatric urgencies, especially involving the cardiorespiratory system, is associated with good outcomes and may prevent ED visits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Emergency Medicine)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 1864 KiB  
Article
Role of Vascular Function in the Prognosis of Heart Failure Patients
by Shunsuke Kiuchi, Shinji Hisatake, Shintaro Dobashi, Yoshiki Murakami and Takanori Ikeda
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(9), 2719; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13092719 - 6 May 2024
Viewed by 437
Abstract
Background: Blood vessels have the Windkessel effect and are involved in blood circulation. The breakdown of this mechanism is also involved in the pathogenesis of heart failure (HF); however, the relationship between vascular dysfunction and HF prognosis is not fully understood. Methods: [...] Read more.
Background: Blood vessels have the Windkessel effect and are involved in blood circulation. The breakdown of this mechanism is also involved in the pathogenesis of heart failure (HF); however, the relationship between vascular dysfunction and HF prognosis is not fully understood. Methods: We evaluated 214 patients hospitalized for HF at our institution who underwent a cardio–ankle vascular index (CAVI), which evaluates vascular function, between January 2012 and July 2018. To investigate factors (including CAVI) associated with major adverse cardiac events (MACE) during 1 year after patients with HF were discharged, we evaluated clinical profiles, blood tests, chest X-P, 12-lead electrocardiography, and transthoracic echocardiographic findings. MACE was defined as cardiovascular death or readmission for HF. Results: The severity of HF between the MACE and non-MACE was not significantly different. Previous HF and chronic kidney disease were significantly more common in the MACE group. CAVI and % mean atrial pressure in the MACE group were statistically higher than those in the non-MACE group. The cardiac shadow as shown by chest X-P and left ventricular size in the MACE group were significantly bigger, and HF preserved ejection fraction (EF) (EF > 50%) was significantly more common in the MACE group. In multivariate analysis, CAVI was an independent predictive factor for the occurrence of MACE (model 1; hazard ratio (HR): 1.33, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05–1.68, p = 0.018; model 2; HR: 1.31, 95% CI: 1.07–1.60, p = 0.009). Conclusions: Because high CAVI is associated with poor prognosis of HF, these patients require more careful treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into Arterial Stiffness)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 2925 KiB  
Article
Creation and Validation of Patient-Derived Cancer Model Using Peritoneal and Pleural Effusion in Patients with Advanced Ovarian Cancer: An Early Experience
by Ruri Nishie, Tomohito Tanaka, Kensuke Hirosuna, Shunsuke Miyamoto, Hikaru Murakami, Hiromitsu Tsuchihashi, Akihiko Toji, Shoko Ueda, Natsuko Morita, Sousuke Hashida, Atsushi Daimon, Shinichi Terada, Hiroshi Maruoka, Hiromi Konishi, Yuhei Kogata, Kohei Taniguchi, Kazumasa Komura and Masahide Ohmichi
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(9), 2718; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13092718 - 6 May 2024
Viewed by 487
Abstract
Background: The application of personalized cancer treatment based on genetic information and surgical samples has begun in the field of cancer medicine. However, a biopsy may be painful for patients with advanced diseases that do not qualify for surgical resection. Patient-derived xenografts [...] Read more.
Background: The application of personalized cancer treatment based on genetic information and surgical samples has begun in the field of cancer medicine. However, a biopsy may be painful for patients with advanced diseases that do not qualify for surgical resection. Patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) are cancer models in which patient samples are transplanted into immunodeficient mice. PDXs are expected to be useful for personalized medicine. The aim of this study was to establish a PDX from body fluid (PDX-BF), such as peritoneal and pleural effusion samples, to provide personalized medicine without surgery. Methods: PDXs-BF were created from patients with ovarian cancer who had positive cytology findings based on peritoneal and pleural effusion samples. PDXs were also prepared from each primary tumor. The pathological findings based on immunohistochemistry were compared between the primary tumor, PDX, and PDX-BF. Further, genomic profiles and gene expression were evaluated using DNA and RNA sequencing to compare primary tumors, PDXs, and PDX-BF. Results: Among the 15 patients, PDX-BF was established for 8 patients (5 high-grade serous carcinoma, 1 carcinosarcoma, 1 low-grade serous carcinoma, and 1 clear cell carcinoma); the success rate was 53%. Histologically, PDXs-BF have features similar to those of primary tumors and PDXs. In particular, PDXs-BF had similar gene mutations and expression patterns to primary tumors and PDXs. Conclusions: PDX-BF reproduced primary tumors in terms of pathological features and genomic profiles, including gene mutation and expression. Thus, PDX-BF may be a potential alternative to surgical resection for patients with advanced disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Oncology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

5 pages, 436 KiB  
Editorial
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation: Clinical Updates and Perspectives
by Stephan Marsch and Timur Sellmann
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(9), 2717; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13092717 - 6 May 2024
Viewed by 565
Abstract
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) stands as a cornerstone in emergency care, representing the crucial link between life and death for victims of cardiac arrest [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation: Clinical Updates and Perspectives)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 4519 KiB  
Article
Endovascular Recanalization and Carotid Stenting: The New Approach to Restore Cerebral Perfusion during Aortic Dissection
by Maxim Agarkov, Kirill Kozlov, Ekaterina Senkina, Sergey Gornov, Natalia Linkova, Elena Kechaeva, Dmitrii Medvedev, Alexander Krasichkov, Anastasiia Dyatlova and Victoria Polyakova
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(9), 2716; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13092716 - 6 May 2024
Viewed by 443
Abstract
A type A aortic dissection (TAAD) is a dangerous condition requiring emergency surgery. Due to the similarity of the symptoms of cerebral malperfusion in TAAD and the signs of ischemic stroke, a differential diagnosis of these diseases is not always available. Patients with [...] Read more.
