Advances in Structure and Functionality of Food Proteins and Polysaccharides

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Nutrition".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 March 2022) | Viewed by 45575

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
School of Food and Advanced Technology, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand
Interests: proteins; polysaccharides; meat; in vitro digestion; structure–digestion relationship

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Guest Editor
School of Food and Advanced Technology, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand
Interests: sustainable food technologies; sustainable food ingredients; alternative proteins; plant-based foods; potato chemistry and technology; cereal grains

Special Issue Information

The demand for nutritious and functional novel foods is on the rise. Food proteins and polysaccharides play a major role in designing new food products. The structure of proteins and polysaccharides can be manipulated through processing in order to achieve the desirable behavior not only in the mouth but also in the gastro-intestinal tract.

This Special Issue invites papers in the following areas:

- Structure and functionality of food proteins, starches and/ other polysaccharides;

- Characterization of new sources of food proteins and polysaccharides;

- New methods of processing on functionality of proteins and polysaccharides;

- Improvement of nutritional quality of foods; and

- Designing of novel protein foods, e.g., meat analogues.

Dr. Lovedeep Kaur
Dr. Jaspreet Singh
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Foods is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • protein
  • polysaccharides
  • starch
  • alternate proteins
  • tuber
  • cereals
  • structure
  • nutrition
  • functionality
  • food matrix
  • processing

