Food Packaging: Biodegradable, Active and Intelligent

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Packaging and Preservation".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 December 2023) | Viewed by 21101

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Faculty of Animal Science and Food Engineering, University of São Paulo, Av. Duque de Caxias Norte, 225, Pirassununga 13635-900, SP, Brazil
Interests: orally disintegrating films; natural polymers; bioactive compounds; biodegradables packaging
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Guest Editor
Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, São Paulo State University (UNESP), Av. Universitária, 3780, Botucatu 18610-034, SP, Brazil
Interests: food science and technology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Packaging is of fundamental importance in maintaining the quality of food and other products. Synthetic polymers are widely used; however, the environmental problems caused and, in some cases, the difficulties in recycling caused by the large-scale use of these materials have necessitated alternatives. The development of packaging based on natural polymers, obtained from renewable sources, is being explored and has potential for replacing, even if partially, synthetic polymers. This Special Issue, "Food Packaging: Biodegradable, Active and Intelligent", will bring together relevant works that demonstrate advances in the production and characterization of packaging based on natural polymers with different functions. Among the functionalities of these types of packaging, the antioxidant activity and incorporation of intelligent systems that inform the consumer about specific food characteristics has aroused interest in different possible applications. Thus, we invite you to submit research articles on the latest work in this area, which highlights applications in the food packaging industry.

Dr. Rosemary A. Carvalho
Dr. Vitor Augusto dos Santos Garcia
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Foods is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • films
  • natural polymers
  • biodegradable film
  • intelligent packaging
  • composite films
  • antioxidant packaging
  • active compounds
  • nanocomposites
  • functional properties
  • applications

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

15 pages, 7322 KiB  
Article
Polycaprolactone/Anthocyanin-Based Electrospun Volatile Amines Gas Indicator with Improved Visibility by Varying Bi-Solvent Ratio: A Case of Intelligent Packaging of Mackerel
by Sang Won Kim, Eun Seol Kim, Byeong Jae Park, Yong Woon Jung, Dong Hwa Kim and Seung Ju Lee
Foods 2023, 12(20), 3850; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12203850 - 20 Oct 2023
Viewed by 794
Abstract
Electrospun nanofibers have been applied as a new technology for gas indicators in food intelligent packaging. A poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL)/red cabbage anthocyanin (RCA)-based nanofiber volatile amines gas indicator was developed by applying a bi-solvent of acetic acid (AA) and formic acid (FA) in electrospinning. [...] Read more.
Electrospun nanofibers have been applied as a new technology for gas indicators in food intelligent packaging. A poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL)/red cabbage anthocyanin (RCA)-based nanofiber volatile amines gas indicator was developed by applying a bi-solvent of acetic acid (AA) and formic acid (FA) in electrospinning. The visibility of color change was improved from pink to blue, compared to blue to yellow-green, when using a single solvent of AA. The solutes of PCL (12.5, 15, 17.5, and 20%) and RCA (10, 20, 30, and 40%) and the solvents of AA/FA (9:1, 7:3, 5:5, 3:7, and 1:9) were applied in electrospinning under the condition of 12.5 cm, 1.0 mL/h, and 20 kV. The optimal microstructure with the thinnest fiber diameter and constant arrangement without forming NF beads appeared under the 7:3 FA/AA, 15% PCL, and 20% RCA condition. The indicator changed from pink to blue with the values of total color change (ΔE) of 10, 14, and 18 when exposed to the saturated gas of ammonia solutions of 8, 80, and 800 mM, respectively. The indicator was stable and unchanged in color for 28 days when exposed to light at room temperature. In the application to mackerel packaging, the built-in indicator changed from pink to purple regardless of storage temperature when the spoilage point was reached. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Packaging: Biodegradable, Active and Intelligent)
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19 pages, 1977 KiB  
Article
Development and Characterization of Antioxidant and Antibacterial Films Based on Potato Starch Incorporating Viola odorata Extract to Improve the Oxidative and Microbiological Quality of Chicken Fillets during Refrigerated Storage
by Ali Nikmanesh, Homa Baghaei and Abdorreza Mohammadi Nafchi
Foods 2023, 12(15), 2955; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12152955 - 04 Aug 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1458
Abstract
In this research, the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of active films based on potato starch containing Viola odorata extract (VOE) were investigated both in vitro and in chicken fillets. The VOE was added to the starch film formulation at 0, 1, 2, and 3% [...] Read more.