A type A aortic dissection (TAAD) is a dangerous condition requiring emergency surgery. Due to the similarity of the symptoms of cerebral malperfusion in TAAD and the signs of ischemic stroke, a differential diagnosis of these diseases is not always available. Patients with TAAD after cerebral malperfusion can have a neurological deficit. Thrombolysis is performed in this case. It can worsen the patient’s condition and increase the risk of mortality and disability. The aim of the study is to evaluate the new approach to restoring cerebral perfusion during aortic dissection. This approach includes endovascular recanalization and carotid stenting. Methods: Two clinical cases of TAAD complicated by cerebral malperfusion are described. The first patient is 73 years old and was admitted as planned to perform transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) for grade III aortic stenosis. The patient underwent transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) on the second day after admission. The second patient is 60 years old and was hospitalized by an ambulance with strong hypertension and ischemia. The surgical correction of aortic dissection was postponed until the neurological status assessment in both patients. Results: The surgery to correct the aorta dissection was deemed inappropriate. The carotid arteries have been reanalyzed, and cerebral perfusion has been restored in a short time in both patients. Conclusion: Acute bilateral internal carotid occlusion is a potentially fatal TAAD outcome. Emergency endovascular recanalization and carotid stenting may be considered one of the few ways to restore cerebral perfusion. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 507 KiB  
Review
Revolutionizing Localized Lung Cancer Treatment: Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy plus Immunotherapy for All?
by Victoria Ferrari and Carole Helissey
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(9), 2715; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13092715 - 5 May 2024
Viewed by 624
Abstract
Lung cancer poses a significant public health challenge, with resectable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) representing 20 to 25% of all NSCLC cases, staged between I and IIIA. Despite surgical interventions, patient survival remains unsatisfactory, with approximately 50% mortality within 5 years across [...] Read more.
Lung cancer poses a significant public health challenge, with resectable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) representing 20 to 25% of all NSCLC cases, staged between I and IIIA. Despite surgical interventions, patient survival remains unsatisfactory, with approximately 50% mortality within 5 years across early stages. While perioperative chemotherapy offers some benefit, outcomes vary. Therefore, novel therapeutic approaches are imperative to improve patient survival. The combination of chemotherapy and immunotherapy emerges as a promising avenue. In this review, we explore studies demonstrating the benefits of this combination therapy, its impact on surgical procedures, and patient quality of life. However, challenges persist, particularly for patients failing to achieve pathologic complete response (pCR), those with stage II lung cancer, and individuals with specific genetic mutations. Additionally, identifying predictive biomarkers remains challenging. Nevertheless, the integration of immunotherapy and chemotherapy in the preoperative setting presents a new paradigm in managing resectable lung cancer, heralding more effective and personalized treatments for patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Review Special Issue Series: Neoadjuvant Lung Cancer Surgery)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 283 KiB  
Review
Dyslipidemia, Cholangitis and Fatty Liver Disease: The Close Underexplored Relationship: A Narrative Review
by Salvatore Greco, Michele Campigotto, Andrea D’Amuri, Nicolò Fabbri and Angelina Passaro
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(9), 2714; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13092714 - 5 May 2024
Viewed by 443
Abstract
In assessing individual cardiovascular risk, dyslipidemia is known for emerging as a pivotal factor significantly contributing to major cardiovascular events. However, dyslipidemic patients frequently present with concurrent medical conditions, each with varying frequencies of occurrence; cholangitis, whether acute or chronic, and hepatic steatosis, [...] Read more.