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

17 pages, 38945 KiB  
Article
Encapsulation of Lactobacillus gasseri: Characterization, Probiotic Survival, In Vitro Evaluation and Viability in Apple Juice
by Abigail Varela-Pérez, Oscar O. Romero-Chapol, Ana G. Castillo-Olmos, Hugo S. García, Mirna L. Suárez-Quiroz, Jaspreet Singh, Claudia Y. Figueroa-Hernández, Rubí Viveros-Contreras and Cynthia Cano-Sarmiento
Foods 2022, 11(5), 740; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11050740 - 2 Mar 2022
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 4725
Abstract
The development of functional foods containing probiotic bacteria has become increasingly relevant to improve and maintain health. However, this is often limited to dairy food matrices given the complexity involved in maintaining a stable system together with high microbial viability in matrices such [...] Read more.
The development of functional foods containing probiotic bacteria has become increasingly relevant to improve and maintain health. However, this is often limited to dairy food matrices given the complexity involved in maintaining a stable system together with high microbial viability in matrices such as juices. The objective of this study was to develop and characterize sodium alginate capsules loaded with Lactobacillus gasseri ATCC® 19992 ™ (LG). Cell viability under in vitro gastrointestinal conditions and during storage in apple juice were evaluated. The capsules were prepared by ionic gelation and an emulsification process was performed as pretreatment using two homogenization methods: magnetic stirring (AM) and Ultraturrax® rotor-stator homogenizer (UT). Cell viability after encapsulation was similar in the two processes: 65%. At the end of the in vitro gastrointestinal evaluation, the non-encapsulated probiotic cells did not show any viability, while the AM system was able to retain 100% of its viability and the UT retained 79.14%. The morphology of the capsules consisted of a continuous and homogeneous surface. Cell viability of LG encapsulated in apple juice stored at 4 °C for 21 days was 77% for AM, 55.43% for UT, and 63.10% for free LG. Full article
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19 pages, 1255 KiB  
Article
Effect of Tamarillo Fortification and Fermentation Process on Physicochemical Properties and Nutrient and Volatiles Content of Yoghurt
by Tung Thanh Diep, Michelle Ji Yeon Yoo and Elaine Rush
Foods 2022, 11(1), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11010079 - 29 Dec 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2114
Abstract
Bright-red Laird’s Large tamarillo is a unique and under-utilised fruit that is a dietary source of carotenoids, vitamins C and E, and dietary fibre. The effects of the addition of freeze-dried tamarillo powder (5–15%) to milk and yoghurt starter either before (PRE) or [...] Read more.
Bright-red Laird’s Large tamarillo is a unique and under-utilised fruit that is a dietary source of carotenoids, vitamins C and E, and dietary fibre. The effects of the addition of freeze-dried tamarillo powder (5–15%) to milk and yoghurt starter either before (PRE) or after (POS) fermentation on physicochemical properties were examined. Using LC-MS and GG-MS, nutrient and volatile contents of tamarillo yoghurt were also examined. The addition of tamarillo prior to fermentation was associated with a more yellow colour and higher concentrations of tocopherol compared to when tamarillo was added after fermentation. Higher elastic modulus, PUFAs, pro-vitamin A content, and vitamin C retention were observed for POS than PRE. All tamarillo yoghurts showed improvement in syneresis, lower lactose content, and higher concentrations of antioxidant vitamins than the commercial premium-assorted fruits yoghurt from New Zealand Food Composition Data. Yoghurt fortified with tamarillo powder offers the potential for the development of a high-value nutritional product that could be a good source of vitamin C and a source of vitamin E and β-carotene, and maintain the volatiles that give tamarillo its distinctive flavour. Full article
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14 pages, 2070 KiB  
Article
Development of an Artificial Neural Network Utilizing Particle Swarm Optimization for Modeling the Spray Drying of Coconut Milk
by Jesse Lee Kar Ming, Mohd Shamsul Anuar, Muhammad Syahmeer How, Samsul Bahari Mohd Noor, Zalizawati Abdullah and Farah Saleena Taip
Foods 2021, 10(11), 2708; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10112708 - 5 Nov 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2149
Abstract
Spray drying techniques are one of the methods to preserve and extend the shelf-life of coconut milk. The objective of this research was to create a particle swarm optimization–enhanced artificial neural network (PSO–ANN) that could predict the coconut milk spray drying process. The [...] Read more.
Spray drying techniques are one of the methods to preserve and extend the shelf-life of coconut milk. The objective of this research was to create a particle swarm optimization–enhanced artificial neural network (PSO–ANN) that could predict the coconut milk spray drying process. The parameters for PSO tuning were selected as the number of particles and acceleration constant, respectively, for both global and personal best using a 2k factorial design. The optimal PSO settings were recorded as global best, C1 = 4.0; personal best, C2 = 0; and number of particles = 100. When comparing different types of spray drying models, PSO–ANN had an MSE value of 0.077, GA–ANN had an MSE of 0.033, while ANN had an MSE of 0.082. Sensitivity analysis was conducted on all three models to evaluate the significance level of each parameter on the model, and it was discovered that inlet temperature had the most significant influence on the model performance. In conclusion, the PSO–ANN was found to be more effective than ANN but less effective than GA–ANN in predicting the quality of coconut milk powder. Full article
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15 pages, 2585 KiB  
Article
Physico-Chemical Characteristics and In Vitro Gastro-Small Intestinal Digestion of New Zealand Ryegrass Proteins
by Lovedeep Kaur, Harmandeepsingh Lamsar, Ignacio F. López, Manon Filippi, Dayna Ong Shu Min, Kévin Ah-Sing and Jaspreet Singh
Foods 2021, 10(2), 331; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10020331 - 4 Feb 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2620
Abstract
Being widely abundant, grass proteins could be a novel source of plant proteins for human foods. In this study, ryegrass proteins extracted using two different approaches-chemical and enzymatic extraction, were characterised for their physico-chemical and in vitro digestion properties. A New Zealand perennial [...] Read more.
Being widely abundant, grass proteins could be a novel source of plant proteins for human foods. In this study, ryegrass proteins extracted using two different approaches-chemical and enzymatic extraction, were characterised for their physico-chemical and in vitro digestion properties. A New Zealand perennial ryegrass cultivar Trojan was chosen based on its higher protein and lower dry matter contents. Grass protein concentrate (GPC) with protein contents of approximately 55 and 44% were prepared using the chemical and enzymatic approach, respectively. The thermal denaturation temperature of the GPC extracted via acid precipitation and enzymatic treatment was found to be 68.0 ± 0.05 °C and 66.15 ± 0.03 °C, respectively, showing significant differences in protein’s thermal profile according to the method of extraction. The solubility of the GPC was highly variable, depending on the temperature, pH and salt concentration of the dispersion. The solubility of the GPC extracted via enzymatic extraction was significantly lower than the proteins extracted via the chemical method. Digestion of raw GPC was also studied via a gastro-small intestinal in vitro digestion model and was found to be significantly lower, in terms of free amino N release, for the GPC prepared through acid precipitation. These results suggest that the physico-chemical and digestion characteristics of grass proteins are affected by the extraction method employed to extract the proteins. This implies that selection of an appropriate extraction method is of utmost importance for achieving optimum protein functionality during its use for food applications. Full article
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14 pages, 2529 KiB  
Article
Use of Amylomaltase to Steer the Functional and Nutritional Properties of Wheat Starch
by Konstantinos Korompokis, Lomme J. Deleu, Niels De Brier and Jan A. Delcour
Foods 2021, 10(2), 303; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10020303 - 2 Feb 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3646
Abstract
The fine molecular structure of starch governs its functionality and digestibility, and enzymatic approaches can be utilized to tailor its properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the in situ modification of starch by amylomaltase (AMM) from Thermus thermophilus in model [...] Read more.
The fine molecular structure of starch governs its functionality and digestibility, and enzymatic approaches can be utilized to tailor its properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the in situ modification of starch by amylomaltase (AMM) from Thermus thermophilus in model starch systems subjected to hydrothermal treatments under standardized conditions and the relationship between molecular structure, rheological properties and in vitro digestibility. When low dosages of AMM were added to a wheat starch suspension prior to submitting it to a temperature-time profile in a Rapid Visco Analyzer, the increased peak viscosity observed was attributed to partial depolymerization of amylose, which facilitated starch swelling and viscosity development. At higher dosages, the effect was smaller. The low cold paste viscosity as a result of the activity of AMM reflected substantial amylose depolymerization. At the same time, amylopectin chains were substantially elongated. The longer amylopectin chains were positively correlated (R2 = 0.96) with the melting enthalpies of retrograded starches, which, in turn, were negatively correlated with the extent (R2 = 0.92) and rate (R2 = 0.79) of in vitro digestion. It was concluded that AMM has the potential to be used to deliver novel starch functionalities and enhance its nutritional properties. Full article
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Review