In this research, the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of active films based on potato starch containing Viola odorata extract (VOE) were investigated both in vitro and in chicken fillets. The VOE was added to the starch film formulation at 0, 1, 2, and 3% (w/v). The results showed that by increasing the extract level, the total phenol content and antioxidant and antibacterial activity of the films against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella typhimurium improved remarkably. The results of the meat tests indicated the significant antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of active films containing different levels of VOE in chicken fillets, and a direct relationship was observed between the concentration of the extract and the functional activity of the films, so with the increase in the concentration of the extract in the films, the rate of lipid oxidation and growth of microorganisms in the chicken fillets decreased significantly during the storage period, and less volatile nitrogen bases, metmyoglobin, and oxidation products were produced in the fillets. In general, the results of this research demonstrated that an active film based on potato starch containing VOE (especially 2 and 3% levels) has the ability to extend the oxidative and microbiological shelf life of chicken fillets during cold storage for at least eight days. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Packaging: Biodegradable, Active and Intelligent)
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16 pages, 7949 KiB  
Article
Properties of Paperboard Coated with Natural Polymers and Polymer Blends: Effect of the Number of Coating Layers
by Thaís de Cássia Naitzel, Vitor Augusto dos Santos Garcia, Carla Alves Monaco Lourenço, Fernanda Maria Vanin, Cristiana Maria Pedroso Yoshida and Rosemary Aparecida de Carvalho
Foods 2023, 12(14), 2745; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12142745 - 19 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1682
Abstract
Paper is one of the packaging materials that presents a biodegradable character, being used in several areas; however, its barrier properties (gases and fat) and mechanics are reduced, which limits its application. Coating papers with synthetic polymers improve these properties, reducing their biodegradability [...] Read more.
Paper is one of the packaging materials that presents a biodegradable character, being used in several areas; however, its barrier properties (gases and fat) and mechanics are reduced, which limits its application. Coating papers with synthetic polymers improve these properties, reducing their biodegradability and recyclability. The objective of this work was to develop and characterize coated paperboard, using the tape casting technique, with different ratios of film form agar–agar/chitosan (AA:CHI, 100:0, 50:50, and 0:100) and different numbers of coating layers (operating times for application of 14.25 min and 28.5 min for one and two layers, respectively). A significant reduction in water absorption capacity was found by applying a 0:100 coating (approximately 15%). Considering all coating formulations, the water vapor permeability reduced by 10 to 60% compared to uncoated paperboard, except for two layers coated with 0:100. The tensile index (independent of AA:CHI) was higher in the machine direction (22.59 to 24.99 MPa) than in the cross-section (11.87–13.01 MPa). Paperboard coated only with chitosan showed superior properties compared to the other formulation coatings evaluated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Packaging: Biodegradable, Active and Intelligent)
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11 pages, 2428 KiB  
Article
Fish Freshness Indicator for Sensing Fish Quality during Storage
by Do-Yeong Kim, Sung-Woo Park and Han-Seung Shin
Foods 2023, 12(9), 1801; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12091801 - 26 Apr 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2674
Abstract
This study aims to develop a freshness indicator for fish products that changes color to indicate ammonia among volatile base compounds (TVB-N) generated during storage. Through an optimization experiment, we observed the indicator’s color change relative to the ammonia concentration standard, finally selecting [...] Read more.
This study aims to develop a freshness indicator for fish products that changes color to indicate ammonia among volatile base compounds (TVB-N) generated during storage. Through an optimization experiment, we observed the indicator’s color change relative to the ammonia concentration standard, finally selecting cresol red and bromocresol purple for the indicator mixture. In addition, eco-DEHCH and Breathron film were applied to the freshness indicator, considering environmental and economic values. For the storage experiment, Chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus), Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorus niphonius), and Largehead hairtail (Trichiurus lepturus) samples were stored at three different temperatures (4, 10, and 20 °C) for seven days, and we measured pH, TVB-N, total bacterial count, and ammonia content every 24 h. The pH-sensitive sensors’ color changes monitor amine release, especially ammonia, from decomposing fish. The chromatic parameter ∆E value increased significantly with fish product storage periods. We confirmed that when the freshness limit and bacterial spoilage level were reached, the color of the indicator changed from yellow to black and sequentially changed to purple as the storage period increased. Therefore, a developed freshness indicator can be used for determining the quality of fish products quickly and non-destructively by reflecting the freshness and spoilage degree of fish products during storage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Packaging: Biodegradable, Active and Intelligent)
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24 pages, 4103 KiB  
Article
Fabrication and Characterization of Eco-Friendly Polyelectrolyte Bilayer Films Based on Chitosan and Different Types of Edible Citrus Pectin
by Xincheng Fu, Xia Chang, Zemin Ding, Haishan Xu, Hui Kong, Fei Chen, Rongrong Wang, Yang Shan and Shenghua Ding
Foods 2022, 11(21), 3536; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11213536 - 07 Nov 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2020
Abstract
The eco-friendly polyelectrolyte bilayer films were prepared by layer-by-layer (LBL) casting method using chitosan (CS) and four types of edible citrus pectin as film substrates. The results showed that the polyelectrolyte bilayer films exhibited excellent comprehensive properties. Furthermore, the interaction between CS and [...] Read more.