In assessing individual cardiovascular risk, dyslipidemia is known for emerging as a pivotal factor significantly contributing to major cardiovascular events. However, dyslipidemic patients frequently present with concurrent medical conditions, each with varying frequencies of occurrence; cholangitis, whether acute or chronic, and hepatic steatosis, along with associated conditions, are strongly associated with specific forms of dyslipidemia, and these associations are reasonably well elucidated. Conversely, evidence linking biliary disease to hepatic steatosis is comparatively scant. This narrative review aims to bridge this gap in knowledge concerning the interplay between dyslipidemia, cholangitis, and hepatic steatosis. By addressing this gap, clinicians can better identify patients at heightened risk of future major cardiovascular events, facilitating more targeted interventions and management strategies. The review delves into the intricate relationships between dyslipidemia and these hepatic and biliary clinical conditions, shedding light on potential mechanisms underlying their associations. Understanding these complex interactions is crucial for optimizing cardiovascular risk assessment as well and devising tailored treatment approaches for patients with dyslipidemia and associated hepatic disorders. Moreover, elucidating these connections empowers clinicians with the knowledge needed to navigate the multifaceted landscape of cardiovascular risk assessment and management effectively. By exploring the intricate relationships between dyslipidemia, cholangitis, and hepatic steatosis (without forgetting the possible clinical consequences of hepatic steatosis itself), this review not only contributes to the existing body of knowledge but also offers insights into potential avenues for further research and clinical practice. Thus, it serves as a valuable resource for healthcare professionals striving to enhance patient care and outcomes in the context of cardiovascular disease and associated hepatic conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gastroenterology & Hepatopancreatobiliary Medicine)
12 pages, 7888 KiB  
Article
Combined Endoscopic Endonasal Transclival and Contralateral Transmaxillary Approach to the Petrous Apex and the Petroclival Synchondrosis: Working “Around the Corner” of the Internal Carotid Artery—Quantitative Anatomical Study and Clinical Applications
by Carmine Antonio Donofrio, Francesco Corrivetti, Lucia Riccio, Sergio Corvino, Iacopo Dallan, Antonio Fioravanti and Matteo de Notaris
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(9), 2713; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13092713 - 5 May 2024
Viewed by 471
Abstract
The endoscopic contralateral transmaxillary (CTM) approach has been proposed as a potential route to widen the corridor posterolateral to the internal carotid artery (ICA). In this study, we first refined the surgical technique of a combined multiportal endoscopic endonasal transclival (EETC) and CTM [...] Read more.
The endoscopic contralateral transmaxillary (CTM) approach has been proposed as a potential route to widen the corridor posterolateral to the internal carotid artery (ICA). In this study, we first refined the surgical technique of a combined multiportal endoscopic endonasal transclival (EETC) and CTM approach to the petrous apex (PA) and petroclival synchondrosis (PCS) in the dissection laboratory, and then validated its applications in a preliminary surgical series. The combined EETC and CTM approach was performed on three cadaver specimens based on four surgical steps: (1) the nasal, (2) the clival, (3) the maxillary and (4) the petrosal phases. The CTM provided a “head-on trajectory” to the PA and PCS and a short distance to the surgical field considerably furthering surgical maneuverability. The best operative set-up was achieved by introducing angled optics via the endonasal route and operative instruments via the transmaxillary corridor exploiting the advantages of a non-coaxial multiportal surgery. Clinical applications of the combined EETC and CTM approach were reported in three cases, a clival chordoma and two giant pituitary adenomas. The present translational study explores the safety and feasibility of a combined multiportal EETC and CTM approach to access the petroclival region though different corridors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State of the Art—Treatment of Skull Base Diseases: Volume II)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 1969 KiB  
Review
The Transorbital Approach: A Comprehensive Review of Targets, Surgical Techniques, and Multiportal Variants
by Matteo De Simone, Cesare Zoia, Anis Choucha, Doo-Sik Kong and Lucio De Maria
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(9), 2712; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13092712 - 5 May 2024
Viewed by 543
Abstract
The transorbital approach (TOA) is gaining popularity in skull base surgery scenarios. This approach represents a valuable surgical corridor to access various compartments and safely address several intracranial pathologies, both intradurally and extradurally, including tumors of the olfactory groove in the anterior cranial [...] Read more.
The transorbital approach (TOA) is gaining popularity in skull base surgery scenarios. This approach represents a valuable surgical corridor to access various compartments and safely address several intracranial pathologies, both intradurally and extradurally, including tumors of the olfactory groove in the anterior cranial fossa (ACF), cavernous sinus in the middle cranial fossa (MCF), and the cerebellopontine angle in the posterior cranial fossa (PCF). The TOA exists in many variants, both from the point of view of invasiveness and from that of the entry point to the orbit, corresponding to the four orbital quadrants: the superior eyelid crease (SLC), the precaruncular (PC), the lateral retrocanthal (LRC), and the preseptal lower eyelid (PS). Moreover, multiportal variants, consisting of the combination of the transorbital approach with others, exist and are relevant to reach peculiar surgical territories. The significance of the TOA in neurosurgery, coupled with the dearth of thorough studies assessing its various applications and adaptations, underscores the necessity for this research. This extensive review delineates the multitude of target lesions reachable through the transorbital route, categorizing them based on surgical complexity. Furthermore, it provides an overview of the different transorbital variations, both standalone and in conjunction with other techniques. By offering a comprehensive understanding, this study aims to enhance awareness and knowledge regarding the current utility of the transorbital approach in neurosurgery. Additionally, it aims to steer future investigations toward deeper exploration, refinement, and exploration of additional perspectives concerning this surgical method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State of the Art—Treatment of Skull Base Diseases: Volume II)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 2255 KiB  
Systematic Review
Chordoma Genetic Aberrations and Targeted Therapies Panorama: A Systematic Literature Review
by Edoardo Agosti, Sara Antonietti, Marco Zeppieri, Tamara Ius, Alessandro Fiorindi, Alessandro Tel, Massimo Robiony, Pier Paolo Panciani and Marco Maria Fontanella
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(9), 2711; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13092711 - 5 May 2024
Viewed by 574
Abstract
Background: Chordomas pose a challenge in treatment due to their local invasiveness, high recurrence, and potential lethality. Despite being slow-growing and rarely metastasizing, these tumors often resist conventional chemotherapies (CTs) and radiotherapies (RTs), making surgical resection a crucial intervention. However, achieving radical [...] Read more.