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20 pages, 1336 KiB  
Review
Latest Advances in Protein-Recovery Technologies from Agricultural Waste
by Farhana Iylia Fatinee Mohd Yusree, Angela Paul Peter, Mohd Zuhair Mohd Nor, Pau Loke Show and Mohd Noriznan Mokhtar
Foods 2021, 10(11), 2748; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10112748 - 9 Nov 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3182
Abstract
In recent years, downstream bioprocessing industries are venturing into less tedious, simple, and high-efficiency separation by implementing advanced purification and extraction methods. This review discusses the separation of proteins, with the main focus on amylase as an enzyme from agricultural waste using conventional [...] Read more.
In recent years, downstream bioprocessing industries are venturing into less tedious, simple, and high-efficiency separation by implementing advanced purification and extraction methods. This review discusses the separation of proteins, with the main focus on amylase as an enzyme from agricultural waste using conventional and advanced techniques of extraction and purification via a liquid biphasic system (LBS). In comparison to other methods, such as membrane extraction, precipitation, ultrasonication, and chromatography, the LBS stands out as an efficient, cost-effective, and adaptable developing method for protein recovery. The two-phase separation method can be water-soluble polymers, or polymer and salt, or alcohol and salt, which is a simpler and lower-cost method that can be used at a larger purification scale. The comparison of different approaches in LBS for amylase purification from agricultural waste is also included. Current technology has evolved from a simple LBS into microwave-assisted LBS, liquid biphasic flotation (LBF), thermoseparation (TMP), three-phase partitioning (TPP), ultrasound-assisted LBS, and electrically assisted LBS. pH, time, temperature, and concentration are some of the significant research parameters considered in the review of advanced techniques. Full article
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32 pages, 3990 KiB  
Review
Plant Proteins for Future Foods: A Roadmap
by Shaun Yong Jie Sim, Akila SRV, Jie Hong Chiang and Christiani Jeyakumar Henry
Foods 2021, 10(8), 1967; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10081967 - 23 Aug 2021
Cited by 122 | Viewed by 25447
Abstract
Protein calories consumed by people all over the world approximate 15–20% of their energy intake. This makes protein a major nutritional imperative. Today, we are facing an unprecedented challenge to produce and distribute adequate protein to feed over nine billion people by 2050, [...] Read more.
Protein calories consumed by people all over the world approximate 15–20% of their energy intake. This makes protein a major nutritional imperative. Today, we are facing an unprecedented challenge to produce and distribute adequate protein to feed over nine billion people by 2050, in an environmentally sustainable and affordable way. Plant-based proteins present a promising solution to our nutritional needs due to their long history of crop use and cultivation, lower cost of production, and easy access in many parts of the world. However, plant proteins have comparatively poor functionality, defined as poor solubility, foaming, emulsifying, and gelling properties, limiting their use in food products. Relative to animal proteins, including dairy products, plant protein technology is still in its infancy. To bridge this gap, advances in plant protein ingredient development and the knowledge to construct plant-based foods are sorely needed. This review focuses on some salient features in the science and technology of plant proteins, providing the current state of the art and highlighting new research directions. It focuses on how manipulating plant protein structures during protein extraction, fractionation, and modification can considerably enhance protein functionality. To create novel plant-based foods, important considerations such as protein–polysaccharide interactions, the inclusion of plant protein-generated flavors, and some novel techniques to structure plant proteins are discussed. Finally, the attention to nutrition as a compass to navigate the plant protein roadmap is also considered. Full article
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