The eco-friendly polyelectrolyte bilayer films were prepared by layer-by-layer (LBL) casting method using chitosan (CS) and four types of edible citrus pectin as film substrates. The results showed that the polyelectrolyte bilayer films exhibited excellent comprehensive properties. Furthermore, the interaction between CS and pectin was closely related to the degree of methyl-esterification (DM), molecular weight (Mw), and zeta potential of pectin. The low DM, Mw, and high zeta potential of the low methyl-esterified pectin (LM) resulted in a denser internal structure of the bilayer film, stronger UV shielding performance, and stronger gas barrier ability. The high DM and Mw of the high methyl-esterified pectin (HM) endow the bilayer film with stronger mechanical properties, thermal stability, and antifogging property. The microstructural and spectroscopic analysis showed that there are hydrogen bonds and electrostatic interactions between the layers. Overall, the developed CS-pectin polyelectrolyte bilayer films provided potential applications for food bioactive packaging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Packaging: Biodegradable, Active and Intelligent)
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17 pages, 5576 KiB  
Article
A Facile Strategy for Development of pH-Sensing Indicator Films Based on Red Cabbage Puree and Polyvinyl Alcohol for Monitoring Fish Freshness
by Hejun Wu, Chun Jiao, Shasha Li, Qingye Li, Zhiqing Zhang, Man Zhou and Xiangyang Yuan
Foods 2022, 11(21), 3371; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11213371 - 26 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2512
Abstract
This study aimed to develop a novel pH-sensing biopolymer film based on red cabbage puree (RCP) incorporated with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), which was utilized for monitoring fish freshness during storage at 25 °C. A homogenized RCP suspension with a mean particle size of [...] Read more.
This study aimed to develop a novel pH-sensing biopolymer film based on red cabbage puree (RCP) incorporated with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), which was utilized for monitoring fish freshness during storage at 25 °C. A homogenized RCP suspension with a mean particle size of 12.86 ± 0.03 μm and a total anthocyanin concentration of 292.17 ± 2.65 mg/L was directly used as a film-forming substance and anthocyanin source to blend with PVA, showing visual changes in color and ultraviolet-visible spectra within a pH of 2–12. Rheological and microstructural studies certified the strong interactions and good compatibility between the RCP and PVA, resulting in better mechanical properties and water resistance of the composite film than those of a pure RCP film, but without affecting its pH sensitivity. When used for fish freshness monitoring at 25 °C, the developed RCP/PVA film presented visible color differences from purple to yellow, which corresponded to the spoilage threshold of the total volatile basic nitrogen and the total viable count in fish samples. The study highlights that anthocyanin-rich purees of fruits and vegetables, in this case red cabbage puree, can be fully utilized to develop eco-friendly pH-sensing indicator films for intelligent food packaging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Packaging: Biodegradable, Active and Intelligent)
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14 pages, 7760 KiB  
Article
A Green Film-Forming Investigation of the Edible Film Based on Funoran: Preparation, Characterization, and the Investigation of the Plasticizer Effects
by Zhisheng Zhang, Han Wang, Sohail Khan, Ying Shu and Tieqiang Liang
Foods 2022, 11(19), 2971; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11192971 - 23 Sep 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2182
Abstract
In this study, an edible film based on funoran was developed. Moreover, the effects of plasticizers (glycerol, xylitol, and sorbitol) on the physicochemical properties of the funoran films were also investigated. The interactions between plasticizers and funoran molecules of the film-forming system were [...] Read more.