Background: Chordomas pose a challenge in treatment due to their local invasiveness, high recurrence, and potential lethality. Despite being slow-growing and rarely metastasizing, these tumors often resist conventional chemotherapies (CTs) and radiotherapies (RTs), making surgical resection a crucial intervention. However, achieving radical resection for chordomas is seldom possible, presenting therapeutic challenges. The accurate diagnosis of these tumors is vital for their distinct prognoses, yet differentiation is hindered by overlapping radiological and histopathological features. Fortunately, recent molecular and genetic studies, including extracranial location analysis, offer valuable insights for precise diagnosis. This literature review delves into the genetic aberrations and molecular biology of chordomas, aiming to provide an overview of more successful therapeutic strategies. Methods: A systematic search was conducted across major medical databases (PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library) up to 28 January 2023. The search strategy utilized relevant Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) terms and keywords related to “chordomas”, “molecular biology”, “gene aberrations”, and “target therapies”. The studies included in this review consist of preclinical cell studies, case reports, case series, randomized controlled trials, non-randomized controlled trials, and cohort studies reporting on genetic and biological aberrations in chordomas. Results: Of the initial 297 articles identified, 40 articles were included in the article. Two tables highlighted clinical studies and ongoing clinical trials, encompassing 18 and 22 studies, respectively. The clinical studies involved 185 patients diagnosed with chordomas. The tumor sites were predominantly sacral (n = 8, 44.4%), followed by clivus (n = 7, 38.9%) and lumbar spine (n = 3, 16.7%). Primary treatments preceding targeted therapies included surgery (n = 10, 55.6%), RT (n = 9, 50.0%), and systemic treatments (n = 7, 38.9%). Various agents targeting specific molecular pathways were analyzed in the studies, such as imatinib (a tyrosine kinase inhibitor), erlotinib, and bevacizumab, which target EGFR/VEGFR. Common adverse events included fatigue (47.1%), skin reactions (32.4%), hypertension (23.5%), diarrhea (17.6%), and thyroid abnormalities (5.9%). Clinical outcomes were systematically assessed based on progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and tumor response evaluated using RECIST or CHOI criteria. Notably, stable disease (SD) occurred in 58.1% of cases, and partial responses (PRs) were observed in 28.2% of patients, while 13.7% experienced disease progression (PD) despite targeted therapy. Among the 22 clinical trials included in the analysis, Phase II trials were the most prevalent (40.9%), followed by I-II trials (31.8%) and Phase I trials (27.3%). PD-1 inhibitors were the most frequently utilized, appearing in 50% of the trials, followed by PD-L1 inhibitors (36.4%), CTLA-4 inhibitors (22.7%), and mTOR inhibitors (13.6%). Conclusions: This systematic review provides an extensive overview of the state of targeted therapy for chordomas, highlighting their potential to stabilize the illness and enhance clinical outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State of the Art—Treatment of Skull Base Diseases: Volume II)
Show Figures

Figure 1

9 pages, 1111 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Safety and Efficacy of the Early Initiation of Antithrombotic Secondary Prevention in Patients Treated with Intravenous Thrombolysis for Acute Ischemic Stroke
by Georgi Krastev, Miroslav Mako, Zuzana Števková, Romana Havranová and Kristína Andrášiková
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(9), 2710; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13092710 - 5 May 2024
Viewed by 395
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Current guidelines and the alteplase product insert recommend that antithrombotic therapy be avoided within 24 h of intravenous thrombolytic therapy with rt-PA in acute ischemic stroke. Therefore, the rate of stroke recurrence is unclear in terms of early neurological [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Current guidelines and the alteplase product insert recommend that antithrombotic therapy be avoided within 24 h of intravenous thrombolytic therapy with rt-PA in acute ischemic stroke. Therefore, the rate of stroke recurrence is unclear in terms of early neurological deterioration, which we could prevent with the early administration of antithrombotic therapy. We do not know the effect of early antithrombotic therapy after intravenous thrombolysis with rt-PA in acute stroke on the outcome in patients after 90 days either. Design: Prospective monocentric observational cohort study. Methods: Data were collected from consecutive patients treated with alteplase for acute ischemic stroke between January 2015 and January 2023. We examined functional outcome at 90 days, including the risk of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage and mortality rate as safety indicators and stroke recurrence events in both early and standard antithrombotic therapy at 24 h after intravenous thrombolysis. Results: A total of 489 patients were included, of which 278 (56.9%) were men. Of these, 407 (83.2%) patients received early antithrombotic therapy. No symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage occurred in any participants. There was a significantly higher number of patients with an excellent outcome (mRS 0-1) in early antithrombotic treatment (211 (53.1%) versus 28 (34.6%) in standard antithrombotic treatment (p = 0.002, OR 0.47, 95% CI: 0.28–0.76). Conclusions: Early antithrombotic treatment after intravenous therapy in patients with acute ischemic stroke revealed no safety concerns compared with standard antithrombotic therapy and resulted in a significantly higher proportion of patients with an excellent functional outcome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prognosis of Acute Stroke)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 8476 KiB  
Article
Periapical Lesions in Panoramic Radiography and CBCT Imaging—Assessment of AI’s Diagnostic Accuracy
by Wojciech Kazimierczak, Róża Wajer, Adrian Wajer, Veronica Kiian, Anna Kloska, Natalia Kazimierczak, Joanna Janiszewska-Olszowska and Zbigniew Serafin
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(9), 2709; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13092709 - 4 May 2024
Viewed by 665
Abstract
Background/Objectives: Periapical lesions (PLs) are frequently detected in dental radiology. Accurate diagnosis of these lesions is essential for proper treatment planning. Imaging techniques such as orthopantomogram (OPG) and cone-beam CT (CBCT) imaging are used to identify PLs. The aim of this study [...] Read more.
Background/Objectives: Periapical lesions (PLs) are frequently detected in dental radiology. Accurate diagnosis of these lesions is essential for proper treatment planning. Imaging techniques such as orthopantomogram (OPG) and cone-beam CT (CBCT) imaging are used to identify PLs. The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of artificial intelligence (AI) software Diagnocat for PL detection in OPG and CBCT images. Methods: The study included 49 patients, totaling 1223 teeth. Both OPG and CBCT images were analyzed by AI software and by three experienced clinicians. All the images were obtained in one patient cohort, and findings were compared to the consensus of human readers using CBCT. The AI’s diagnostic accuracy was compared to a reference method, calculating sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and F1 score. Results: The AI’s sensitivity for OPG images was 33.33% with an F1 score of 32.73%. For CBCT images, the AI’s sensitivity was 77.78% with an F1 score of 84.00%. The AI’s specificity was over 98% for both OPG and CBCT images. Conclusions: The AI demonstrated high sensitivity and high specificity in detecting PLs in CBCT images but lower sensitivity in OPG images. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modern Patient-Centered Dental Care)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 2433 KiB  
Review
Challenges in Echocardiography for the Diagnosis and Prognosis of Non-Ischemic Hypertensive Heart Disease
by Nikolaos P. E. Kadoglou, Angeliki Mouzarou, Nikoleta Hadjigeorgiou, Ioannis Korakianitis and Michael M. Myrianthefs
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(9), 2708; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13092708 - 4 May 2024
Viewed by 1321
Abstract
It has been well established that arterial hypertension is considered as a predominant risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases. Despite the link between arterial hypertension and cardiovascular diseases, arterial hypertension may directly affect cardiac function, leading to heart failure, mostly with [...] Read more.
It has been well established that arterial hypertension is considered as a predominant risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases. Despite the link between arterial hypertension and cardiovascular diseases, arterial hypertension may directly affect cardiac function, leading to heart failure, mostly with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). There are echocardiographic findings indicating hypertensive heart disease (HHD), defined as altered cardiac morphology (left ventricular concentric hypertrophy, left atrium dilatation) and function (systolic or diastolic dysfunction) in patients with persistent arterial hypertension irrespective of the cardiac pathologies to which it contributes, such as coronary artery disease and kidney function impairment. In addition to the classical echocardiographic parameters, novel indices, like speckle tracking of the left ventricle and left atrium, 3D volume evaluation, and myocardial work in echocardiography, may provide more accurate and reproducible diagnostic and prognostic data in patients with arterial hypertension. However, their use is still underappreciated. Early detection of and prompt therapy for HHD will greatly improve the prognosis. Hence, in the present review, we shed light on the role of echocardiography in the contemporary diagnostic and prognostic approaches to HHD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cardiology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 979 KiB  
Review
Prevention and Risk Assessment of Cardiac Device Infections in Clinical Practice
by Andrea Matteucci, Carlo Pignalberi, Claudio Pandozi, Barbara Magris, Antonella Meo, Maurizio Russo, Marco Galeazzi, Giammarco Schiaffini, Stefano Aquilani, Stefania Angela Di Fusco and Furio Colivicchi
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(9), 2707; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13092707 - 4 May 2024
Viewed by 569
Abstract
The implantation of cardiac electronic devices (CIEDs), including pacemakers and defibrillators, has become increasingly prevalent in recent years and has been accompanied by a significant rise in cardiac device infections (CDIs), which pose a substantial clinical and economic burden. CDIs are associated with [...] Read more.
The implantation of cardiac electronic devices (CIEDs), including pacemakers and defibrillators, has become increasingly prevalent in recent years and has been accompanied by a significant rise in cardiac device infections (CDIs), which pose a substantial clinical and economic burden. CDIs are associated with hospitalizations and prolonged antibiotic therapy and often necessitate device removal, leading to increased morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs worldwide. Approximately 1–2% of CIED implants are associated with infections, making this a critical issue to address. In this contemporary review, we discuss the burden of CDIs with their risk factors, healthcare costs, prevention strategies, and clinical management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical Advances in Preventive Cardiology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 901 KiB  
Review
Iris Reconstruction: A Surgeon’s Guide
by Lorenzo Ferro Desideri, Kirupakaran Arun, Grace Doherty, Enrico Bernardi and Rodrigo Anguita
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(9), 2706; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13092706 - 4 May 2024
Viewed by 507
Abstract
Objectives: The aim of this review paper is to summarise surgical options available for repairing iris defects at the iris–lens plane, focusing on suturing techniques, iridodialysis repair, and prosthetic iris devices. Methods: A thorough literature search was conducted using multiple databases, [...] Read more.