In this study, an edible film based on funoran was developed. Moreover, the effects of plasticizers (glycerol, xylitol, and sorbitol) on the physicochemical properties of the funoran films were also investigated. The interactions between plasticizers and funoran molecules of the film-forming system were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the addition of plasticizers altered and broke the initial complex entangled structures of funoran molecular chains. Funoran films containing plasticizers were compatible, homogeneous, and dense, exhibiting good thermal stability below 100 °C. With the addition of plasticizers, the elongation at break, oxygen permeability, light transmittance, and water vapor permeability increased, but the tensile strength decreased. It was found that a glycerol addition of 40% was most suitable for commercial applications. All the results revealed the excellent film-forming properties of funoran, indicating that the prepared funoran films have tremendous potential for packaging applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Packaging: Biodegradable, Active and Intelligent)
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18 pages, 6721 KiB  
Article
Win Big with Small: The Influence of Organic Food Packaging Size on Purchase Intention
by Shichang Liang, Ling Qin, Min Zhang, Yuxuan Chu, Lili Teng and Lingling He
Foods 2022, 11(16), 2494; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11162494 - 18 Aug 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4297
Abstract
People pay much attention to food and health issues, more so these days. Organic food brings its own “organic” aura as soon as it is produced. Despite the many studies on organic food packaging at present, they mainly focus on packaging design, materials, [...] Read more.
People pay much attention to food and health issues, more so these days. Organic food brings its own “organic” aura as soon as it is produced. Despite the many studies on organic food packaging at present, they mainly focus on packaging design, materials, and colors and pay less attention to packaging size. In view of this gap in the literature, this study explores the influence of organic food packaging size on consumer purchase intention. This article conducted two experiments with 755 participants to examine the effect of organic food packaging size on purchase intention. The results show that the packaging size of organic food has a significant influence on consumer purchase intention. Specifically, the small size of organic food packaging (vs. large) can improve consumer purchase intention, and the green perceived value plays an intermediary role (Study 1). In addition, the consumers’ construal level moderates the influence of organic food packaging size on their purchase intention. For consumers with a high construal level, the small size of organic food packaging (vs. large) can improve their purchase intention. For consumers with a low construal level, large packaging size (vs. small) of organic food can improve their purchase intention (Study 2). This study reveals the psychological mechanism and boundary conditions of organic food packaging size on consumer purchase intention and provides practical enlightenment for enterprises in formulating the size of organic food packaging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Packaging: Biodegradable, Active and Intelligent)
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15 pages, 1992 KiB  
Article
Characterization and Antifungal Activity of Pullulan Edible Films Enriched with Propolis Extract for Active Packaging
by Małgorzata Gniewosz, Katarzyna Pobiega, Karolina Kraśniewska, Alicja Synowiec, Marta Chaberek and Sabina Galus
Foods 2022, 11(15), 2319; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11152319 - 03 Aug 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2186
Abstract
Active pullulan films with the addition of 3, 5 or 10% propolis extract produced by the casting method were tested in the study. Propolis extracts from Bochnia County, Siedlce County and Ełk County (Poland) were used. The appearance of the films was characterized, [...] Read more.
Active pullulan films with the addition of 3, 5 or 10% propolis extract produced by the casting method were tested in the study. Propolis extracts from Bochnia County, Siedlce County and Ełk County (Poland) were used. The appearance of the films was characterized, as well as physical parameters (thickness, moisture content, water solubility), tensile strength (TS), elongation at break (EB), optical characteristics (light transparency, UV barrier, color) and antifungal properties. The antifungal activity of the films was tested by the disc diffusion method against yeast (Candida albicans, C. krusei, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa) and mold (Alternaria solani, Fusarium solani, Rhizopus stolonifer, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, C. cladosporioides, Aspergillus niger, A. ochraceus, Mucor mucedo, Penicillium expansum, P. chrysogenum). The origin of propolis influenced the color and water solubility of the films. The addition of increasing concentrations of propolis extract increased the film thickness and the intensity of the yellow color, extended the water dissolution time of the film and reduced the values of TS and EB. The addition of propolis extract in the pullulan film improved UV radiation protection but decreased light transparency. The antifungal activity increased significantly with the increasing concentration of propolis extract in the film, regardless of the origin of propolis. Molds showed greater sensitivity to pullulan films containing propolis extract than yeasts. In general, films made of pullulan with the addition of propolis extract can be considered as natural active packaging to protect against the growth of fungi in food. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Packaging: Biodegradable, Active and Intelligent)
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