Objectives: The aim of this review paper is to summarise surgical options available for repairing iris defects at the iris–lens plane, focusing on suturing techniques, iridodialysis repair, and prosthetic iris devices. Methods: A thorough literature search was conducted using multiple databases, including Medline, PubMed, Web of Science Core Collection, and the Cochrane Library, from inception to February 2024. Relevant studies were screened based on predefined criteria, and primary references cited in selected articles were also reviewed. Results: Various surgical techniques were identified for iris defect repair. Suturing methods such as interrupted full-thickness sutures and the McCannel technique offer solutions for smaller defects, while iridodialysis repair techniques address detachment of the iris from the ciliary body. Prosthetic iris devices, including iris–lens diaphragm devices, endocapsular capsular tension ring-based devices, and customizable artificial iris implants, provide options for larger defects, each with its own advantages and limitations. Conclusions: Successful iris reconstruction requires a personalised approach considering factors like defect size, ocular comorbidities, and patient preference. Surgeons must possess a thorough understanding of available techniques and prosthetic devices to achieve optimal outcomes in terms of both visual function and, nonetheless, cosmetic appearance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ophthalmology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 1347 KiB  
Article
Pain of Threatened Self: Explicit and Implicit Self-Esteem, Cortisol Responses to a Social Threat and Pain Perception
by Ewa Wojtyna, Magdalena Hyla and Aleksandra Hachuła
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(9), 2705; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13092705 - 4 May 2024
Viewed by 555
Abstract
Background: Rejection, injustice, and exclusion from meaningful interpersonal relationships are often extremely painful and stress-generating experiences. This study aimed to define the role of explicit and implicit self-esteem in pain perception as a component of the physiological–psychological system that regulates the body’s [...] Read more.
Background: Rejection, injustice, and exclusion from meaningful interpersonal relationships are often extremely painful and stress-generating experiences. This study aimed to define the role of explicit and implicit self-esteem in pain perception as a component of the physiological–psychological system that regulates the body’s response to stress associated with the threat of social rejection. Methods: In total, 360 individuals participated in this study. The measurement of cortisol in saliva, the assessment of pain thresholds using thermal stimuli, the IAT to assess implicit self-esteem, and a questionnaire on global self-esteem and social pain were used. The study included three measurements: baseline and 15 and 45 min after the application of a laboratory socially threatening stimulus (the Trier Social Stress Test). Results: People experiencing chronic social pain (CSP) are more likely to have fragile self-esteem, higher pain thresholds, and tend to experience reduced pain tolerance in situations of acute social threat than people without CSP experience. In people with CSP and fragile self-esteem, after the introduction of a social threat, an increase in pain tolerance was observed along with a longer-lasting increase in cortisol levels. Conclusions: Fragile self-esteem, along with feelings of chronic exclusion, injustice, and rejection, may prolong stress reactions and produce a hypoalgesic effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mental Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 2743 KiB  
Article
Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery in the Wake of the Eid al-Adha: A Single-Center, Five-Year Investigation
by Mehmet Tapan, Burak Yaşar, Hasan Murat Ergani and Süleyman Can Ceylan
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(9), 2704; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13092704 - 4 May 2024
Viewed by 369
Abstract
(1) Background: The Festival of Sacrifice, commonly known as Eid al-Adha, has a profound religious and cultural impact on nations with a Muslim majority. This festival is celebrated every year in Muslim countries; however, it is a time in which patients present to [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The Festival of Sacrifice, commonly known as Eid al-Adha, has a profound religious and cultural impact on nations with a Muslim majority. This festival is celebrated every year in Muslim countries; however, it is a time in which patients present to the emergency department with serious injuries. In our study, we examined current injuries occurring during Eid al-Adha in one of the largest hospitals in Türkiye, providing the largest patient population to date. This included mapping tendon and maxillofacial injuries, a first in the literature. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest case series of injuries sustained during Eid al-Adha. The significance of this study lies in its potential to significantly benefit patients and healthcare systems by providing reference data. (2) Methods: Patients admitted to Ankara City Hospital during Eid al-Adha between 2019 and 2023 were examined. The demographic characteristics, injury patterns, and injury sites of patients admitted on the four days of Eid al-Adha were collected and analyzed. Maxillofacial traumas during the festival were analyzed. Tendon injuries on the left hand, which is the most commonly injured body part in the literature, were mapped into a figure. To compare the change in the number of patients, a comparison was made with the number of patients in our hospital for four consecutive days 2 weeks before Eid. Statistical analysis was performed using IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows. (3) Results: A total of 610 patients, including 101 female and 509 male patients, were included in this study. A statistically significant increase (p < 0.001 for all years) in hospital admission due to injury was observed. Individuals between the ages of 30 and 40 years were the most frequently admitted patients (n = 182, 29.8%). Knife injuries were significantly more common in all patients (p < 0.001). When the total number of patients was evaluated in terms of injured areas where patients present to the emergency department, left-hand injuries were found to be significantly more common than injuries in other areas (p < 0.001 for all). The extensor pollicus longus tendon was the most commonly injured tendon among all extensor and flexor tendon injuries (n = 104). The most commonly injured tendon was the flexor tendon in zone 2 of the first finger (n = 45). This study showed that injuries to the extensor tendon in zone 1 of the fifth finger, the flexor tendon in zone 4 of the first finger, and the flexor tendon in zone 1 of the fifth finger were never seen. Twenty-five patients with maxillofacial injuries were admitted to the hospital. Orbital floor fractures were the most common type of maxillofacial injury. The anesthesia technique we preferred for all patients was local anesthesia (n = 267). Wide-awake local anesthesia no tourniquet (WALANT) was the second most preferred anesthetic technique. The number of patients who were selected in a random 4-day period for each year were compared with the number of patients who came during Eid al-Adha. The Mann–Whitney U tests revealed a significant increase in injuries on the first day of Eid al-Adha compared to non-festival days (p < 0.001). However, no significant differences were observed on the subsequent days or in the overall injury counts during the festival period (p = 0.841 for day 2, p = 0.151 for day 3, p = 0.310 for day 4). (4) Conclusions: According to this study, which is the largest known case series in the literature, the number of patients admitted to the hospital increased annually. In our study, we observed a significant increase in injuries only on the first day of Eid al-Adha compared to a randomly selected 4-day period of the same year. Left-hand extensor tendon injuries from a knife were the most common injuries in middle-aged men. The extensor pollicis longus tendon was the most commonly injured extensor tendon, with zones 3 and 4 being the most commonly affected. The flexor pollicis longus tendon was the most commonly injured flexor tendon in zone 2. During this period, patients may not only need hand surgery but also maxillofacial plastic surgery. We recommend, in addition to the indications I,n the literature that during Eid al-Adha, the WALANT technique should be widely adopted in patients where local anesthesia will be insufficient. We also recommend utilizing a diagram to manage the patient load during Eid al-Adha and prevent overburdening the healthcare system. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

23 pages, 11324 KiB  
Review
Negotiation of Calcified Canals
by Antonis Chaniotis, Hugo Sousa Dias and Anastasia Chanioti
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(9), 2703; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13092703 - 4 May 2024
Viewed by 2012
Abstract
The gradual formation of hard tissue along the root canal walls is a natural process associated with aging, typically progressing slowly over time. In reaction to tooth wear, operative procedures, vital pulp treatments, or regenerative endodontic procedures, hard tissue may also accumulate within [...] Read more.
The gradual formation of hard tissue along the root canal walls is a natural process associated with aging, typically progressing slowly over time. In reaction to tooth wear, operative procedures, vital pulp treatments, or regenerative endodontic procedures, hard tissue may also accumulate within the pulp canal space at a slow rate. In certain cases, such as dental trauma, autotransplantation, or orthodontic treatment, this deposition of hard tissue can accelerate unexpectedly, resulting in rapid narrowing or complete closure of the root canal space. This situation is called calcific metamorphosis (CM), root canal calcification, or pulp canal obliteration (PCO). Performing conventional endodontic therapy on severely calcified canals presents significant challenges and increases the risk of procedural accidents. Calcified canals introduce such complexity that dedicated negotiation concepts and specially designed instruments have been developed to deal with the challenge. This article seeks to review the existing methods for effectively navigating calcified canals and to introduce the buckling resistance activation test (BRAT) technique. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surgical and Non-surgical Endodontics in 2024 and Beyond)
Show Figures

Figure 1

26 pages, 1303 KiB  
Review
A Systematic Literature Review of Predictors of Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agent Failure in Lower-Risk Myelodysplastic Syndromes
by Ralph Boccia, Hong Xiao, Caroline von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, Renuka Raorane, Sohan Deshpande, Sven L. Klijn and Aylin Yucel
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(9), 2702; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13092702 - 4 May 2024
Viewed by 473
Abstract
Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) are the first-line treatment option for anemia in patients with lower-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (LR-MDS). A systematic literature review was conducted to identify evidence of the association between prognostic factors and ESA response/failure in LR-MDS. MEDLINE, Embase, and relevant conferences were [...] Read more.
Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) are the first-line treatment option for anemia in patients with lower-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (LR-MDS). A systematic literature review was conducted to identify evidence of the association between prognostic factors and ESA response/failure in LR-MDS. MEDLINE, Embase, and relevant conferences were searched systematically for studies assessing the association between prognostic factors and ESA response/failure in adult patients. Of 1566 citations identified, 38 were included. Patient risk status in studies published from 2000 onwards was commonly assessed using the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) or revised IPSS. ESA response was generally assessed using the International Working Group MDS criteria. Among the included studies, statistically significant relationships were found, in both univariate and multivariate analyses, between ESA response and the following prognostic factors: higher hemoglobin levels, lower serum erythropoietin levels, and transfusion independence. Furthermore, other prognostic factors such as age, bone marrow blasts, serum ferritin level, IPSS risk status, and karyotype status did not demonstrate statistically significant relationships with ESA response. This systematic literature review has confirmed prognostic factors of ESA response/failure. Guidance to correctly identify patients with these characteristics could be helpful for clinicians to provide optimal treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Hematology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

30 pages, 1100 KiB  
Review
The Dawn and Advancement of the Knowledge of the Genetics of Migraine
by Nader G. Zalaquett, Elio Salameh, Jonathan M. Kim, Elham Ghanbarian, Karen Tawk and Mehdi Abouzari
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(9), 2701; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13092701 - 4 May 2024
Viewed by 557
Abstract
Background: Migraine is a prevalent episodic brain disorder known for recurrent attacks of unilateral headaches, accompanied by complaints of photophobia, phonophobia, nausea, and vomiting. Two main categories of migraine are migraine with aura (MA) and migraine without aura (MO). Main body: Early twin [...] Read more.
Background: Migraine is a prevalent episodic brain disorder known for recurrent attacks of unilateral headaches, accompanied by complaints of photophobia, phonophobia, nausea, and vomiting. Two main categories of migraine are migraine with aura (MA) and migraine without aura (MO). Main body: Early twin and population studies have shown a genetic basis for these disorders, and efforts have been invested since to discern the genes involved. Many techniques, including candidate-gene association studies, loci linkage studies, genome-wide association, and transcription studies, have been used for this goal. As a result, several genes were pinned with concurrent and conflicting data among studies. It is important to understand the evolution of techniques and their findings. Conclusions: This review provides a chronological understanding of the different techniques used from the dawn of migraine genetic investigations and the genes linked with the migraine subtypes. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 528 KiB  
Review
The Future of Telemedicine for Obstructive Sleep Apnea Treatment: A Narrative Review
by Sébastien Bailly, Monique Mendelson, Sébastien Baillieul, Renaud Tamisier and Jean-Louis Pépin
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(9), 2700; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13092700 - 4 May 2024
Viewed by 592
Abstract
Obstructive sleep apnea is a common type of sleep-disordered breathing associated with multiple comorbidities. Nearly a billion people are estimated to have obstructive sleep apnea, which carries a substantial economic burden, but under-diagnosis is still a problem. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is [...] Read more.
Obstructive sleep apnea is a common type of sleep-disordered breathing associated with multiple comorbidities. Nearly a billion people are estimated to have obstructive sleep apnea, which carries a substantial economic burden, but under-diagnosis is still a problem. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the first-line treatment for OSAS. Telemedicine-based interventions (TM) have been evaluated to improve access to diagnosis, increase CPAP adherence, and contribute to easing the follow-up process, allowing healthcare facilities to provide patient-centered care. This narrative review summarizes the evidence available regarding the potential future of telemedicine in the management pathway of OSA. The potential of home sleep studies to improve OSA diagnosis and the importance of remote monitoring for tracking treatment adherence and failure and to contribute to developing patient engagement tools will be presented. Further studies are needed to explore the impact of shifting from teleconsultations to collaborative care models where patients are placed at the center of their care. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 1802 KiB  
Article
The sFlt-1/PlGF Ratio at 12, 24, and 32 Weeks Gestation in Twin Pregnancies as a Predictor of Late Preterm Birth and Perinatal Event Secondary to Prematurity
by Elena Satorres-Pérez, Alicia Martínez-Varea, Blanca Novillo-Del Álamo, José Morales-Roselló and Vicente Diago-Almela
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(9), 2699; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13092699 - 4 May 2024
Viewed by 576
Abstract
Background: Preterm birth impacts 60% of twin pregnancies, with the subsequent risk of complications in both newborns secondary to the immaturity of organs. This study aims to assess the utility of the sFlt-1/PlGF ratio throughout pregnancy in predicting late preterm birth and adverse [...] Read more.
Background: Preterm birth impacts 60% of twin pregnancies, with the subsequent risk of complications in both newborns secondary to the immaturity of organs. This study aims to assess the utility of the sFlt-1/PlGF ratio throughout pregnancy in predicting late preterm birth and adverse perinatal outcomes related to prematurity in twin pregnancies. Methods: This is a prospective cohort study developed at a tertiary hospital. All pregnant women with a twin pregnancy who signed the informed consent were included. The sFlt-1/PlGF ratio was measured at 12, 24, and 32 weeks’ gestation. Results: Seventy patients were included, from which 54.3% suffered late preterm birth. Results revealed a significant difference in sFlt-1/PlGF ratio at week 32 between term and preterm groups, with a one-unit increase associated with a 1.11-fold increase in the probability of preterm birth. The sFlt-1/PlGF ratio at week 32 alone presented considerable predictive capacities (sensitivity of 71%, specificity of 72%, a PPV of 75%, and an NPV of 68%. Similarly, at week 24, a one-unit increase in sFlt-1/PlGF ratio was associated with a 1.24-fold increase in the probability of adverse perinatal events due to prematurity. Combining parity, maternal age, conception method, BMI, and chorionicity, the model yielded better predictive capacities (sensitivity of 82%, specificity of 80%, PPV of 58%, NPV of 93%). Conclusions: The potential of the sFlt-1/PlGF ratio as a predictive tool for preterm birth and adverse perinatal outcomes secondary to prematurity in twin pregnancies is underscored. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Management of Pregnancy Complications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop